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[The Seal of the State of Massachusetts.] 

fBy the sword he seeks peace under Liberty.} 


t ^ 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1839, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 






IN view of the great variety of subjects introduced into this work, and the almost 
impossibility of producing a publication of this kind without errors and imperfections, 
it is with a degree of diffidence that it is laid before the public. This is felt in an espe- 
cial manner when the author considers who will be his readers. A traveller in foreign 
places may make statements at random, in order to finish up his picture, which may 
pass for truth, when there is no one at hand who is able to correct his errors. This publi- 
cation will come before persons many of whom have better means of information, 
and more knowledge on some subjects introduced, than can be reasonably expected 
from the author of this work. 

Massachusetts may justly claim an elevated rank among the states of this Union. 
She is the " mother state" of New England, and the birthplace of American freedom. 
A nobler ancestry no people ever yet possessed. " The Puritans (says a celebrated 
foreign writer, in no wise partial to them) were the most remarkable body of men, per- 
haps, which the world has ever produced. They were men whose minds had derived 
a peculiar character from the daily contemplation of superior beings and eternal inte- 
rests. Not content with acknowledging in general terms an overruling providence, 
they habitually ascribed every event to the will of the Great Being, for whose power 
nothing was too vast, for whose inspection, nothing was too minute. To know him, to 
serve him, to enjoy him, was with them the great end of existence. They rejected 
with contempt the ceremonious homage which other sects substituted for the homage 
of the soul. On the rich and the eloquent, on nobles and priests, they looked down 
with contempt ; for they esteemed themselves rich in a more precious treasure, and 
eloquent in a more sublime language ; nobles by the right of an earlier creaticTi, and 
priests by the imposition of a mightier hand." Let those who sneer at such an ances 
try go back to the titled robbers of the middle ages, and claim affinity, if they will, 
with those felons of the human race, who fatten on the sweat and blood of suffering 

Travellers who have heard of the "cold and sterile soil of New England" are sur- 
prised on finding it the " Garden of the United States." On every hand he sees 
smiling and prosperous villages, and, to a very great extent, the appearance of public 
and private happiness. To whatever cause blind politicians may ascribe this, it is 
because " the Pilgrim spirit has not fled." Under no other system but Christianity doejt 
true liberty exist, or are human rights properly respected. By it, the existence of 
man is invested with dignity and importance ; by this levelling and exalting system 
every human being, in whatever circumstances of degradation he may be placed, 
stands on an equality with the mightiest potentate of earth, and to his fate is attached 
a mysterious and inconceivable importance. 


To the various gentlemen, throughout the commonwealth, who have furnished infor- 
mation for the work, the author would here return his grateful acknowledgments, 
particularly to the venerable T. M. Harris, D. D., librarian of the Historical Society, 
and to Maturin L. Fisher, Esq., formerly librarian, and also to Samuel F. Haven, Esq., 
the present librarian of the American Antiquarian Society, for their readiness to afford 
every facility in their power in accomplishing the object of the work. The statements 
respecting the business done in each town were copied from the " Statistical Tables," 
published by the state in 1837. With regard to the title, it being somewhat similar to 
that of the volumes published by the Historical Society, it was, at first, not thought 
advisable to adopt the one now selected ; upon further reflection, however, as the work 
could not, with propriety, be called a History of Massachusetts, but is properly a col- 
lection of materials ; and as the title is in fact different from the volumes above men. 
aoned, it is believed that no just grounds of complaint are given by adopting the present 
title of the book. 

In giving the ecclesiastical history of the several towns, it may perhaps be thought, 
by some, that an undue prominence is given to the Congregational denomination. In 
reference to this, it is to be remembered they are the most ancient, as well as most 
numerous, denomination in the commonwealth ; that almost all the town histories 
which have appeared have been written by clergymen of that order ; and of course it is 
to be expected that the religious history of their own denomination would receive their 
first attention. In this publication, impartiality has been attempted ; and whenever 
authentic accounts of other denominations have been obtained they have been 
inserted. Owing to prescribed limits, there has been an absolute necessity of being 
brief on many subjects of importance : many things have been omitted which it was 
desirable to have inserted. There are materials enough to have extended this publi- 
cation far beyond its present limits ; but to have extended it to more than one volume 
would have rendered it too expensive for general circulation. 

The drawings for the numerous engravings interspersed throughout the book were, 
with few exceptions, taken on the spot by the author of this work. Before deciding 
upon the correctness of these representations, he wishes his readers to remember that 
the appearance of any place will vary considerably as it is viewed from different 
points : thus a north view will appear quite different from one taken at the south. A 
person not being used to see a place from the point from which the drawing is made, 
it may not at the first sight be readily recognised. Before any view is condemned as 
being incorrect, it will be necessary, in order to form a correct judgment, to stand on 
the place from whence the drawing was made. 

In giving notices of distinguished individuals, a limited number only could be 
inserted. In some instances the information respecting some towns may have been 
defective. The history of some important towns may apparently not have received 
that attention to which they are entitled. This is owing to two principal reasons: one 
is the failure to obtain the desired information after the attempt was made ; the other 
is the fact, that of some important places but little can be said which would be of general 
interest. Amid such a number of names, dates, &c., it is probable some mistakes 
may have occurred. A certain writer defines all history to be merely " an approxima- 
tion towards truth." Though this humiliating statement cannot be fully allowed, yet, 
when the imperfection of every thing human is considered, it cannot be denied but 
that it may have some foundation in truth. 

T "W Tl 

APRIL, 1839. 





Abington, . 


Dalton, . 


Hawley, . 


Acton, . 

. 346 



Heath, . 

. 260 




. 171 

Hingham, . 


Alford, . 

. 65 




. 75 

Amesbury, . 

. 310 

Deerfield, . 

. 455 

Holden, . 

. 231 

Andover, . 


Dennis, . 


Holliston, . 


Ashby, . 

. 347 

Dighton, . 


Hopkinton, . 

. 393 



Dorchester, . 

. 463 




. 233 

Douglass, . 


Hull, . 

. 509 



Dover, . 

. 467 


. 110 

Dracut, . 






Dukes County, . 

. 563 


. 509 

Bamstable County, 


Dunstable, . 

. 337 

Lancaster, . 


Barnstable, . 


Duxbury, . 



. 76 

Harre, . 

. 553 

Lee, . . . 




East Bridgewaier, . 

. 500 


. 578 


. 348 

Eastham, . 


. 318 

Lenox, . 


Bellingham, . 

. 450 



Leverett, . 


Berkley, . 
Berlin, . 

. 555 

Edgartown, . 
Egremont, . 

. 151 

Lexington, . 

. 397 

Berkshire County, 


. 60 


. 320 

tr. j i 

Littleton, . 

. 401 

Beverly, . 

. 349 

Essex, . ... 
Essex County, . 

. 175 

Lowell, . 

. 281 


Blandford, . 




Bolton, . 

. 555 

Fall River, 

. 120 

Lynn, . . . 


Boxborough, . 
Boxford, . 

. 352 

Fitchburg, . 

. 44 

Lynnfield, . 



. 556 

Foxborough, . 

. 468 


. 409 

Bradford, . 







. 451 


. 469 


. 125 

Brewster, . 


Franklin County, 




Bridgewater, . 

. 495 


. 125 

Marl borough, 

. 411 

Brighton, . 


Florida, . 




Bristol County. . 

. 276 


. 568 

Medfield, . 

. 46 

Brookfield, . 

. 557 




. 413 

Brookline, . 


Gill, . 

. 253 

Medway, . 


Buckland, . 

. 240 




. 582 




. 321 

Methuen, . 


Cambridge, . 

. 354 


. 320 


. 512 

Canton, . . 


Granville, . 


Middleton, . 

. 207 


. 363 

Great Barrington, . 

. 70 

MMdlfSex County, 







. 587 


. 364 

Greenwich, . 

. 321 

Mill bury, . 






Milton, . 

. 475 


. 561 



Chatham, . 


Hadley, . . . 

. 322 

Monson, ' . 

. 284 

Chelmsford, . 

. 374 

Halifax, . 


Montague, . . 


Chelsea, . 



. 181 


. 286 

Chester, . 


Hampden County, 
Hampshire County, 

. 310 

Mount Washington, 



. 316 

Hancock, . 


Nantucket County, 

. 445 

Chilmark, . 



. 502 



Clarksburg, . . 

. 67 




. 477 

Cohasset , . . 


Hardwick, . 

. 571 

New Ashford, 



. 242 

Harwich, . 


New Bedford, 

. 126 

Concord, . . 


Harvard, . 

. 571 

New Braintree, . 



. 244 
317 s " 

Hatfield. . 
Haverhill, . 

. 182 

Newburyport, . 

. 203 





New Marlborough, . 83 
New Salem, . . .264 

Russell, . 

. 600 



. 431 

Newton, . . . 418 


. 600 

Norfolk County, . . 450 
Northampton, . . 329 



Upton, . 
Uxbridge, . 

. 611 

Northborough, . . 589 
Northbridge, . . 591 
North Bridgewater, . 514 


. 227 
. 51 

Wales, . 
Walpole, . 

. 299 

North Brookfield, . 591 




. 432 

Northfield, . . .265 

Savoy, . 

. 90 



Norton, . . . 127 

Scituate, . 



. 529 

Norwich, . . .334 


. 136 

Warren, . 





. 274 

Oakham, . . .592 

Sheffield, . 

. 91 

Washington, . '. 


Orange, . . . 268 

Shelburne . 


Watertown, . 

. 434 

Orleans, . . .48 


. 423 

Wayland, . 


Otis, .... 85 




. 614 

Oxford, . . . .593 

Shrewsbury, . 

. 602 

Wellfleet, . 





. 274 

Palmer, ... 286 


. 139 

Wenham, . 


Pawtucket, . . .128 




. 614 

Paxton, ... 595 


. 604 

West Boylston, . 


Pelham, . . .335 



West Bridgewater, 

. 530 

Pembroke, . . 517 

South Hadley, 

. 338 

West Cambridge, 


Pepperell, . . .422 

South Reading 


Westfield, . 

. 299 

Peru, ... 86 

Southwick, . 

. 287 

Westford, . 


Petersham, . . .596 




. 344 

Phillipston, . . 598 

Springfield, . 

. 289 



Pittsfield, ... 87 
Plainfield, ... 335 

Stockbridge, . 


West Newbury, . . 
Weston, . 

. 232 

Plymouth, . . .518 




. 146 

Plymouth County, . 493 


. 487 

West Springfield, 


Plympton, . . .523 


. ' . 428 

West Stockbridge, 

. 102 

Prescott, ... 337 


. 607 

We y mouth, 


Princeton, . . . 598 

Sudbury, . 



. 275 

Provincetown, . . 49 

Sunderland, . 

. 272 



Quincy, . . . 478 

Suffolk County, 

. 532 

Williamstown, . 

. 344 

Swanzey, . 


Wilmington, . 

. 442 

Randolph, ... 481 



Raynham, . . .130 


. 141 


. 109 

Reading, . . ' . 422 





Rehoboth, . . .132 

Tewksbury, . 

. 430 

Worcester, . 

. 618 

Richmond, . . 88 

Tisbury, . 


Worcester County, 


Rochester, . . ... 524 


. 230 


. 345 

Rowe, . . . 269 

Tofland, . 




Rowley, . . .217 

Town send, 

. 431 

Roxbury, . . . 482 




. 58 

I N D 


E X. 

Adams houses, Quincy, . 480 
Alden, Lieut. J., epitaph, . 496 

Ashley, Col. John, epitaph, . 
Atheneum, Boston, 


Allen, Capt. John, epitaph, . 201 

Atheneum at Nantucket, 


Allen, George, epitaph, . 138 
Americans killed at Lexington, 400 
Ames, Fisher, notice of, . 462 

Atherton, H., epitaph, . 
Atherton, Rev. Mr., preservation, . 
Auburn, Mt., cemetery, 


Ancient church, W. Springfield, 306 

J > 

Ancient house in Deerfield, . 251 
Ancient house in Stockbridge, 98 
Andross, seizure of, . . 26 

Baptist church, first in Massachusetts, 
Bailey, T. and L., epitaphs, . . _ 
Bancroft, J., epitaph, . . . j 1 ' 


Anecdote, revolutionary, New Sal m, 264 
Annawon, capture of, . 135 
Annawon's rock, view of, . 134 

Barnard, Rev. J., epitaph, 
Battle of Lake George, account of, 
Bean, Rev. J., epitaph, 


Antiquarian Hall, Worcester, 620 

Beers, Capt., surprised and slain, . 


Arabella, lady, ... 19 
Ark in Pawtucket river, . 129 

Bell Tavern at Danvers, 
Bills of credit, first, 


Armory buildings, Springfield, 294 

. 622 



Blackstone, William, account of, . 
Bleeders, notice of persons so called, 
Blind, institution for, . 
Bliss, Rev. D., epitaph, 
Bloodshed, first in Philip's war, . 
Bloody Brook, attack of, 
Bordwell, E., epitaph, 
Boston, evacuation of, . 
Boston harbor first visited, . 
Boston in 1 663, . . 

Boston massacre, 1770, 
Boundary line between Connecticut > 
and Massachusetts, ) 

Bours, Rev. Peter, epitaph, . 
Bowditch, Hon. Nathaniel, notice of, 
Bradford, Hon. W., epitaph, 
Brainerd, David, notice of, 
Breck, J., epitaph, 
Breck, Rev. Robert, epitaph, 
Breck, Rev. R., epitaph, 
Bridge, Rev. E*., epitaph, . <. 
Brookfield, attack on, 
Brown, Capt. J., . 

Bryant, Wm. C., notice of, . 
Bug, singular account of, 
Bunker Hill battle, 
Burk, Major John, journal of, 

Cabotville, Springfield, .. 

Cargill, Hugh, epitaph, 
Cesar, a slave, epitaph on, 
Chabanakongkomun, Indian town, 
Chapman, Thomas, epitaph, 
Chauncy, Rev. J., epitaph, . 
Cheese, the mammoth, 
Chicopee village, Springfield, 
Church, first Protestant in America, 
Churches, list of, Boston, 
Church, ancient, at Hingham, 
Clams, account of taking, 
Clark, Rev. T., epitaph, 
Coffin, Admiral Sir Isaac, . 
Cit, I., Dr., epitaph, 
College commons, ancient, . 
Concord, action at, ... 
Congregational church, first, 
Convention at Hatfield, 
Coin, first in New England, . 
Cornette, L., epitaph, 
Correction, house of, 
Cotton, Rev. J., epitaph, 
Cushman, T., epitaph, 

Daggett, Rev. Naphtali, taken prisoner 

Danforth, Capt. J., notice of, 

Day, first printer, 

Dighton rock, inscriptions, &c., 

Doolittle's engravings, 

Dorrellites, account of, 

Dummer academy, oldest in N. E., 

Dustin, Mr. and Mrs., escape, 

East Cambridge, view of, 
East Boston, view of, 
Eaton, Gen., notice of, 
Edwards, Rev. Jonathan, 
Eels in Merrimac river, 
Elizabeth Islands, Martha's Vineyard, 
Elegy on Rev. Mr. Whitefield, 
Eliot's translation, anecdote, . 
Eliot, Rev. John, notice of, . 
Epitaphs, Latin, Cambridge, . 
Eustiss, William, epitaph, 
Execution of Daley and Halligan, 




Fare, bill of, on Cape Cod, . 
Fairhaven, attack on, . 
Fall fight, Turner's falls, 



Faneuil Hall, view of, . 



Father's Choice, poetry, by Mrs. Hale, 



Fearing, Maj . Israel, bravery of, . 
Fire at Newburyport, account of, . 



Fire at Shrewsbury 



Fisk, Rev. Moses, epitaph, . 
Folger, Peter, notice of, ... 



Four Comers village, Middleborough, . 



Franklin, Benjamin, notice of, 



French Protestants at Oxford, 




Gage, Gen., residence, Danvers, . . 



Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard, 



Gerry, Hon. Elbridge, notice of, . 



Gloucester, strange occurrences at, 
Glover, Brigadier Gen., notice of, . 



Glover, John, epitaph, 
Gookin, Maj. Gen., notice of, 



Gosnold's discoveries, &c., 1602, . 



Gray Lock, an Indian 



Green, Joseph, Rev., inscription, . 



Groton attacked by Indians, . 




Hale, old Mr., singularities of, 


Harvard, Rev. John, 



Harvard University, 



Heath, Maj. Gen. William, 




Hermit, Timothy Leonard, 
Historical Society, Mass. 



Holyoke, Mt., view from, 



Holyoke, Mrs. Mari, epitaph 



House, oldest in N. E., 



House on Cape Cod, 



Horn Pond, Woburn, . 



Hospital, State Lunatic, . * 



Hospital, Mass. General, 



Howe, L., singular monument of, . 



Howe, Rev. Mr., of Hopkinton, . 



Hubbard's Indian Wars, notice of, 



Hutchinson, Gov., notice of, 



Hutchinson, Mrs., account of, 




Indian church in Marsh pee, 
Indians on Martha's Vineyard, 



Indians, first church of, . 



Indian traditions, Nantucket, 



Indian tradition, Dighton, 



Indians christianized, . 



Inoculation of small-pox, 


Iron forge, first, . . 




Jack, John, epitaph on, . . . 



Jerusalem, New, church, tenets, . 



Judson, Rev. E., epitaph, 




Konkapot, Indian captain, 




Landing, first celebration of, 


Lathrop, Rev. Joseph, notice of, . 



Law decisions, curious, . 



Le Baron, Dr., notice of, . . . 



Leonard house in Raynham, . 



Leonard, Zephaniah, epitaph, 



Lexington, views in, . . . 396 

, 399 


Lincoln, Benjamin, Maj. Gen., 



Louisburg, capture of, . 





Lowell, Chevalier's account of, 



Lyman, Rev. H. epitaph, 
Lynn, poetic description of settlers, 
Lyon, Marcus, murder of, . 




Mallefuild, J., epitaph, . 
Mann, Bazaleel, and Dr., epitaph, . 
Marine Hospital, Chelsea, . . . 


Saddle Mountain, view of, 
Salt, manner of making, . 


. 40 

Marblehead, description of, 1720, . 
Marriage, first, notice of, 
Massasoit, sickness of, . 
Massachusetts, Fort, .... 
Massachusetts patent, .... 
Mather, Cotton, notice of, 


Scammel, Gen. Alexander, 
Sea serpent, account of, . .^ 
Seal of Massachusetts, &c., 
Sergeant, Rev. John, 
Shaker village in Hancock, 
Shays' defeat at Springfield, 
Sheffield, remarkable occurrences in, 

. 588 
. 180 
. 219 
. 96 
. 74 
. 297 
. 93 


Sherman, Rev. J., epitaph, . 

. 439 

McLean Asylum, . 
Monument mountain, .... 
Monument at Concord, . 
Monument at Bloody Brook, . 
Monument at Bunker Hill, . 
Monument at Danvers 
Monis, Rabbi Judah, .... 
Mountain Miller, account of, . 
Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary, . 
Mugford, Capt. James, .... 
Murder of Miss McKinstry, . . * 

Nahant, account of, 
Nashoba, Indian town, . 
Navy yard, Charlestown, 
Newman, Rev. Mr., remarkable death, . 
Newspaper, first in America, 
Nonantum, Indian settlement, 



Shipwreck of the pirate Bellamy, . 
Skeleton, &c., found at Fall River, 
Snake attack on Nauhaught, 
South Boston, view of, . 
Spurzheim, monumenl of, 
Stamp Act, 
Standish, Capt., notice ofj . 
State prison, Charlestown, . 
State-house, Boston, 
Stockbridge Indians, account of, . 
Stoddard, Rev. Mr., preservation of, 
Stone, Capt. J., epitaph, 
" Striped Pig," &c. 
Superstition of an Irishman, . 
Swamp fight, Narragansetts, 
Swift, Rev. J., epitaph, . 

Tappan, Benj., epitaph, 
Tea, destruction of, ... 

. 67 
. 123 
. 59 
. 536 
. 361 
. 29 
17, 499 
. 367 
. 542 
. 332 
. 386 
. 130 
. 137 
. 24 
. 339 

. 201 

. 547 

Old colony seal, . . 
Oldtown harbor, . . 
Ordination at Woburn, 
Ordination at Salem, 
Ossian, quotation from, 
Otis, James, notice of, ... 

Page, " Old Governor," . 
Paine, Robert Treat, notice of, 
Paper-mill, first in N. E., 
Parsons, Theophilus, notice of, 
Paskhomuch, Indian attack on, 
Pear tree, ancient, Eastham, 
Perkins, Jacob, notice of, 



Thatcher, Col. J., notice of, . 
Thompson, E., epitaph, 
Thomas, Isaiah, notice of, . 
Tornado at Salisbury, . 
Townsend, Daniel, epitaph, . 
Treat, Rev. Mr., burial of, . 
Turner's falls, .... 
Turner, Capt., killed, . 
Tuttle, Mr., killed by mistake, 

Ursuline convent, 

Van Rensselaer, Mr. remarkable 
preservation of, . 
Vale of West Boylston 

. 59 
. 612 
. 621 
. 228 
. 199 
. 43 
. 254 
. 255 
. 263 

. 863 

, 73 

Philip, King, draught by, 
Pickering, Timothy, epitaph, 
Pilgrim Society, . . 
Pilgrim Hall, . . . 
Pilgrim Fathers, landing of, 
Pirates at Saugus, . . . 
Plymouth settlers, names of, 
Pool, Miss, monument of, 
Powder mill explosion at Lee 


Walker, J., epitaph, 
Ward, Judge, intrepidity of, . 
Ward, Artemas, Hon., epitaph, 
Wachusett, Mt., view of; 
Wadsworth, Capt., killed, . 
Wamesit, an Indian town, 
Warren, Gen., notice of, 

. 328 

. 624 
. 604 
. 600 
. 430 

. 404 
. 485 
. 359 

Pratt, Mr., great age of, 
Prentice, Capt. T., epitaph, 
Punkapoag, Indian town, 
Puritans, account of, . 
Pynchon house, Springfield, 



Webster, John, epitaph, 
Webster, Hon. Daniel, residence, . 
Wesleyan academy at Wilbraham, 
Weld, Rev. Mr., notice of, . 
Wells, J., escape from the Indians. 
Whale fishery, .... 

. 326 
. 512 
. 308 
. 113 
. 257 
. 448 

Quakers, laws against, 
Quincy Market, Boston, 
Auincy, Josiah, epitaph, 



Whaling song, by Dr. Osborn, 
Whitman, Eliza, notice of, . 
Whitefield, notice of, monument, &c., 
Willet, Capt. Thomas, notice of, . 

. 53 
. 175 
. 214 
. 138 

Regicides, Gofie and Whalley, . 
Robbins, Dr., library, . 
Rock, fractured, Sunderland, 
Rocks, sacrifice, Plymouth, 
Rock, writing, at Dighton, 
Roarers, Rev. E., epitaph, 
Roifc, Rev. Mr., killed by Indians, 
Russell. Rer. J. and Mrs., epitaph, 
Rutland, incursion of Indians, 


Williams, Hon. I., epitaph, . 
Williams, Mrs., killed by Indians, 
Williams, Rev. S., epitaph, . 
Witchcraft at Andover, 
Witchcraft at Danvers, . 
Witchcraft, notice of, . 
Witchcraft, Cotton Mather's account, 
Wood's hole, Falmouth, 
Wood, Capt. David, epitaph, 
Woodcock, John, notice of, . 

. 328 
. 258 
. 334 
. 163 
. 172 
. 27 
. 221 
. 44 
. 46 
. Ill 



MASSACHUSETTS,^ the oldest of the New England states, and 
the first in population and resources, was first permanently settled 
by Europeans at Plymouth, on the 22d of December, 1620. There 
is good reason to believe that the first civilized people who visited 
the territory now comprised within the limits of the state, were the 
Norwegians, who emigrated from Iceland, and formed a settlement 
on the coast of Greenland in A. D. 986. From this place, in A. D. 
1000, a ship, with a crew of thirty-five men, proceeded southward 
on a voyage of discovery. From the account of their voyage, 
which is still preserved, it appears highly probable that they sailed 
as far south as Narragansett bay, near the head of which it is 
supposed they passed the winter. It also appears that after this 
period they made other voyages along the coast, and even attempted 
settlements, of the fate of which we have no information. 

About the period of the commencement of the seventeenth century, 
the English sovereigns maintained a despotic power over the con- 
sciences of their subjects. All who dissented from the national 
creed established by law were persecuted with great rigor. The 
avowed maxim in that age, adopted by religious as well as political 
rulers, was, that uniformity in religion was essential to the peace 
of society ; and that it was therefore the right and duty of every 
sovereign to maintain it in his dominions, by the force of law and 

In 1602, a number of religious people in the north of England, 
called Puritans, (so called from their efforts to preserve purity in 
divine worship,) were so persecuted on account of their religious 
sentiments, that they were compelled to take measures to find 
refuge in a foreign land. A little band of these brethren entered 
into a solemn covenant with each other "to walk with God and one 
another, in the enjoyment of the ordinances of God, according to 
the primitive pattern," whatever it might cost them. ' A number 
of ministers entered into this association, among whom was Mr. 
Robinson, a man of eminent piety and learning. 

Mr. Robinson, and as many of his congregation as found it in 

* This word was the name for an Indian tribe who lived around the vicinity of 
Massachusetts Bay. The word Massachusetts, according to Roger Williams, signifies, 
in the Indian language, Blue-Hills. 


10 OUTLINE HI is I 1 u R Y . 

their power, left England in the years 1607 and 1608, settled in 
Amsterdam, in Holland, from whence, in 1609, they removed to 
Leyden. Here they lived in great friendship among themselves 
and their neighbors, until they removed to New England. As 
early as 1617, Mr. Robinson's people meditated a removal to 
America. The reasons of their removal were, to preserve the 
morals of their youth, which were in danger of being corrupted by 
the dissolute manners of their neighbors, the Dutch ; the desire of 
perpetuating a church which they believed to be constituted after 
the simple and pure model of the primitive church of Christ ; and 
a zeal to propagate the Gospel in the regions of the new world. 

These reasons having been duly considered by the church, after 
seeking divine direction by humiliation and prayer, they agreed to 
come over to America, and settle in a distinct body, under the 
general government of Virginia. They also agreed that their 
pastor, Mr. Robinson, should remain with the greater part of the 
church, whether they chose to remain at Leyden, or to come over 
to America. In 1617 they sent Mr. Robert Cushman and Mr. 
John Carver to England, to treat with the Virginia Company, and 
ascertain whether the king would grant them liberty of conscience, 
if they removed to their territory. The Virginia Company were 
very desirous to have them settle within the limits of their patent ; 
the king, however, would grant no public recognition of religious 
liberty, but promised that if they behaved peaceably he would 
not molest them on account of their religious sentiments. In 
February, 1619, Mr. Cushman and Mr. Bradford were sent to 
England, where, after a long attendance, they obtained of the 
Virginia Company a patent of the northern parts of Virginia. This 
patent was taken out in the name of John Wincob, a religious 
gentleman in the family of the Countess of Lincoln, who intended 
to accompany them, but was providentially detained. This patent 
therefore was never used, but carried, however, to Leyden, with 
proposals from Mr. Weston, and several other respectable mer- 
chants and friends, for their consideration, with a request that 
immediate preparations should be made for their voyage. 

After a day of solemn prayer, in accordance with their custom 
previous to their engaging in important concerns, the congregation 
of Mr. Robinson concluded to remove to America. As it was not 
convenient for all of them to go at once, it was agreed that part of 
their number should go, and make preparation for the rest, After 
due consultation, it was determined that Mr. Robinson and the 
greater part of the congregation should remain at Leyden. The 
other part, with Mr. Brewster for their elder and teacher, agreed 
to be the first adventurers. A small ship, of about sixty tons, 
called the Speedwell, was now purchased and fitted out in Holland; 
another of about one hundred and eighty tons, called the May- 
flower, was hired at London. " All other matters being prepared, 
a large concourse of friends from Amsterdam and Leyden accom- 
panied the adventurers to the ship, which lay at Delft Haven ; and 
the night preceding their embarkation was spent in tearful prayers, 

O IT T M N E H I S T O R Y . 11 

and in the most tender and friendly intercourse. The next day 
fair wind invited their departure. The parting scene is more 
easily felt than described. Their mutual good wishes, their 
affectionate and cordial embraces, and other endearing expressions 
of Christian love and friendship, drew tears even from the stran- 
gers who beheld the scene. When the time arrived that they must 
part, they all, with their beloved pastor, fell on their knees, and 
with eyes, and hands, and hearts lifted to Heaven, fervently com- 
mended their adventuring brethren to the Lord and his blessing. 
Thus, after mutual embraces, accompanied with many tears, they 
bid a long, and many of them a last, farewell." 

Having a fair wind, they arrived at Southampton about the 2d 
of July, and found that the Mayflower had arrived at that place 
from London, and immediate preparations were made for embarka- 
tion. They divided themselves into two companies, one for each 
ship, and, with the approbation of the captains, each company 
chose a governor, and two or three assistants, to preserve order 
and distribute provisions. They sailed from Southampton on the 
5th of August. They had not proceeded far, before the smallest 
ship proved so leaky, that they were obliged to return and refit. 
On the 21st of August, they sailed again, and proceeded about one 
hundred leagues, when they were obliged to return again, when the 
smaller ship was left behind as unfit for service. Leaving a part 
of the company which had embarked in the smaller vessel, the 
remainder went on board of the Mayflower. On the 6th of Septem- 
ber, they set sail from Plymouth. After a boisterous passage, 
they arrived at Cape Cod on the 9th of November, and the next 
day they anchored in the harbor which is formed by the hook of 
the cape. This however was not the place of their destination ; 
neither was it within the limits of their patent. It was their inten- 
tion to have been landed at the mouth of Hudson river ; but it 
appears the Dutch, intending to plant a colony there of their own, 
secretly hired the master of the ship to contrive delays in England, 
and then to conduct them to these northern coasts, and there, under 
the pretence of shoals and winter, to discourage them in venturing 
to the place of their destination. 

Finding that they were not within the limits of their patent, and 
consequently not under the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company, 
they concluded it necessary to establish a separate government for 
themselves. Accordingly, before landing, having devoutly given 
thanks to the Almighty for their safe arrival, they formed them- 
selves into a body politic by a solemn contract, to which they all 
subscribed, and Mr. John Carver was unanimously chosen their go- 
vernor for the first year. The following is a copy of this contract, 
with the names of the signers, the number in their families, &c. 

" In the name of God, Amen. We whose names are under written, the loyal sub- 
jects of our dread sovereign Lord Kirn: James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, king^ defender of the faith, Ace., having undertaken, for the glory 
of God and advancement of the chrstkm faith and honor of our king and country, a 
voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia, do, by these presents, 
solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God and of one another, covenant and com 



bine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preserva- 
tion, and furtherance of the ends aforesaid ; and by virtue hereof do enact, constitute, 
and frame such just and equal laws and ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, 
from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good 
of the colony, unto which we promise all due subjection and obedience. In witness 
whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names, at Cape Cod, the llth day of 
November, in the year of the reign of our sovereign Lord King James of England, 
France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, Anno DdVnini 

This compact was subscribed in the following order by 

No. in Family. I 

Mr. John Carver,! 8 

Mr. William Bradford,! 
Mr. Edward Winslow,! 
Mr. William Brewster,! 
Mr. Isaac Allerton,! 
Capt. Miles Standish,! 
John Alden, 
Mr. Samuel Fuller, 

* Mr, Christopher Mar- 
tin,! 4 

* Mr. William Mullins,! 5 

* Mr. William White,! 5 
(Besides a son born in 

Cape Cod harbor, and 
named Peregrine) 
Mr. Richard Warren, 1 

No. in Family. 

John Howland, (of Car- 
ver's family,) 
Mr. Stephen Hopkins,! 8 

* Edward Tilly,! 4 

* John Tilly,! 3 
Francis Cook, 2 

* Thomas Rogers, 2 

* Thomas Tinker,! 3 

* John Ridgdale,! 2 

* Edward Fuller,! 3 

* John Turner, 3 
Francis Eaton,! 3 

* James Chilton,! 3 

* John Crackston, 2 
John Billington,! 4 

* Moses Fletcher, 1 

No. in Family. 

* John Goodman, 1 

* Degory Priest, 1 

* Thomas Williams, 1 
Gilbert Winslow, 1 

* Edward Margeson, 1 
Peter Brown, 1 

* Richard Britterige, 1 
George Soule, (of Edward 

Winslow's family) 

* Richard Clarke, ' 1 
Richard Gardiner, 1 

* John Allerton, 1 

* Thomas English, I 
Edward Dotey, Edward 

Leister, (both of Ste- 
phen Hopkins' family.) 

This brief, and comprehensive, and simple instrument established a most important 
principle, a principle which is the foundation of all the democratic institutions of Ame- 
rica, and is the basis of the republic , and, however it may be expanded and compli- 
cated in our various constitutions, however unequally power may be distinguished m 
the different branches of our various governments, has imparted to each its strongest 
and most striking characteristic. 

Many philosophers have since appeared, who have, in labored treatises, endeavored 
to prove the doctrine, that the rights of man are inalienable, and nations have bled 
to defend and enforce them, yet in this dark age, the age of despotism and supersti- 
tion, when no tongue dared to assert, and no pen to write, this bold and novel doctrine, 
which was then as much at defiance with common opinion as with actual power, of 
which the monarch was then held to be the sole fountain, and the theory was univer- 
sal, that all popular rights were granted by the crown, in this remote wilderness, 
amongst a small and unknown band of wandering outcasts, the principle that the mill 
of the majority of the people shall govern, was first conceived, and was first practically 

The pilgrims, from their notions of primitive Christianity, the force of circumstan- 
ces, and that pure moral feeling which is the offspring of true religion, discovered a 
truth in the science of government which had been concealed for ages. On the 
bleak shore of a barren wilderness, in the midst of desolation, with the blast of winter 
howling around them, and surrounded with dangers in their most awful and appall- 
ing forms, the pilgrims of Leyden laid the foundation of American liberty. Baylies, 
vol. i. p. 29. 

Government being thus established, their next object was to find 
a convenient place for a settlement. On the same day sixteen men, 
well armed, with a few others, were sent on shore to fetch wood 
and make discoveries. They returned at night without having 
found any person or habitation. On the 15th of November, Miles 
Standish, and sixteen armed men, in searching for a place for set- 
tlement, saw five or six Indians, whom they followed for several 

! Those with this mark brought their wives. 

* Those who died before the end of the next March are distinguished by an aste- 


miles, until night ; but, not overtaking them, were obliged to lodge 
in the woods. The next day they discovered heaps, one of which 
they dug open ; but finding within implements of war, they con- 
cluded these were Indian graves. In different heaps of sand they 
also found baskets of corn, a quantity of which they took away, 
to the amount of about ten bushels. This was a fortunate disco- 
very; it gave them seed for a future harvest, and probably saved 
the infant colony from famine. They made diligent inquiry for 
the owners of the corn, whom they found, and afterwards paid 
them to their entire satisfaction. Before the end of November, 
Peregrine White, the son of William and Susanna White, was 
born, being the first child of European parents born in New 

On the sixth of December, the shallop was sent out with seve- 
ral of the principal men, Carver, Bradford, Win slow, Standish, 
and others, and eight or ten seamen, to sail around the bay in 
search of a place for a settlement. The next day the company 
divided; and some travelled on the shore, whilst the others coasted 
in the shallop. On the morning of the eighth, those on the shore 
were surprised by a party of Indians, who shot their arrows at 
them ; they however instantly fled upon the discharge of the mus- 
kets of the English. On the night of the ninth, being Saturday, 
they reached a small island, (since called Clark's Island). They 
reposed themselves, and on the next day on this spot they kept 
the Christian Sabbath. The day following, December llth, O. S., 
they sounded the harbor, and found it "fit for shipping." A part 
of their number landed and went some distance into the country. 
They also examined the land near the shore, and found it hai 
been planted with Indian corn two or three years before. A beau- 
tiful brook was near, and a number of springs of pure water; and 
judging this to be a good place for a settlement, they returned with 
the welcome intelligence to the ship. This day has since been 
considered as the day on which the Pilgrim Fathers landed on 
the Rock of Plymouth. The day which has been annually cele- 
brated in commemoration of this momentous event, is the twenty- 
second of December, N. S., which has been supposed to correspond 
with the eleventh, O. S. 

On Saturday the 23d, they began to cut timber and provide 
materials for building. This business found them employment, 
when the weather would permit, till about the 19th of February. 
The whole company, consisting of one hundred and one souls, were 
divided into nineteen families, who each built their own house or 
hut ; they all, however, engaged in building a storehouse twenty feet 
square for common use. From the time of their arrival on the coast, 
till the day of their permanent landing, the weather was often stormy 
and severe. The men who were employed in exploring the coast, 
were exposed to great hardships from watchings and fastings, wet 
and cold. During the month of December, six of their number 
died, and many others sickened of grievous colds, of which they 
never recovered. On the Lord's day, December 31st, they attend- 


od public worship for the first time on shore, and named the place 
Plymouth; partly because the harbor was so named by Capt. 
Smith , who visited this coast in 1614, and partly from gratitude 
for the kind treatment they had received from Christian friends at 
Plymouth, the last port in England which they had left. 

The colonists, on the 9th of January 1621, proceeded to the 
erection of their town, which they built in two rows of houses 
for greater security. On the 14th, their common storehouse took 
fire from a spark that fell on its thatched roof, and was entirely 
consumed; but providentially, by the timely exertions of the peo- 
ple, the contents of the building, so necessary for their support, 
were preserved. On the 17th of February they met for settling 
military orders, and Miles Standish was chosen their captain. 
The settlers suffered extremely this month by sickness and death, 
and no less than seventeen of their number died. Their sufferings 
were much increased by the want of well persons to take care of 
the sick ; there being at one time no more than six or seven in 
tolerable health. In March, 1621, fifty-five only survived of the 
one hundred and one who came in the Mayflower. 

On the 16th of March, an Indian came into Plymouth alone, 
and surprised the inhabitants by calling out in broken English, 
" Welcome, Englishmen ! Welcome, Englishmen!" He was the 
first of the natives who visited them : his name was Samoset, and 
was a Sagamore who had come from Monhiggon, (a place now in 
the limits of Maine,) where he had learned something of the 
English tongue from the captains of the fishing vessels who 
resorted thither. He informed the Plymouth people that the place 
where they were seated was called by the Indians Patuxet ; that 
all the inhabitants died of an extraordinary plague about four 
years since ; and that there was neither man, woman nor child 
remaining. No natives, therefore, were dispossessed of their land 
to make room for the English, excepting by the providence of God, 
before their arrival. 

Samoset was treated with hospitality by the settlers, and was 
disposed to preserve an intercourse with them ; and on his third 
visit brought Squanto, one of the natives who had been basely 
carried off by Capt. Hunt in 1614, and afterwards lived in 
England. These Indians informed the English that Massasoit, 
the greatest king of the neighboring tribes, was near, with a train 
of sixty men. The meeting between him and the English was 
conducted with considerable formality and parade. They entered 
into a friendly treaty, wherein they agreed to avoid injuries on 
both sides, to punish offenders, to restore stolen goods, to assist 
each other in all justifiable wars, to promote peace among their 
neighbors, &c. Massasoit and his successors for fifty years invio- 
lably observed this treaty. The prudent and upright conduct of 
the Plymouth settlers towards their neighbors, the Indians, secured 
their friendship and alliance. On the 13th of September, 1621, no 
less than nine sachems declared allegiance to king James, and 
Massasoit, with many sachems under him, subscribed a writing 
acknowledging the king of England as their sovereign, 

O U T L I N E H I S T O R Y . 15 

The first marriage in the colony was solemnized on May 12th, 
1621, between Mr. Edward Winslow and Mrs. Susanna White. 
The first duel in New England was fought on the 18th of June, 
between two servants, both of whom were wounded. For this 
disgraceful offence, they were formally tried before the whole com- 
pany, and sentenced to have "their heads and feet tied together, 
and so to be twenty-four hours without meat or drink." Such, 
however, was the painfulness of their situation, and their piteous 
entreaties to be released, that, upon promise of better behavior in 
future, they were soon released by the governor. The colonists 
planted twenty acres with corn, of which they had a good crop. 
They were instructed in the manner of planting by Squanto ; but 
were unsuccessful in their first trial with English grain, by reason, 
as is supposed, of the lateness of the season, and bad quality of the 
seed. Governor Carver was taken sick on the fifth of April, while 
engaged in planting corn, and died in a few days. His death was 
greatly lamented, as he was a man of great piety, humility, and 
benevolence. He possessed a considerable estate, the greater part 
of which he expended for the good of the colony. Soon after his 
death, Mr. William Bradford was chosen governor, and by renewed 
elections continued in office -for several years. 

On the 3d of November, 1620, king James signed a patent incor- 
porating the Duke of Lenox, the Marquises of Buckingham and 
Hamilton, the Earls of Arundel and Warwick, Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, with thirty-four others, and their successors, styling 
them " The Council established at Plymouth, in the county of 
Devon, for planting, ruling, ordering, and governing of New Eng- 
land in America." To this council he granted that part of Ame- 
rica which lies between the fortieth and forty-eighth degrees of 
north latitude. This patent was the great civil basis of all the 
grants and patents by which New England was afterwards divided. 
The Plymouth Council retained the power vested in them by the 
crown until the year 1635, when they resigned their charter. 
Previous to this, however, the council had made several grants of 
land to adventurers who proposed to settle in New England. 
They granted New Hampshire to Capt. John Mason in 1621 the 
Province of Maine to Sir R. Gorges in 1622 and Massachusetts 
Bay to Sir Henry Roswell and five others in 1628. 

In 1622, Mr. Weston, a merchant of London, having procured 
for himself a patent for a tract of land in Massachusetts Bay, sent 
two ships, with fifty or sixty men, at his own charge, to settle a 
plantation. This company attempted a settlement at Weymouth, 
but, "being a set of rude, profane fellows, regardless of justice, 
provoked the Indians by stealing their corn, and other abuses, to 
become their enemies, and occasioned much trouble, both to them- 
selves and the Plymouth settlers." The Indians soon entered into 
a conspiracy to destroy the settlement, which they would have 
effected, had it not been for the interposition of their Plymouth 

The Plymouth settlers having received information that the 


sachem Massasoit was sick and apparently near death, and that a 
Dutch ship was driven ashore near his house, the governor sent 
Edward Winslow and John Hambdeii to visit him, and speak with 
the Dutch. Having Hobamack for their guide, they reached the 
residence of Massasoit, whom they found extremely ill, but, by the 
timely assistance of Mr. Winslow, he recovered. The following is 
an account of this journey as narrated by Mr. Winslow. 

" The next day, (March 1623) about one of the clock, we came to a ferry in Con- 
batant's country, where, upon discharge of my piece, divers Indians came to us, from 
a house not far off. There they told us that Massassowat was dead, and that day 
buried ; and that the Dutch would be gone before we could get thither, having hove 
off their ship already. This news struck us blank ; but especially Hobbamock, who 
desired we might return with all speed. I told him I would first think of it, consider- 
ing now that, he being dead, Conbatant was the most like to succeed him, and that 
we were not above three miles from Mattapuyst, his dwelling place. Although he 
were but a hollow-hearted friend toward us, I "thought no time so fit as this to enter 
into more friendly terms with him, and the rest of the sachems thereabout ; hoping, 
through the blessing of God, it would be a means, in that unsettled state, to settle 
their affections towards us ; and though it were somewhat dangerous, in respect of 
our personal safety, because myself and Hobbamock had been employed upon a ser- 
vice against him, which he might now fitly revenge ; yet, esteeming it the best 
means, leaving the event to God in his mercy, I resolved to put it in practice, if mas- 
ter Hamden and Hobbamock durst attempt it with me; whom I found willing to that 
or any other course might tend to the general good. So we went towards Mattapuyst. 

"In the way, Hobbamock, manifesting a troubled spirit, brake forth into these 
speeches: 'Neen rvomasu Sagimus, neen womasu Sagimus, &c.,- My loving sachem, 
my loving sachem ! Many have I known, but never any like thee.' And, turning to 
me, he said whilst I lived I should never see his like amongst the Indians; saying 
he was no liar; he was not bloody and cruel, like other Indians. In anger and pas- 
sion he was soon reclaimed ; easy to be reconciled towards such as had offended him ; 
ruled by reason in such measure as he would not scorn the advice of mean men ; 
and that he governed his men better with few strokes than others did with many ; 
truly loving where he loved ; yea, he feared we had not a faithful friend left among 
the Indians ; showing how he ofttimes restrained their malice, &c.; continuing a long 
speech, with such signs of lamentation and unfeigned sorrow, as it would have made 
the hardest heart relent. 

"At length we came to Mattapuyst, and went to the sachimo comac.o, for so they called 
the sachem's place though they call an ordinary house witeo ; but Conbatant, the 
sachem, was not at home, but at Puckanokick, which was some five or six miles off. 
The squa sachem, for so they call the sachem's wife, gave us friendly entertainment. 
Here we inquired again concerning Massassowat : they thought him dead, but kneAV 
no certainty. Whereupon I hired one to go, with all expedition, to Puckanokick, that 
we might know the certainty thereof, and withal to acquaint Conbatant with our there 
being. About half an hour before sun-setting the messenger returned, and told us 
that he was not yet dead, though there was no hope we should find him living. Upon 
this we were much revived, and set forward with all speed, though it was late within 
night ere we got thither. About two of the clock, that afternoon, the Dutchmen 
departed ; so that in that respect our journey was frustrate. 

"When we came thither, we found the house so full of men, as we could scarce get 
in, though they used their best diligence to make way for us. There were they in 
the midst of their charms for him, making such a hellish noise as it distempered us 
that were well, and therefore unlike to ease him that was sick. About him were six 
or eight women, who chafed his arms, legs, and thighs, to keep heat in him. When 
they had made an end of their charming, one told him that his friends, the English, 
were come to see him. Having understanding left, but his sight was wholly gone, 
he asked who was come. They told him Winsnow, for they cannot pronounce the 
letter I, but ordinarily n in the place thereof. He desired to speak with me. When 
I came to him, and they told him of it, he put forth his hand to me, which I took. 
Then he said twice, though very inwardly, Keen Winsnow ? \vhich is to say, Art thou 
Winslow ? I answered, Ahhe, that is, Yes. Then he doubled these words : Malta 
neen rvonckanet namen, Winsnow ! that is to say, Winslow, I shall never see theo 


" Then I called Hobbamock, and desired him to tell Massassowat. that the governor, 
hearing of his sickness, was sorry for the same ; and though, by reason of many busi- 
nesses, he could not come himself, yet he sent me with such things for him as he 
thought most likely to do him good in this extremity ; and whereof if he pleased to 
take, I would presently give him j which he desired ; and having a confection of many 
comfortable conserves, on the point of my knife, I .gave him some, which 1 
could scarce get through his teeth. When it was dissolved in his mouth, he 
swallowed the juice of it ; whereat those that were about him much rejoiced, saying 
he had not. swallowed anything in two days before. Then I desired to see his mouth, 
which was exceedingly furred, and his tongue swelled in such a manner as it was not 
possible for him to eat such meat as they had, his passage being stopped up. Then I 
washed his mouth, and scraped his tongue, and got abundance of corruption out of 
the same. After which I gave him more of the confection, which he swallowed with 
more readiness. Then he desired to drink. I dissolved some of it in water, and gave 
him thereof. Within half an hour this wrought a great alteration in him, in the eyes 

of all that beheld him. Presently after his sight began to come to him Then 

I gave him more, and told him of a mishap we had, in breaking a bottle of drink, 
which the governor also sent him, saying, if he would send any of his men to 
Patuxet, I would send for more of the same j also for chickens to make him broth, 
and for other things, which I knew were good for him ; and would stay the return of 
his messenger, if he desired. This he took marvellous kindly, and appointed some, 
who were ready to go by two of the clock in the morning ; against which time I made 
ready a letter, declaring therein our good success, the state of his body, &c., desiring 
to send such things as I sent for, and such physic as the surgeon durst administer to 

" He requested me that, the day following, I would take my piece, and kill him some 
fowl, and make him some English pottage, such as he had eaten at Plymouth ; which 
I promised. After, his stomach coming to him, I must needs make him some without 
fowl, before I went abroad, which somewhat troubled me ; but being I must do some- 
what, I caused a woman to bruise some corn, and take the flour from it, and set over 
the grit, or broken corn, in a pipkin, for they have earthen pots of all sizes. When 
the day broke, we went out, it being now March, to seek herbs, but could not find any 
but strawberry leaves, of which I gathered a handful, and put into the same ; and be- 
cause I had nothing to relish it, I went forth again, and pulled up a sassafras root, 
and sliced a piece thereof, and boiled it, till it had a good relish, and then took it out 
again. The broth being boiled, I strained it through my handkerchief, and gave him 
at least a pint, which he drank, and liked it very well. After this his sight mended 

more and more ; and he took some rest ; insomuch as we with admiration 

blessed God for giving his blessing to such raw and ignorant means, making no 
doubt of his recovery, himself and all of them acknowledging us the instruments of 
his preservation. That morning he caused me to spend in going from one to another 
amongst those that were sick in the town, requesting me to wash their mouths also, 
and give to each of them some of the same I gave him, saying that they were good 
folk. This pains I took with willingness, though it were much offensive to me, not 
being accustomed with such poisonous savors. 

" The messengers were now returned, but finding his stomach come to him, he would 
not have the chickens killed, but kept them for breed. Neither durst we give him 
any physic, which was then sent, because his body was so much altered since our 
instructions ; neither saw we any need, not doubting now of his recovery, if he were 
careful. Many, whilst we were there, came to see him ; some, by their report, from 
a place not less than a hundred miles. Upon this his recovery, he brake forth into 
these speeches : ' Now I see the English are my friends and love me ; and whilst I live, 
I will never forget this kindness they have showed me.' Whilst we were there, our 
entertainment exceeded all other strangers." Good News from New England. 

Massasoit, gratefully impressed with the kind offices performed 
by Winslow, revealed a plot of the Massachusett Indians against 
Weston's people at Wessagusset, and, lest the English at Plymouth 
should avenge their countrymen, they were also to be destroyed ; 
and he advised them to kill the conspirators, as the only means of 
security. The governor, on receiving this intelligence, which was 
confirmed by other evidences, dispatched Capt. Standish with 
eight men, in order, if a plot should be discovered, to fall on the 



conspirators. Standish sailed to the Massachusetts, where the 
natives, suspecting his design, insulted and threatened him. 
Watching his opportunity, when four of the principal conspirators 
were in a room with about the same number of his own men, 
he attacked them, and, after a dreadful struggle, succeeded in kill- 
ing the whole. This sudden and unexpected execution so terrified 
the other natives, who had intended to join with the Massachusetts 
in the conspiracy, that they forsook their houses and fled to swamps 
and desert places, where they contracted diseases which proved 
mortal to many of them, among whom were a number of sachems. 

The fame of the plantation at Plymouth being spread in the 
west of England, Mr. White, a celebrated minister of Dorchester, 
in 1624, excited some merchants and other gentlemen to attempt 
another settlement in New England. They accordingly, on a 
common stock, sent over several persons, who began a plantation 
at Cape Ann. In March of this year, Mr. Winslow, agent for the 
colony, arrived in the ship Charity, and, together with a good sup- 
ply of clothing, brought a bull and three heifers, which were the 
first cattle of the kind in this part of America. At the close of 
this year (1624) the plantation at Plymouth consisted of one hun- 
dred and eighty persons, who lived in thirty-two dwelling-houses. 
Their stock was a few cattle and goats,, and a plenty of swine and 
poultry. Their town was pallisadoed about half a mile in compass. 
On a hill in the town, they had a fort well built of wood, and a 
watch-tower. This year they freighted a ship of one hundred and 
eighty tons. 

The year 1625 is distinguished by the death of the Rev. Mr. 
Robinson. He died at Leyden, in March, 1625, in the fiftieth year 
of his age. He was truly a great and good man, and highly 
esteemed. After his death, his wife, children, and most of his 
congregation, came and joined their brethren, the colonists at Ply- 
mouth. In 1630, when the plantation consisted of about three 
hundred souls, a patent was taken out in the name of William 
Bradford, his heirs, associates, and assigns. This patent con- 
firmed their title to a tract of land bounded on the east and south 
by the Atlantic ocean, and by lines drawn west from the rivulet 
Connohasset and north from the river of Narragansett, which 
lines meet in a point, comprehending all the country then called 
Pokanokit. In the same patent was granted a large tract border- 
ing on the river Kennebec. (now in the state of Maine,) where 
they carried on a traffic with the natives for furs. This patent 
passed the king's hand, but, on account of the agents of the colony 
inserting a clause without their advice, the patent was never 
finished, and they remained without a charter until they were 
incorporated with Massachusetts in 1691 or 1692. Notwithstanding 
this, Plymouth was a government de facto, and considered as such 
by king Charles in his letters and orders which were sent them at 
various times, previous to their incorporation with Massachusetts. 

On the 19th of March, 1628, the Plymouth Council sealed a 
patent to Sir Henry Roswell and five others, of all that part of 


New England included between a line drawn three miles south of 
Charles river, and another three miles north of the river Merrimac, 
from the Atlantic to the South sea. A royal charter, giving pow- 
ers of government, passed the seals March 4th, 1629. At this 
period a few scattering settlements only had been made in Massa- 
chusetts Bay. In the summer of 1628, Mr. Endicott, one of the 
original planters, with a small colony, was sent over to begin a 
plantation at Nawnkeag, (now Salem). The June following, 
about two hundred persons, with four ministers, came over and 
joined Mr. Endicott' s colony; and the next year they formed them- 
selves into a church, being the first church gathered in the original 
colony of Massachusetts, and the second in New England; the 
church at Plymouth being gathered eight years before. In 1630, 
seventeen ships came over to Massachusetts from different ports in 
England, with more than fifteen hundred passengers, among whom 
were many persons of distinction. Many of these persons were 
from illustrious and noble families. Having been .accustomed to a 
life of ease and enjoyment, their sufferings for the first year were 
very great, and proved fatal to many ; among others to the lady 
Arabella, who "came from a paradise of plenty and pleasure, in 
the family of a noble earl, into a wilderness of wants." She died 
at Salem, where she first landed, and Mr. Johnson, her husband, 
overcome with grief, survived her but a short time. About this 
time settlements were made at Charlestown. Dorchester, Cam- 
bridge, Roxbury and Boston. The first General Court of Massa- 
chusetts was held October 19th, 1630, at Boston, by the freemen 
of the corporation at large. At this court it was agreed that, in 
future, the freemen should choose the assistants, and that the 
assistants should choose from among themselves the governor and 
deputy-governor. The court of assistants were to have the power 
of making laws and appointing officers. Being desirous of esta- 
blishing a religious commonwealth, they ordained " that none but 
church members should be admitted to the freedom of the body 
politic," or enjoy the privilege of voting. 

In 1632 and 1633 great numbers of emigrants came over to New 
England. Such was the tide of emigration, that the king in coun- 
cil issued an order in February, 1633, to prevent it. Notwith- 
standing this order, Messrs. Cotton, Hooker, and Stone, three emi- 
nent ministers, who were considered the most famous pillars of 
the churches, came over this year, with two hundred emigrants, 
and landed at Boston. Mr. Cotton settled at Boston, the other 
two at Cambridge. Mr. Hooker, with one hundred others, re- 
moved in 1636, and settled Hartford in Connecticut: In 1634, it 
was found so very inconvenient for all the freemen to assemble in 
one place and transact their business, the mode of legislation was 
altered by the general consent of the towns. They delegated to 
twenty-four representatives the authority granted by the charter to 
the whole body of freemen. The appellation of General Court, 
which had been applied to all the freemen when assembled, was 
now transferred to their representatives. It was during this year 


(1634) that Roger Williams, the minister of Salem, having occa- 
sioned disturbances hy tenets considered not only heretical, but 
seditious, and being found irreclaimable, was ordered to leave the 
colony. He retired to Rehoboth, which was then within the juris- 
diction of Plymouth. In 1635, there came to Massachusetts a 
large number of inhabitants from England, among whom were 
Hugh Peters, who was afterwards chaplain to Cromwell, and Mr. 
Vane, afterwards Sir Henry Vane, who acted a conspicuous part 
during the Commonwealth of England. Mr. Vane was made 
governor of the colony the year after his arrival. His popularity, 
however, was transient. During his administration, in 1636, Mrs. 
Hutchinson, a woman distinguished for her eloquence, held weekly 
meetings for persons of her own sex, in which she commented on 
the sermons of the preceding Sunday, and advanced mystical and 
extravagant, doctrines. These spread rapidly among the people, 
and many became converts, among whom were Governor Vane, 
Mr. Cotton and Mr. Wheelwright, two distinguished ministers. 
Great excitement was produced among the people, the final result 
of which was, a synod was appointed to be held at Cambridge in 
August, 1637, where were assembled both ministers and messen- 
gers of churches, and magistrates, who, after three weeks' disputa- 
tion, condemned as erroneous upwards of eighty opinions, said to 
have been maintained by persons in the country. In consequence 
of this, Mrs. Hutchinson and some of her principal followers were 
sentenced to banishment. She, with her husband and family, 
removed to Rhode Island, where, in 1642, Mr. Hutchinson died. 
She, being dissatisfied with the people or place, removed to the 
Dutch country beyond New Haven, where she was killed, with all 
her family, being sixteen in number, except one daughter, who was 
carried into captivity. 

The year 1637 was distinguished by the Pequot war in Con- 
necticut, in which were killed five or six hundred Indians, and the 
warlike Pequots were mostly destroyed. This first war with the 
Indians struck such a terror into the surrounding tribes, that for 
forty years afterwards they never openly commenced hostilities 
with the English. In 1640, the tide of emigration from England 
ceased. Persecution having ceased in England, the motives for 
coming to New England were removed. They who then professed 
to give the best account, say that in two hundred and ninety-eight 
ships, which were the whole number from the beginning of the 
colony, there arrived twenty-one thousand two hundred passengers, 
men, women, and children, perhaps about four thousand families. 
After this period it is supposed that for a long time afterwards 
more persons returned to England, than came from England to 
the colonies. " Such, however, were the character and virtues of 
the emigrants, such the power over difficulties, which their reso- 
lute minds, and bodies hardened by labor, had imparted to them, 
that they continued to increase with astonishing rapidity in wealth 
and numbers." 

In 1643, four of the New England colonies, Massachusetts, Con- 


necticut, Plymouth and New Haven, united in a confederacy foi 
mutual protection and assistance. The articles of union and con- 
federation were signed at Boston, on the 19th of May. The rea- 
sons assigned for this union, were, the danger from the Indians, 
from the Dutch at New York, and from the French ; also the 
impossibility of obtaining aid from the mother country in case of 
any sudden attack. By the articles of the confederation, each 
colony was to appoint two commissioners, who were to assemble 
by rotation in the respective colonies, and were empowered to 
enact ordinances of general concern ; and in case of invasion each 
colony was bound to furnish a stipulated proportion of men and 
money. The commissioners who formed the union, declared, that, 
as in nation and religion, so in other respects, they be and continue 
one ; and henceforth be called by the name of The United Colonies 
of New England. This union rendered the colonies formidable to 
their enemies, and secured the peace and rights of the country. 

The first instance on record in Massachusetts of a trial for witch- 
craft, was in 1648, when Margaret Jones, of Charlestown, was indict- 
ed for a witch, found guilty, and executed, in accordance with the 
laws of England against this crime. " She was charged with 
having such a malignant touch, that if she laid her hands upon 
man. woman, or child, in anger, they were seized presently with 
deafness, vomiting, or other sickness, or some violent pains." 
Since the year 1634, committees, consisting of ministers and prin- 
cipal laymen, were appointed almost every year, for twelve or 
fourteen years, to prepare a code of laws for the colony. Mean- 
while, laws of the greatest necessity had been successively enacted. 
This year (1648) the whole were collected, ratified by the court, 
and printed. In civil actions, equity, according to the circum- 
stances of the case, seems to have been their rule of determining. 
In punishing offences, they professed to be governed by the judi- 
cial law of Moses, but no farther than those laws were of a moral 
nature. Many of their sentences previous to their having a regu- 
lar code of laws, seem to be adapted to the circumstances of a 
large family of children and servants, as will appear from the fol- 
lowing, which, from among many others of the same sort, are 
taken from the public records, 

Josias Plaistowe, for stealing four baskets of corn from the Indians, is ordered to 
return them eight baskets, to be fined five pounds, and hereafter to be called by the 
name of Josias, and not Mr., as formerly he used to be.* 

Captain Stone, for abusing Mr. Ludlow, and calling him justass. is fined one hun- 
dred pounds, and prohibited from coming within the patent, without the governor's 
leave, upon pain of death. 

Serjeant Perkins ordered to carry forty turfs to the fort for being drunk. 

Edward Palmer, "for his extortion in taking two pounds thirteen shillings and four- 
pence for the wood-work of Boston stocks, is fined five pounds, and ordered to sit one 
hour in the stocks. 

* They were very careful to give no titles where they were not due. In a list of 
one hundred freemen you will not find above four or five distinguished by Mr., although 
they were men of some substance. Goodman and goodwife were the common appella- 


Capt. Lovel admonished to take heed of light carriage. 

Thomas Petit, for suspicion of slander, idleness and stubbornness, is censured to 
be severely whipped and to be kept in hold. 

Catharine, the wife of Richard Cornish, was found suspicious of incoritinency, and 
seriously admonished to take heed. 

Daniel Clarke, found to be an immoderate drinker, was fined forty shillings. 

John Wedgewood, for being in the company of drunkards, to be set in the stocks. 

John Kitchin, for showing books which he was commanded to bring to the governor, 
and forbidden to show them to any other, and yet showed them, was fined ten shil- 

Robert Shorthose, for swearing by the blood of God, was sentenced to have his 
tongue put into a cleft stick, and to stand so for the space of half an hour. 

Great numbers of the like kind might be added. Hutchinson's Hist, of Mass., vol. i. 
p. 436. 

About this period, the custom of wearing long hair, " after the 
manner of Russians and barbarous Indians," as Gov. Endicott 
and others termed it, was deemed contrary to the word of God, 
which says "it is a shame for a man to wear long hair." The 
rule in New England was, that none should wear their hair below 
their ears. In a clergyman it was peculiarly offensive, as they 
were required to go with open ears. A few years before this, 
tobacco was prohibited under a penalty, and the smoke, in some 
manuscripts, is compared to the smoke of the bottomless pit. 
Some of the clergy fell into the practice of smoking, and tobacco, 
by an act of government, "was set at liberty." 

The trade of the colony increasing, especially with the West 
Indies, where the bucaneers or pirates at this time were numerous, 
and part of the wealth they took from the Spaniards, as well as 
what was produced by the trade, being brought into New England 
in bullion, " it was thought necessary, for preventing fraud in 
money," to erect a mint for coining shillings, sixpences, and three- 
pences, with no other impression at first than N. E. on the one 
side, and XII., VI., or III. on the other; but in October, 1651, the 
court ordered that all pieces of money should have a double ring 
with this inscription, MASSACHUSETTS, and a tree in the centre, and 
NEW ENGLAND and the year of our Lord on the other side. 1 * The 
annexed cut is a representation of one of these coins. 

* The first money being coined in 1652, the same date was continued upon all that 
uas struck for thirty years afterwards. No other colony ever presumed to coin metal 
into money. A very large sum was coined, and the mint-master made a large fortune 
by it, as he was allowed to take fifteen pence out of every twenty shillings for the 
trouble of coining, &c. It was commonly reported that Mr. Sewall, who married his 
only daughter, received with her thirty thousand pounds in New England shillings.- 
Hutchinson's Hist. vol. I p. 178. 


In the year 1656 began what is generally called the persecution 
of the Quakers. The first who openly professed their principles 
in the colony were Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, who came from 
Barbadoes in July of this year. In a few weeks after, nine others 
arrived in a ship from London. Being brought before the court 
of assistants on the 8th of September, they affirmed they were 
sent by God to reprove the people for their sins. Being questioned 
how they could make it appear that God had sent them, they, 
after a pause, replied, that they had the same call that Abraham 
had to go out of his country. To other questions they gave rude 
and contemptuous answers, which is the reason assigned for com- 
mitting them to prison. A great number of their books, which 
they intended to circulate over the country, were seized and re- 
served for the fire. Soon after this, as the governor was going 
from public worship on the Lord's day, several gentlemen accom- 
panying him, Mary Prince called to him from a window of the 
prison, railing and reviling him, saying, " Woe unto thee, thou art 
an oppressor," and denouncing the judgments of God upon him. 
She also wrote him a letter, filled with opprobrious language. 
The governor sent for her twice from the prison to his own house, 
and, with a number of ministers, endeavored with much tenderness 
and moderation to convince her of her errors. She, however, 
railed upon them, calling them hirelings, deceivers of the people, 
Baal's priests, the seed of the serpent, &c. 

At this time there was no special provision made in the laws 
for the punishment of Quakers ; but, in virtue of a law which 
had been made against heretics in general, the court passed sen- 
tence of banishment upon them all. Afterwards other severe laws 
were enacted, among which were the following : any Quaker, after 
the first conviction, if a man, was to lose one ear, and for the 
second the other ; a woman, each time to be severely whipped ; 
and the third time, whether man or woman, to have their tongues 
bored through with a red-hot iron. In October, 1658, after much 
opposition by members of the court, they, by a majority of one 
vote only, passed a law for punishing with death all Quakers who 
should return into their jurisdiction after banishment. Under this 
law four persons were executed. The friends of the Quakers in 
England now interposed, and obtained an order from the king, 
September 9th, 1661, requiring that a stop should be put to all 
capital or corporeal punishments of his subjects called Quakers, 
and that such as were obnoxious should be sent to England. This 
order was obeyed, arid all disturbances by degrees subsided. 

Much censure has been passed upon the New England colonies 
for their severe laws against those calling themselves Quakers ; 
yet it must be recollected that the laws in England against them, 
at this period, were severe, and although none were put to death 
by public execution, yet many were confined in prisons, where 
they died, in consequence of the rigor of the law. One principal 
thing which tends to mislead the judgment of many, in this pre- 
sent age, is the supposition that those who suffered the punishment 


of the law were essentially of the same spirit and practice of the 
respectable and worthy society of Friends or Quakers of the pre- 
sent day. This is a mistake ; many who went by this name at 
that period may be considered as fanatics, and proper subjects of 
a madhouse. The following instances of their conduct may be 
considered as a species of madness. " Some at Salem, Hampton. 
Newbury, and other places, coming into the congregations and 
calling to the minister in time of public worship, declaring their 
preaching, &c., to be an abomination to the Lord. Thomas New- 
house went into the meeting-house at Boston, with a couple of 
glass bottles, and broke them before the congregation, and threat- 
ened, * Thus will the Lord break you in pieces.' Another time, 
M. Brewster came in with her face smeared and black as a coal. 
Deborah Wilson went through the streets of Salem as naked as 
she came into the world. "# " That some provision was necessary 
against these people so far as they were disturbers of civil peace 
and order, every one will allow ; but such sanguinary laws against 
particular doctrines or tenets in religion are not to be defended." 

The year 1675 is memorable for a war with the Indians, called 
King Philip's War, isrhich was the most general and destructive 
ever sustained by the infant colonies. Philip resided at Mount 
Hope, in Rhode Island, and was the grandson and successor of 
Massasoit, with whom the Plymouth colonists had made a treaty 
fifty years before. For a long time previous to the war, he was 
jealous of the whites. His object appears to have been, to unite 
all the Indian tribes to make a combined effort to exterminate the 
colonists, and thus preserve their hunting grounds and indepen- 
dence. The immediate cause of the war was the execution of 
three Indians by the English, whom Philip had excited to murder 
Sausaman, a Christian Indian, who had informed the whites of 
the plot Philip was forming against them. Philip, to avenge their 
deaths, commenced hostilities, and by his influence drew into the 
war most of the tribes in New England. The Indians, at this 
period, had acquired the use of fire-arms, and the war soon 
became general. Their first attack was made June 24th, upon 
the people of Swanzey, as they were returning from public wor- 
ship ; eight or nine persons were killed. Brookfield, in Worcester 
county, was next attacked, and every house burnt but one. 
During the month of September, Hadley, Deerfield, and North- 
field, on Connecticut river, were attacked ; many persons were 
killed, and many buildings consumed. 

In the winter was the celebrated expedition against the Narragansetts, who had 
given indications of their favorable disposition to Philip. The active co-operation of 
that powerful tribe, notwithstanding their treaty in July and subsequent pacific assur- 
ances, was seriously apprehended. A thousand men were raised by order of the 
commissioner,) of the United Colonies for this important service. Six companies from 
Massachusetts, with a troop of horse, were under the command of Major Appleton. 
Five companies from Connecticut were led by Major Treat. The two companies 
from Plymouth were under Major Bradford. Governor Winslow was commander-in 

* Hutchinson, vol. i., p. 203 and 204. 


chief, by appointment from the commissioners. The preparation and the march of 
this army, the most considerable that New England had then seen, were most prompt 
and persevering. In the depth of a severe winter, they advanced to the attack of a 
formidable foe, posted in a strong position in his wilderness retreat. The attack on 
the enemy's fort, December 19th, (O. S.,) was completely successful. It was a coun- 
terpart to the memorable exploit against the Pequots, forty years before, by the men 
of Connecticut. A day of horrible conflagration and slaughter inflicted a blow, from 
which the Narragansett nation never recovered. Seven hundred of their fighting 
men fell in the action, and it was computed that, at least, three hundred more died of 
their wounds and from the hardships which ensued. Such are the numbers given by 
Hubbard, in his Narrative, derived from the confession of Potock, one of the Indian 
chiefs, afterwards taken at Rhode Island, and put to death in Boston. It was a dear- 
bought victory to the assailants. Five brave captains were slain in the action : Da- 
venport of Boston, son of Captain Richard Davenport, distinguished in the Pequot war, 
Johnson of Roxbury, Gardner of Salem, Gallop of New London, and Marshall of 
Windsor. Captain Sieley* of Stratford was mortally wounded, and lived but a few 
days after the fight. The whole loss sustained by the assailants was eighty-five 
killed, and about one hundred and fifty wounded. Among the wounded were Major 
Bradford and Captain Church, of Plymouth Colony, and Lieut. Upham of Massachu- 
setts. The latter died of his wound some months afterward. J. Gorham of Barnsta- 
ble, captain of one of Plymouth Colony companies, was seized with a fever, and died 
on the expedition. Church was a volunteer, and, as he informs us in his narrative, 
rode in the general's guard. He pointedly condemns the burning the wigwams in the 
fort, which would have afforded a comfortable shelter to the troops. For want of such 
accommodation, they were compelled, immediately after the action, to perform a severe 
march of sixteen of eighteen miles, in a cold and stormy night, to Wickford. This 
march was peculiarly distressing to the wounded men. Many of them died on the 
way, or soon afterward. None of them could have their wounds dressed until they 
arrived at head-quarters. Davis 1 Edition of New England Memorial, 432 p. 

From this blow, called the Swamp Fighf, the Indians never 
recovered. They were not yet, however, effectually subdued. 
During the winter, the savages continued murdering and burn- 
ing. The towns of Lancaster, Medfield, Weymouth, Groton, 
Springfield, Northampton, Sudbury, and Marlborough, in Massa- 
chusetts, and of Warwick and Providence, in Rhode Island, were 
assaulted, and some of them partly, and others wholly, destroyed. 
On the 12th of August, 1676, the finishing blow was given to the 
Indian power, by the death of king Philip, who was killed by a 
friendly Indian, in the vicinity of Mount Hope. In this distress- 
ing war, the English lost six hundred men, the flower of their 
strength: twelve or thirteen towns were destroyed, and six hun- 
dred dwelling-houses consumed. 

In the height of the distress of Philip's war. and while the colony 
was contending with the natives for the possession of the soil, com- 
plaints were renewed in England, which struck at the powers of 
government. An inquiry was set on foot, and followed from time 
to time, until IBS 1. when judgment was given against the charter. 
In 1686, in May, a commissioner arrived, appointing a president 
and divers gentlemen of the council, to take upon them the admi- 
nistration of government. This administration was short, and 
productive of no grievances. In December, of the same year, Sir 
Edmund Andross arrived with a commission from king James, for 
the government of the New England colonies, with the exception 
of Connecticut. His kind professions for a while encouraged the 

* Seelev of New Haven. 


hopes of the people ; he, however, soon threw off the mask, and 
did many arbitrary acts, whereby the' people were oppressed, 
and himself and his followers were enriched. The press was 
restrained ; public thanksgiving, without an order from the crown, 
was prohibited ; fees of all officers were increased ; and the people 
were compelled to petition for new patents for their lands, for 
which they were obliged to pay exorbitant prices. The colony 
was greatly disquieted by these and other tyrannical proceedings, 
and the hatred of the people was excited in proportion to their 

In the beginning of 1689, a rumor reached Boston, that William, 
prince of Orange, had invaded England, with the intention of 
dethroning the king. Animated with the hope of deliverance, the 
people rushed to arms, took possession of the fort, seized Andross, 
Randolph, the licenser of the press, and other obnoxious charac- 
ters, and placed them in confinement. A council of safety, con- 
sisting of their former magistrates, was then organized to admi- 
nister the government till authentic intelligence should be received 
from England. In a few weeks tidings arrived that William and 
Mary were firmly seated on the throne : they were immediately 
proclaimed with great rejoicings. The people of Massachusetts 
applied for the restoration of their old or the grant of a new char- 
ter. A definite answer was deferred, but the council was author- 
ized to administer the government according to the old charter till 
further directions were given. Andross and his associates were 
ordered home for trial. A new charter was received in 1692 
by Massachusetts, which added to her territory Plymouth, Maine, 
and Nova Scotia. By this charter, the appointment of the gover- 
nor was in the crown, and every freeholder of forty shillings ster- 
ling a year, and every inhabitant of forty pounds sterling personal 
estate, was allowed to vote for representatives. 

At this period, the French in Canada and Nova Scotia insti- 
gated the northern and eastern Indians to commence hostilities 
against the English settlements. Dover and Salmon Falls, in New 
Hampshire. Casco, in Maine, and Schenectady, in New York, 
were attacked by different parties of French and Indians, and 
shocking barbarities committed. Regarding Canada as the princi- 
pal source of their troubles, New England and New York formed 
the bold project of reducing it by force of arms. For this pur- 
pose, they raised an army, under General Winthrop, which was 
sent against Montreal, and equipped a fleet, which, commanded 
by Sir William Phipps, was destined to attack Quebec. The sea- 
son was so far advanced when the fleet arrived at Quebec, Octo- 
ber 5th, 1690, the French so superior in number, the weather so 
tempestuous, and the sickness so great among the soldiers, that the 
expedition was abandoned. Success had been so confidently 
expected, that no adequate provision was made for the pay- 
ment of the troops. There was danger of a mutiny. In this 
extremity, the government of Massachusetts issued bills of credit, 
as a substitute for money ; and these were the first ever issued in 
the American colonies. 


In 1692, a great excitement was again revived in New England 
on account of the supposed prevalence of witchcraft. It com- 
menced at this time in Danvers, thefn a part of Salem. Near the 
close of February, several children in this place began to act in a 
peculiar and unaccountable manner. Their strange conduct con- 
tinuing for several days, their friends betook themselves to fasting 
and prayer. During religious exercises, the children were gene- 
rally decent and still ; but after service was ended, they renewed 
their former unaccountable conduct. This was deemed sufficient 
evidence that they were laboring under the "influence of an evil 
hand, or witchcraft." After a few days, these children began to 
accuse several persons in the vicinity of bewitching them. Unfor- 
tunately, they were credited, and these suspected persons were 
seized and imprisoned. From this time, this contagion spread 
rapidly over the neighboring country, and soon appeared in 
various parts of Essex, Middlesex, and Suffolk. Persons at 
Andover, Ipswich, Gloucester, Boston, and other places, were 
accused by their neighbors,, and others. For a time, those 
who were accused were persons of the lower classes. But at 
length some of the first people in rank and character were accused 
of the crime of witchcraft. The evil had now become awfully 
alarming. Before the close of September, nineteen persons were 
executed ; and one, (Giles Corey,) was pressed to death for refusing 
to put himself on a trial by jury ; all these persons died professing 
their innocence of the crime laid to their charge. At length the 
magistrates became convinced that their proceedings had been rash 
and indefensible. A special court was held on the subject, and 
fifty who were brought to trial were acquitted, excepting three, 
who were reprieved by the governor. These events were followed 
by a general release of all who were imprisoned. At this period 
the belief of the actual existence of witchcraft, prevailed in the 
most enlightened parts of Europe. The, learned Baxter pro- 
nounced the disbeliever in witchcraft " an obdurate Sadducee," 
and Sir Matthew Hale, one of the greatest of English judges, 
repeatedly tried and condemned persons accused of this crime. 
It ought also to be mentioned, that, if we are to credit the testi- 
mony of many respectable witnesses, many things took place at 
that time, which, even in this age, cannot be satisfactorily ex- 

The war with the French and Indians, which began in 1690, 
was not yet terminated. For seven years the frontier settlements 
were harassed by the savages, till peace took place between 
France and England. But in a few years war again "broke out in 
Europe, which was the signal for hostilities in America. In 
February, 1704, Deerfield, on Connecticut river, was surprised in 
the night, about forty persons killed, and more than one hundred 
made prisoners, among whom were Mr. Williams, the minister, 
and his family. In 1707, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and 
Rhode Island, despatched an armament against Port Royal, in 
Nova Scotia; but the expedition was unsuccessful. In 1710, New 


England, assisted by the mother country, with a fleet, succeeded 
in reducing the place; and its name, in honor of queen Anne, 
was changed to Annapolis. This success encouraged the com- 
mander, General Nicholson, to visit England and propose an expe- 
dition against Canada. His proposition was adopted, and in June, 
1711, Admiral Walker, with a fleet of fifteen ships of war, and 
forty transports, with an army of veteran troops, arrived at 
Boston, from whence he sailed for Quebec about the last of July. 
At the same time, General Nicholson repaired to Albany, to take 
the command of the forces that were to proceed by land. When 
the fleet had advanced ten leagues up the St. Lawrence, the wea- 
ther became tempestuous and foggy. Nine of the transports were 
dashed in pieces on the rocks, and upwards of a thousand men 
perished. Weakened by this disaster, the admiral returned to 
England, and the New England troops returned to their homes. 
Nicholson, having learned the fate of the fleet, returned with his 
troops to Albany. In 1713, peace was made between France and 
Great Britain at Utrecht. 

In 1716. Samuel Shute, a colonel in the army of the celebrated 
Duke of Marlborough, was appointed governor of Massachusetts. 
For a long period afterwards, many controversies and difficulties 
took place between the royal governors sent from England and 
the representatives of the people, who were jealous of their rights 
as British subjects. These disturbances continued, with some 
intervals, till the period of the American Revolution. 

In 1744, war again broke out between England and France, 
and the colonies were again involved in its calamities. Their 
commerce and fisheries suffered great injury from privateers fitted 
out at Louisburg, a strong fortress on the island of Cape Breton. 
This place was considered one of the strongest in America ; the 
fortifications had been twenty-five years in building, and had cost 
the French five and a half millions of dollars. The legislature of 
Massachusetts, convinced of the importance of reducing this place, 
planned a daring, but successful enterprise for its reduction. 
Accordingly, about four thousand men. from Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, and Connecticut, under the command of Gen. Pep- 
perell. sailed from Boston for the conquest of this place. Having 
the assistance of four ships of war, under Commodore Warren, 
from the West Indies, the troops arrived at Louisburg, about the 
1st of May, 1745, and commenced the siege. For fourteen nights 
successively, the New England troops, sinking to their knees in 
mud, drew their cannons and mortars through a swamp two 
miles in length. By this means, the siege was pushed with so 
much vigor, that, on the 16th of June, the garrison surrendered. 
France, fired with resentment against the colonies, the next sum- 
mer sent a powerful fleet to ravage the coast of New England and 
recover Louisburg. The news of their approach spread terror 
throughout New England. But an uncommon succession of dis- 
asters, which the pious at that time ascribed to the special inter- 
position of Providence, blasted the hopes of the enemy. Tho 


French fleet was delayed and damaged by storms : some of the 
ships were lost, and a pestilential fever prevailed among the 
troops, and the two admirals killed themselves through chagrin 
on the failure of the expedition. The war at this period was 
ended by the peace of Aix la Chapelle, in 1748, by which all pri- 
soners on each side were to be restored without ransom, and all 
conquests made during the war were to be mutually restored. 

Scarcely had the colonies begun to reap the benefits of peace, 
before they were again thrown into anxiety and distress by ano- 
ther war against France. The war actually commenced in 1754, 
though not formally declared till May, 1756. Early in the spring 
of 1755, preparations were made by the colonies for vigorous exer- 
tions against the enemy. Four expeditions were planned : one 
against the French in Nova Scotia ; a second against the French 
on the Ohio ; a third against Crown Point ; and a fourth against 
Niagara. The expedition agains-t Nova Scotia, consisting of three 
thousand men, chiefly from Massachusetts, was led by Gen. 
Monckton and Gen. Winslow. With these troops, they sailed from 
Boston on the 1st of June, arrived at Chignecto, in the bay of 
Fundy. After being joined by three hundred regular British 
troops, they proceeded against fort Beau Sejour, which surren- 
dered, after a siege of four days. Other forts were taken, and 
Nova Scotia was entirely subdued. In order that the French in 
Canada should derive no assistance from this territory, the 
country was laid waste, and the inhabitants were taken from the 
country, and dispersed among the English colonies. One thousand 
of these proscribed Acadians were transported to Massachusetts, 
where many of them embarked for France. The expedition 
against Niagara was committed to Governor Shirley, of Massa- 
chusetts, whose force amounted to two thousand five hundred 
men. The season, however, was too far advanced before he had 
completed his preparations, to effect any thing of importance, and 
the expedition was abandoned. 

The war continued, with varied success, till the conquest of 
Quebec by the army under Gen. Wolfe, in September, 1759, and 
the final reduction of Canada in 1760. This event caused great 
and universal joy in the colonies, and public thanksgivings were 
generally appointed. A definitive treaty, the preliminaries of 
which, had been settled the year before. v\ras signed at Paris in 
1763. by which all Nova Scotia, Canada, the isle of Cape Breton, 
and all other islands in the gulf and river St. Lawrence, were 
ceded to the British crown. 

After the peace of 1763, the British parliament formed a plan 
for raising a revenue by taxing the colonies. For this purpose, 
an act was passed for laying a duty on all paper, vellum, or 
parchment, used in America, and declaring all writings on 
unstamped materials to be null and void. This act, called the 
Stamp Act, received the royal assent March 22d, 1765. When the 
news of this act reached the colonies, the people everywhere 
manifested alarm and a determination to resist its execution. The 

:$Q U T L I N E H I S T O R Y . 

assembly of Virginia first declared its opposition to the act by a 
number of spirited resolves ; but Massachusetts took the lead in 
this important crisis, and maintained it in every stage of the sub- 
sequent revolution. In Boston, the populace, in some instances, 
demolished the houses of the friends of the British measures, and 
in various ways manifested the public indignation. To render 
the opposition complete, the merchants associated, and agreed to a 
resolution not to import any more goods from Great Britain until 
the stamp law should be repealed. To give efficacy to the oppo- 
sition to this act, Massachusetts proposed a meeting of deputies 
from the several colonies, to be held at New York in October, 
1765. Deputies from nine of the colonies met, agreed on a decla- 
ration of rights and grievances, sent a petition to the king, and a 
memorial to both houses of parliament. This spirited opposi- 
tion, seconded by the eloquence of Mr. Pitt and other friends of 
America, produced a repeal of the stamp act on the 18th of March, 

The British ministry, notwithstanding the fate of the stamp act, 
still persisted in their design of raising a revenue from America ; 
and, in 1767, an act was passed for laying duties on glass, paint- 
ers' colors, paper, and tea imported -into the colonies. These 
duties were small, but the colonists objected to the principle, rather 
than to the amount of the tax, and remonstrated against the act. 
A second association was formed for suspending the importation on 
all goods on which duties were charged. These measures of Mas- 
sachusetts were adopted by the other colonies, and a circular letter 
from Boston had its influence in giving concert and consistency to 
the opinions and proceedings of the colonial assemblies. This op- 
position, supported by petitions and remonstrances, procured the 
abolition of all the duties, except of three pence on every pound of 
tea. The British ministry, finding mild efforts to be unavailing i;i 
establishing their authority in regard to raising a revenue, sent 
four regiments to be stationed in Boston, to overawe the inhabitants 
and enforce the obnoxious orders of parliament. 

In pursuance of the ministerial plan of reducing Massachusetts 
to obedience, an act of parliament was passed for the regulation 
of its government, by which the powers of the people were abridg- 
ed, and the officers of government were made dependent on the 
crown for their appointment and salaries. By another act, persons 
indicted for murder or other capital offences might, if the governor 
should think an impartial trial could not be had in the colony, be 
sent to Great Britain to be tried. In 1774,. the parliament, in order 
to punish the refractory province of Massachusetts, and especially 
the inhabitants of Boston, passed an act to shut the port of 
Boston and restrain all intercourse with the town by water. The 
government and public offices were removed to Salem. But this 
miserable proceeding had no effect but to irritate the feelings of all 
concerned. In May, 1774, Gen. Gage arrived in Boston, with the 
commission of governor of Massachusetts and comrnander-in-chief 
of the British forces. He summoned the assembly to convene at 


Salem; but, on further reflection, countermanded the summons. 
The counter order, however, was deemed illegal, and the members 
convened. The governor not meeting them, they organized them- 
selves into a provincial congress, which formed a plan of defence, 
appointed general officers, and took measures to collect supplies and 
military stores at Concord and Worcester. 

The assembly of Massachusetts, after a short adjournment, again 
met, and determined to raise twelve thousand men, sent agents to 
the neighboring colonies, and requested their co-operation. The 
New England colonies accordingly sent on their committees, who 
met and agreed on a plan of operations. At the same time meas- 
ures were taken to effect a union of all the colonies, and for this 
purpose it was agreed that, delegates from the several colonies 
should meet in a general congress. This body met on the 5th of 
September, 1774, and approved of the opposition made by Massa- 
chusetts to the exercise of the arbitrary power of the British min- 
istry, and stated their resolution to support her in her opposition. 
They published a declaration of the rights of the colonies, one of 
which was an exemption from taxes imposed upon them by a 
legislature in which they were not represented. When the pro- 
ceedings of the Americans were laid before parliament, that body 
declared that rebellion actually existed in the province of Massa- 
chusetts, and they accordingly besought his majesty to take the 
most effectual measures to enforce due obedience to the laws of the 
supreme legislature. From this time an appeal to arms seemed 
unavoidable, and both parties prepared for the conflict. 

The great drama of the Revolution opened in Massachusetts, at 
Lexington, Concord, and Bunker's Hill, and for about a year she 
sustained the first shock of the struggle. On July 2d, 1775, Gen. 
Washington arrived at Cambridge, and took the command of the 
American army encamped at that place. He introduced military 
order, and, with about 20,000 men, besieged the town of Boston. 
Batteries were erected on Dorchester heights, which greatly 
annoyed the shipping in the harbor, and preparations were made 
for a general assault. On the 17th of May, 1776, the British troops 
evacuated Boston, and, embarking on board of their vessels, sailed 
for New York. After this time, the soil of Massachusetts, except- 
ing some islands, remained free from actual invasion. 

In 1780, the present constitution of government of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts went into operation : it was formed by a 
convention of delegates appointed by the people for that purpose. 
John Hancock was elected the first governor, and held the office 
by annual election till 1785. The year 1786 is rendered memo- 
rable for Shay's Rebellion. This insurrection was caused chiefly 
by the oppressive debts contracted during the revolutionary war 
by individuals and corporations throughout the state, and by the 
state itself. After the insurgents had held conventions, interrupted 
the proceedings of the courts of justice in several counties, and 
collected a considerable armed force, and thus greatly alarmed the 
government and agitated the community, they were entirely put 


down, and dispersed by the state troops under the command of 
Gen. Shepherd and Gen. Lincoln. 

The Federal Constitution of the United States was adopted by the 
convention of Massachusetts in 1788, by a vote of 187 to 168, and 
the state was a firm supporter of the administration of Washington, 
the first President. The embargo laid upon American vessels 
in 1808, and other commercial restrictions, together with the war 
with Great Britain in 1812, bore with severity upon the extensive 
commercial interests of Massachusetts. Maine was a part of the 
state till 1820, and during the war of 1812 a portion of its territory 
was in the hands of the enemy. The war, and the acts of the 
national government during its continuance, were unpopular with 
the majority of the citizens of the state. 

Massachusetts has ever been one of the most distinguished mem- 
bers of the American Confederacy. The spirit of her institutions 
has been transfused into many of her sister states, and she may 
justly claim an elevated rank among the members of this Union. 
During the great struggle of the Revolution, Massachusetts stood 
foremost: the powerful and efficient efforts of her patriots and 
statesmen, stand recorded on the pages of American history ; and 
the mouldering bones of her sons, whitening the battle-fields of 
the Revolution show her devotion to the cause of civil liberty. 


THIS county is the easternmost land in Massachusetts, compre- 
hending the whole of the peninsula of Cape Cod, so named from 
the large number of codfish taken near it by one of its first discov- 
erers. It was incorporated in 1685. The shape of the peninsula 
is that of a man's arm bent inwards both at the rdbow and wrist; 
its whole length is 65 miles, and its average breadth about five. 
The basis of this peninsula, constituting almost the whole mass, is 
a body of fine yellow sand ; above this, is a thin layer of coarser 
white sand ; and above this another layer of soil, gradually declin- 
ing from Barnstable to Truro, where it vanishes. In many parts 
<3f the county the traveller, while viewing the wide wastes of sand, 
is forcibly reminded of descriptions given of the deserts of Arabia. 
Notwithstanding the general barrenness of the soil, the inhabitants 
of this county are in as comfortable and even thrifty circumstances 
as in almost any section of this country. The inhabitants generally 
derive their subsistence from the fishing and coasting business, 5 * 
and it may be said of the majority of the men who are born on 
the Cape, that in one sense " their home is on the ocean" and when 
with their families they are only on a visit, and to a great extent 

* A very general prejudice has existed in the minds of many people living in the 
interior against the inhabitants of the Cape ; this has arisen from the fact, that sea- 
men, as a class, have been considered as more addicted to vice tha.n many others. This 
opinion, as far as it regards the inhabitants of this county, is erroneous ; and it may 


are dependent on Boston and other places for a large proportion 
of their meats and bread stuffs. The county has but little wood, 
but it is well stored with peat. The manufacture of salt receives 
great attention ; about two millions of dollars are invested for this 
purpose. The tonnage of Barnstable district is 28,153 tons. Pop- 
ulation 31,109. The following is a list of the towns. 

Barnstable, Eastham, Orleans, Wellfleet, 

Brewster, Falmouth, Provincetown, Yarmouth. 

Chatham, Harwich, Sandwich, 

Dennis, Marshpee, Truro, 


BARNSTABLE is the county town of Barnstable county, and is a 
port of entry. It was incorporated September 3d, 1639. There is 
no particular account to be found of the first settlement of this 
town. Probably there was none made much before its incorpora- 
tion, as but two persons are named in the original grant. " The 
Indian name of the place appears to have been Mattacheese, Mat- 
tacheest, or Mattacheeset. Probably they are all the same name, 
which was given by the Indians to a tract of land which included 
Yarmouth, or at least a part of it ; for in the grant of Yarmouth 
that place is said to have been called Mattacheeset. The church 
at Scituate being in a broken condition, the Rev. John Lothrop of 
that place removed with part of the church to Barnstable, in Octo- 
ber, 1639, the same year the town was granted by the Old Colony. 
It appears from the records which have been preserved, that all the 
south side of the town was amicably purchased of Wianno, and 
several other sachems, about 1650. There is reason to believe that 
all the north part was likewise purchased of the natives, although 
no record of it now remains. 

The town of Barnstable extends across the peninsula of Cape 
Cod, which is here from five to nine miles wide, and its soil is better 
than most towns on the Cape. The land on the north side of the 
township is uneven, and in some places rocky. There is a line 
of hills extending east and west through the whole length of the 
town, the greatest height of which is about a mile from the harbor 
and marshes on the north side. South of this ridge the land is 
generally level to the sea. Barnstable harbor is formed by a neck 
of land (called Sandy Neck) which projects from the Sandwich 
line on the north shore, and runs east almost the whole length of 
the town. The neck is about half a mile wide ; the harbor is about 
a mile wide and four miles long. The tide rises in it from 10 to 
14 feet. There is a bar at the entrance of the harbor which pre- 

be safely stated, that in no part of the state are the people more moral, or the insti- 
tutions of morality and religion more regarded. The inhabitants of the Cape are 
literally more purely the descendants of the "pilgrim fathers" than any others in any 
part of the state, as very few foreign emigrants have settled among them. 



vents the entrance of very large ships. The principal village is 
situated in the north-east section of the town, on the main road. 

North rvesUrn view of the Barnstable Court-House, and otker buildings. 

The above is a north-western view of the Barnstable court-house, 
(recently erected) and some other buildings in the vicinity. The 
Unitarian church is seen in the distance, standing on elevated 
ground. A newspaper is published in the village. 

Hyanrds is a village on the south side of the town, and contains 
two churches, one Baptist and one Universalist, and is five miles 
S. E. of Barnstable court-house, twenty-four from Falmouth, and 
thirty from Nantucket. It has a good harbor, and by an expensive 
breakwater, now constructing by the United States government, 
will become safe from all winds for all classes of vessels navigat- 
ing the sound and passing round the Cape. Oysterville is a settle- 
ment in the south-eastern part of the town, containing one or two 
churches and a postoffice. Besides these, there are two other small 
villages, one called Centerville, (formerly called by the Indian name 
Ckeqiiaket^) the other Cotuit, in the western part of the town, four 
miles southerly from the court-house. There are in the town eight 
houses of worship, two Orthodox, one Unitarian, two Methodist, 
one Baptist, one Universalist, and one for various denominations. 
The manufacture of salt was commenced here as early as 1779 : it 
then sold for six dollars a bushel. In 1837, there were 27,125 
bushels of salt made in the town. There are numerous ponds arid 
extensive salt marshes. Between fifty and sixty sail of fishing 
vessels and coasting vessels belong to this town. Population 4,017. 
Distance thirty miles S. E. from Plymouth, sixty-five S. E. of Bos- 
ton, and 466 miles from Washington. 

The Rev. John Lothrop was the first minister in this town, as 


has been stated ; his successor was the Rev. Thomas Walley, who 
was ordained in 1663; the next was Rev. Jonathan Russell, who 
was ordained in 1683 ; Mr. Russell was succeeded hy his son of the 
same name, who was ordained in 1712, and died in 1759. When 
the town was divided into two precincts, in 1719, Mr. Russell, 
then minister, being left to his own choice, chose the west precinct, 
commonly called Great Marshes, where he continued till his death. 
In 1725, the church in the east precinct was gathered, and the 
Rev. Joseph Greene was ordained. Mr. Greene was succeeded by 
Rev. Timothy Hilliard in 1771, who was succeeded by Rev. John 
Mellen Jr. in 1783. In the west church, Mr. Russell was succeeded 
by Rev. Cakes Shaw in 1760. 

It has been stated "the West. Barnstable church is the first inde- 
pendent Congregational church of that name in the world." It was 
organized in 1616, in England, principally through the instrumen- 
tality of Rev. Henry Jacob, who was chosen and constituted its 
first pastor. 

" The foundation of this church was laid in the following manner : After solemn 
fasting and prayer, each made open confession of his faith in Jesus Christ ; and then, 
standing up together, they joined hands and solemnly covenanted with each other, in 
the presence of Almighty God, to walk together in all his ways, ordinances, Ace. On 
account of the violence of the persecution with which this church was assailed, their 
pastor continued with them only eight years, and then fled to Virginia, in this country, 
where he soon after died. The church then chose as their second pastor Rev. John 
Lothrop, from whom descended most of the numerous families of this name scat- 
tered through our country. In 1632 Mr. Lothrop and the little band to wftom he mi- 
nistered, when assembled for worship in a private building, were surprised by their 
persecutors, and only 18 of their number escaped, while 42 were apprehended and 
cast into prison. After being confined for two years, all were released upon bail, ex- 
cepting Mr. Lothrop, for whom no favor could be obtained. In the mean time his 
wife died, and his children left in needy and distressed circumstances. At length Mr. 
L., on condition of leaving the country, obtained his freedom. In 1034, with 31 of 
his church and congregation all he could collect he came to New England and set- 
tled in Scituate. At that time the churches at Plymouth, Duxbury and Marsh- 
field were all that existed in the country. In 1639, with a majority of his people and 
twenty-two male members of his church, he removed to Barnstable and commenced 
its settlement." 

" A large rock is said to lie near the place, around which this colony used to transact 
their civil business and hold their public religious meetings. On that venerable and 
consecrated rock is believed to have been preached the first gospel sermon in this town ; 
and here the ordinances were first administered. ***####*** 
The first public house of -worship, it is supposed, was built soon after thf; settlement 
was commenced, and near the consecrated rock. This rock may be now seen lying 
by the side of the road betxveen west and east parishes.'-' * * * * " It is a fact 
probably known to but lew in this country, that the first Baptist church in England 
under that name spnt/tz up in. the original Congregational church of West Barnstable! 
From the researches of Mr. Pratt, it seems that "one of the members of Mr. Lothrop's 
church, before they left England, and probably before Mr. L.'s imprisonment in 1632, 
brought a child to be re-baptized. A lew of the church insisted on having it done, as- 
signing as a reason, their belief that the infant baptism of the child was- not valid ; but 
when the vote was taken, a large majority voted against the innovation. Upon this, 
some of the more rigid, and a few others who had become dissatisfied about infant 
baptism, requested to be dismissed, that they might organize a separate church. They 
were accordingly dismissed ; and they chose Mr. Jacie as their minister. These two 
churches were on terms of Christian fellowship, and continued to commune together 
at the table of their common Lord." Boston Recorder, Jan. 26, 1838. 

James Otis, a distinguished patriot and statesman, was bom in 
this town, (West Barnstable) Feb. 5th 1725, and graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1743. 


After pursuing the study of the law under Mr. Gridley, the first lawyer and civilian 
of his time, at the age of twenty -one he began the practice at Plymouth. In about two 
years he removed from this town to Boston, where he soon gained so high a reputation 
for integrity and talents, that his services were required in the most important causes. 
In 1761 he distinguished himself by pleading against the writs of assistance, which the 
officers of the customs had applied for to the judges of the supreme court. His anta- 
gonist was Mr. Gridley. He was in this or the following year chosen a member of the 
legislature of Massachusetts, in which body the powers of his eloquence, the keenness 
of his wit. the force of his arguments, and the resources of his intellect, gave him a 
most commanding influence. When the arbitrary claims of Great Britain were ad- 
vanced, he warmly engaged in defence of the colonies, and was the first champion of 
American freedom who had the courage to affix his name to a production that stood 
forth against the pretensions of the parent state. He was a member of the congress 
which was held at New York in 1765, in which year his Rights of the Colonies Vin- 
dicated, a pamphlet, occasioned by the stamp act, and which was considered as a master- 
piece both of good writing and of argument, was published in London. For the bold- 
ness of his opinions he was threatened with an arrest ; yet he continued to support the 
rights of his fellow-citizens. He resigned the office of judge advocate in 1767, and 
renounced all employment under an administration which had encroached upon the 
liberties of his country. His warm passions sometimes betrayed him into unguarded 
epithets, that gave his enemies an advantage, without benefit to the cause which lay 
nearest his heart. Being vilified in the public papers, he in return published some 
severe strictures on the conduct of the commissioners of the customs, and others of the 
ministerial party. A short time afterwards, on the evening of the fifth of September. 
1769, he met Mr. John Robinson, one of the commissioners, in a public room, and an 
affray followed, in which he was assaulted by a number of ruffians, who left him and 
a young gentleman, who interposed in his defence, covered with wounds. The wounds 
were not mortal, but his usefulness was destroyed, for his reason was shaken from its 
throne, and the great man in ruins lived several years, the grief of his friends. In an 
interval of reason he forgave the men who had done him an irreparable injury, arid 
relinquished the sum of five thousand pounds sterling, which Mr. Robinson had been 
by a civil process adjudged to pay, on his signing a humble acknowledgment. He 
lived to see, but not fully to enjoy, the independence of America, an event towards 
which his efforts had greatly contributed. At length, on the. twenty-third of May, 1783, 
as he was leaning on his cane at the door of Mr. Osgood's house in Andover, he was 
struck by a flash of lightning ; his soul was instantly liberated from its shattered tene- 
ment, and sent into eternity. President Adams, then minister in France, wrote 
respecting him, a It was with very afflicting sentiments I learned the death of Mr. 
Otis, my worthy master. Extraordinary in death as in life, he has left a character 
that will never die, while the memory of the American revolution remains ; whose 
foundation he laid with an energy, and with those masterly abilities, which no other 
man possessed." He was highly distinguished by genius, eloquence, and learning, 
and no American, perhaps, had possessed more extensive information. Besides his 
legal and political knowledge, he was a complete master of classical literature. He 
published Rudiments of Latin Prosody, with a Dissertation on Letters, and the Power 
of Harmony in Poetic and Prosaic Composition, 12mo, 1760, which has been con- 
sidered the most clear and masterly treatise on the subject ; Vindication of the Con- 
duct of the House of Representatives of Massachusetts, 1762 ; The Rights of the Brit- 
ish Colonies Asserted, 1764 ; Considerations on behalf of the Colonists, 1765. Allen's 
Biog. Dictionary. 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the 

Here lieth the body of Mr. Joseph Green, the worthy pastor of this church. As a 
gentleman, a friend, a Christian, and minister, his character was greatly distinguished. 
His natural abilities were conspicuous, and much improved by study and application. 
In human and sacred literature he greatly excelled. His principles were evangelical 
and candid. In prayer and preaching liis gifts were generally and justly admired. 
Temperance, purity, prudence, benevolence, resignation, devotion, and exemplary 
diligence in his Master's service, adorned his character. His mind was sedate, his 
temper placid, his affections and passions regulated by reason and religion ; his man- 
ner courteous, generous, and hospitable ; his conversation entertaining, instructive, and 
serious ; a dutiful son, an affectionate husband, and a tender parent ; a sincere friend 
and faithful minister ; greatly, and to the last, beloved and honored by his people. 



Born at Boston, 21 June, 0. S. 1704 ; graduated at Harvard College, 1720 ; ordained 
12 May, 0. S. 1725 ; departed this life, in assured hope of a better, 4 October, N. S., 
1770, in the 70 year of his age, and 46 of his ministry. 

Think what the Christian minister should be, 
You've then his character, for such was he. 

Rev. Oakes Shaw, born at Bridgewater, 1736, graduated at Harvard College 1758, 
ordained in this place 1760, died llth February, 1807. Benevolence, affection, and 
sincerity characterize' 1 and endeared him in all the relations of social life. With 
irnaffected piety and zeal, with unshaken constancy and fidelity, he discharged the 
various duties of the pastoral office.- To perpetuate the remembrance of his virtues and 
talents, to prolong the influence of his character, and to testify their respect for his 
memory, this monument is gratefully erected by a bereaved and affectionate people. 


South-eastern view of Brervster, (central part). 

BREWSTER, formerly the first or North parish of Harwich, was in- 
corporated as a town in 1803, by the name of Brewster^ in honora- 
ble remembrance of Elder Brewster, distinguished for his virtues 
among the first settlers of Plymouth colony. The first church 
gathered here Oct. 16, 1700, and Rev. Nathaniel Stone was ordained 
their pastor on the same day. Mr. Stone died in 1755, and was 
succeeded by Rev. Isaiah Dunster. Mr. Dunster died in 1791, and 
was succeeded by Rev. John Simkins, who was ordained the same 
year. The first meeting-house built in this place stood about half 
a mile from the north shore. 

The above is a south-eastern view of the central part 6f Brewster, 
showing the Congregational church, town-house, and some other 
buildings in the immediate vicinity. There are about ninety dwell- 
ing-houses within a mile from the Congregational church seen in 
the engraving. Besides the Congregational, there are two other 
churches in the village, one for Baptists, the other for Universalists ; 
a Methodist church is situated in the western part of the town. 
The factory village is situated about two miles westward of this 


place ; it contains a cotton and several other mills, and, what is 
unusual on the Cape, are moved by water. 

This town holds a central position with regard to the peninsula 
of Cape Cod, being about 36 miles from Provincetown at the lower 
or north end, and the same distance from Falmouth the S. W. ex- 
tremity. The face of the township is diversified by a mixture of 
hilly and level land. On some of these elevations over which the 
county road passes, the traveller has a fair view of the ocean on 
each side of the peninsula; to the northward he can discern the 
buildings in Easthara at the distance of 8 or 10 miles, and at. cer- 
tain seasons the reflection of the sun upon the windows of the 
houses in Wellfleet and Truro is discernible, by the naked eye, at 
a distance of eighteen miles and upwards on the county road. 
North of the county road and bordering on the bay, which is the 
north boundary of the town, the soil may be considered in this 
region as good land ; the other part of the town the soil is light and 
sandy. This town has 6 or 8 fishing and coasting vessels, and 
does something at the manufacture of salt. A large number of 
ship-masters (in common with other towns on Cape Cod) sailing to 
foreign ports belong here. From a number of ponds in this town, 
a never-failing stream of water is produced, on which are a cotton 
mill, carding mill, and several other manufacturing establishments. 
Population 1,534. Distance easterly from Barnstable 16 miles, 6 
northerly from Chatham, and from Boston, by water, twenty-three 


THE Indian name for Chatham appears to have been Monnamoiet 
or Monamoy. In 1665 William Nickerson bought of the sachem 
of Monamoy a tract of land near Potannmaquut, bounded east by 
the Great Harbor. Nickerson also made other purchases of the 
natives of lands in the vicinity at various times. In 1665, Thomas 
Hinckley, John Freeman, Nathaniel Bacon, and their partners, 
obtained from the Plymouth colony court the grant of a right to 
purchase of the natives land at Monnamoit and places adjacent. 
This interfered with the property of Nickerson, who had made 
several of his purchases without authority from the court, which 
was necessary to make his title valid. Hinckley and his associates, 
however, in 1672, for a valuable consideration, conveyed to Nick- 
erson their grant, which made his title good, and was confirmed to 
his heirs by the legislature. The settlement of the village, or dis- 
trict of Monamoy, appears to have been made not long after the 
purchase was made. It was incorporated into a township by the 
legislature, by the name of Chatham, in 1712. In 1720 the church 
was first gathered, and Rev. Joseph Lord ordained ; he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Stephen Emery in 1749. Mr. Emery was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Thomas Roby, who was ordained in 1783, and 
dismissed by his request in 1795; the Rev. Ephraim Briggs was 
ordained the next year. 



The township consists of sand hills and ridges, with narrow val- 
leys, small depressions, ponds and swamps between them. The 
soil is rather better than most of the towns in this part of the Cape. 
Great Hill, in this town, is the first land made by seamen coming 
on this part of the coast ; and from this place Nantucket is some- 
times seen. There are 4 churches in the town, 1 Orthodox, 1 Uni- 
versalist, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist. 

North-western view in Chatham. 

The above shows the appearance of the principal village in 
Chatham, as it is seen from the ancient burying-ground, about two 
and a half miles distant. Immediately beyond the monuments is 
seen one of the numerous fresh-water ponds in this town. They 
are said to be about thirty in number. By a beneficent arrange- 
ment of Providence, these ponds, containing an article so necessary to 
life, are found in almost every part of the Cape. The Old Harbor 
is situated about two miles from the two light-houses seen in the 
engraving. The village at this place is rather smaller than the 
one represented, but the houses are larger. Chatham is said to be 
one of the wealthiest towns in the county. A large amount of 
shipping is owned by the inhabitants in other places. Forty years 
ago, large ships used to come into the harbor ; but it now has 
become so injured by the sand bar which has been making, that 
only small craft enter. A large proportion of the people are 
engaged in the sea-faring business. In 1837, there were 22 
vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fishery : 15,500 
quintals of cod-fish were caught, valued at $46,500. Twelve hun- 
dred barrels of mackerel, valued at $9,600, were taken. There 
were 80 establishments for the manufacture of salt, and 27,400 
bushels, valued at $8,220, were made. The central part of the 
town is about 22 miles easterly from Barnstable court-house, and 
40 to Provincetown. Population 2.271. 

The following, extracted from a description of Chatham pub- 
lished in 1S02, shows the "bill of fare" of the inhabitants of that 

" Food can so easily be procured, either on the shores or in the sea, that, with the 
profit which arises from their voyages, in which it must be confessed they labor very 

lU r> E N N 1 S . 

hard, the people are enabled to cover their tables well with provisions. A break- 
fast among the inhabitants, and even among those who are called the poorest, for 
there are none which may be called really poor, consists of tea or coffee, brown bread, 
generally with butter, sometimes without, and salt or fresh fish, fried or broiled. A 
dinner affords one or more of the following dishes : roots and herbs j salted beef or 
pork boiled ; fresh butcher's meat not more than twelve times a year ; wild fowl 
frequently in the autumn and winter,- fresh fish boiled or fried with pork; shejl- 
fish ; salt fish boiled ; Indian pudding ; pork baked with beans. Tea or coffee also 
frequently constitutes part of the dinner. A supper consists of tea or coffee, and fish, 
as at breakfast ; cheese, cakes made of flour, gingerbread, and pies of several sorts. 
This bill of fare will serve, with little variation, for all the fishing towns in the county. 
In many families there is no difference between the breakfast and supper ; cheese, 
cakes, and pies being common at the one as at the other.' 


THIS town was formerly the eastern part of Yarmouth. It was 
set off as a distinct parish in that town in 1721 ; and was incorpo- 
rated into a town in 1793. The church was gathered, and the 
first pastor, Rev. Josiah Dennis, was ordained, in 1727. Mr. Den- 
nis died in 1763, and was succeeded by Rev. Nathan Stone, who 
was ordained in 1764. The inhabitants have manifested their 
respect for Mr. Dennis, their first minister, by naming the town 
after him. 

The soil of this town, with the exception of a few small spots, 
is sandy and unproductive. Scargo Hill, in the north part of the 
township, is the highest land in the county, and is the first which 
is made by seamen when approaching the south shore. 

In 1837, the number of " vessels employed in the cod and mack- 
erel fishery, 18: tonnage of the same, 1,037; codfish caught, 9,141 
quintals; value of the same, $25,137; mackerel caught, 4,684 
barrels; value of the same, $25,762; salt used, 16.691 bushels; 
hands employed, 247; capital invested, $29,682." It is stated 
that there is more navigation owned in Dennis, than in any other 
town in the county; and a large portion of it is owned on the 
south side. North Dennis, on the north side, was first settled, but 
within the last twenty years the south side has become much the 
largest. There are two organized societies in this part of the town, 
one Methodist and one Congregationalist. The Congregationalist 
society was organized with twenty members, in 1817, under 
the ministry of Rev. John Sanford, the present pastor. Distance, 
8 miles easterly from Barnstable, and by water about 60 miles 
S. E. of Boston. Population 2,750. 

About 60,000 bushels of salt, and 500 barrels of Epsom salts, are 
annually made in this town. The first salt produced by solar eva- 
poration in this country appears to have been made by Capt. John 
Sears, of this place, in 1776. During the revolutionary war, 
many persons here and elsewhere on the coast, applied themselves 
to the business of making salt. The process consisted in evapo- 
rating sea water from large boilers by fire. The quantity obtained 
in this manner was necessarily small, and the consumption of fuel 



The cut shows the appearance of the salt vats which are so 
numerous on Cape Cod. It will be perceived the covers or roofs 
of two of these vats are connected by a beam or crane. Dr. 
D wight, who visited the Cape in 1800, says, " A Mr. Kelly, hav- 
ing professedly made several improvements in the means of accom- 
plishing this business, obtained a patent, about two years before 
this journey was taken, for making salt-works on the plan gene- 
rally adopted in this region. Of these the following is a descrip- 
tion. Vats, of a number suited to the owner's design, 20 feet 

Apparatus used in making Salt. 

square, and 10 or 12 inches in depth, are formed of pine planks, an 
inch and a half thick, and so nicely joined as to be water-tight. 
These are arranged into four classes. The first class, or that next 
to the ocean, is called the water room ; the second, the pickle room ; 
the third, the lime room ; and the fourth, the salt room. Each of 
these rooms, except the first, is placed so much lower than the 
preceding, that the water flows readily from it to another, in the 
order specified. The water room is filled from the ocean by a 
pump furnished with vans or sails, and turned by the wind. Here 
it continues until of the proper strength to be drawn into the pickle 
room, and thus successively into those which remain. The lime, 
with which the water of the ocean abounds, is deposited in the 
lime room. The salt is formed into small crystals in the salt 
room, very white and pure, and weighs from 70 to 75 pounds a 
bushel. The process is carried on through the warm season. 
After the salt has ceased to crystallize, the remaining water is suf- 
fered to freeze. In this manner, a large quantity of Glauber's salt 
is obtained in crystals, which are clean and good. The 'residuum 
is a strong brine, and yields a great proportion of marine salt, like 
that already described. To shelter the vats from the dews and 
rains, each is furnished with a hipped roof, large enough to cover 
it entirely. The roofs of two vats are connected by a beam turn- 
ing upon an upright post, set firmly in the ground, and are moved 
easily on this pivot by a child of fourteen, or even twelve years. 
To cover and uncover them, is all the ordinary labor." 



THE original Indian name of Eastham was Nauset. After being 
purchased from the natives, it was granted by the court to the set- 
tlers at Plymouth, in 1644. This included the present town- 
ships of Eastham, Wellfleet, and Orleans. Some of the principal 
settlers were Thomas Prince, John Doane, Nicholas Snow, Josias 
Cook, Richard Higgins, John Smalley, and Edward Bangs: 
these persons are said to have been among the most respectable 
inhabitants of Plymouth. The settlement commenced the year 
(1644) the grant was made, and was incorporated as a town in 
1646. A church was gathered soon after their arrival, but the 
inhabitants were not sufficiently numerous to support a minister 
till 1672, when Rev. Samuel Treat, of Milford, Con. was ordained. 

Ancient Pear Tree in Eastham. 

The above is a representation of an ancient pear tree, on the 
land now owned by Mr. Nathan Kenny, twenty-one miles from 
Barnstable court-house. It was brought from England by 
Thomas Prince, for many years governor of Plymouth colony. 
Governor Prince removed from Duxbury to Eastham in 1640 or 
1645, and, leaving Eastham, returned to Plymouth in 1665, so that 
this tree, planted by him, is now probably about two hundred 
years old. It is still in a vigorous state. The fruit is small, but 
excellent ; and it is stated that it yields annually, upon an average, 
fifteen bushels of fruit. Governor Prince's house stood about 
thirty or forty rods eastward of this place. Mr. Treat, the first 
minister, lived about one fourth of a mile to the north-east. The 
house seen in the engraving stands on the site formerly occupied 
as a garrison house. 

This town is situated on a narrow part of the peninsula of Cape 
Cod, and the soil, for the most part, is but a barren waste of sand. 
In an account given of the town in 1802, it is stated, " On the 
west side, a beach extends to Great Pond, where it stretches 


across the township almost to Town Cove. This barren tract, 
which does not now contain a particle of vegetable mould, for- 
merly produced wheat. The soil, however, was light. The sand, 
in some places, lodging against the beach grass, has been raised 
into hills fifty feet high, where twenty-five years ago no hills 
existed. In others, it has filled up small valleys and swamps. 
Where a strong-rooted bush stood, the appearance is singular : a 
mass of earth and sand adheres to it, resembling a small tower. 
In several places, rocks which were formerly covered with 
soil are disclosed, and, being lashed by the sand, driven against 
them by the wind, look as if they were recently dug from a 
quarry." There are two churches, one Methodist and one Con- 
gregational. Population 1,059. Distance, twenty-three miles 
north-easterly from Barnstable, and, in a straight line, sixty-eight 
miles from Boston. In 1837, there were fifty-four establishments 
for the manufacture of salt, which produced 22,370 bushels; 
thirteen vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fishery; 1,200 
quintals of cod-fish and 4,550 barrels of mackerel were caught. 

Mr. Treat, the first minister in this town, was distinguished for 
his evangelical zeal and labors, not only among his own people, 
but also among the Indians in this vicinity: and he was the 
instrument of converting many of them to the Christian faith. 
He learnt iheir language, and once a month preached in their 
villages, visited them at their wigwams, and, by his kindness 
and affability, won their affections : they venerated him as their 
pastor, and loved him as their father. In 1693, Mr. Treat states 
that there were four Indian villages in the township under his 
care. These Indians had four teachers of their own choice and 
four schoolmasters. They also had of their own people six 
magistrates, who regulated their civil affairs; they held stated 
courts and punished criminals. There were five hundred adult 
persons in the villages, all of whom attended public worship. 
But notwithstanding every exertion made for the benefit of the 
Indians, they wasted away by fatal diseases and other causes, so 
that in 1764 they were reduced to four individuals only. Mr. 
Treat, having passed near half a century of most active labor, 
died soon after the remarkable storm, -distinguished in the annals 
of New England by the name of the Great Snow, in February, 
1717. The wind blew with violence; and whilst the grounds 
about his house were left entirely bare, the snow was heaped up 
in the road to an uncommon height. It was in vain to attempt 
making a path. His body was therefore kept several days, till an 
arch could be dug, through which he was borne to the -grave; the 
Indians, at their earnest request, being permitted in turn to carry 
the corpse, and thus to pay the last tribute of respect to the 
remains of their beloved pastor. The second minister of Eastham 
was the Rev. Samuel Osborn, who was educated at the University 
of Dublin, and ordained here in 1718 ; the next year, the church 
being divided into two, Mr. Osborn removed into the south part of 
the township, and Rev. Benjamin Webb was ordained pastor of 


the church that remained. Mr. Webb died in 1746, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Edward Cheever, who was ordained in 1751. 
Mr. Cheever was succeeded by Rev. Philander Shaw, who was 
ordained in 1795. 

The following is the inscription on the monument of Mr. Treat, 
the first minister. 

Here lyes interred ye body of ye late learned and Revd. Mr. Samuel Treat, ye pious 
and faithful pastor of this church, who, after a very zealous discharge of his ministry for 
ye space of 45 years, & a laborious travel for ye souls of ye Indian nativs, fell asleep 
in Christ, March ye 18, 1716-17, in ye 69 year of his age. 


THIS town, forming the south-western extremity of the peninsula 
of Cape Cod, was incorporated in 1686. Mr. Samuel Shireick 
labored in this place as a minister previous to 1700. Rev. Joseph 
Metcalf, who graduated at Cambridge, was chosen minister. He 
died in 1723, and was succeeded by Mr. Josiah Marshall. Rev. 
Samuel Palmer was ordained in 1731, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Zebulon Butler, who was ordained in 1775, and dismissed in 
1778. The next minister, Rev. Isaiah Mann, was ordained in 
1780, and died in 1789. Rev. Henry Lincoln was ordained in 
1790 and dismissed in 1823. His successor, Rev. Benjamin Wood- 
bury, was ordained in 1824, and dismissed in 1833. The next 
minister was Rev. Josiah Bent, who was installed in 1834, and dis- 
missed in 1837, and was succeeded by Rev. Henry B. Hooker, who 
was installed the same year. The Congregational church in East 
Falmouth was organized in 1810, and the one in North Falmouth 
in 1833. 

The town is bounded on the west by Blizzard's Bay, and on the 
south by Vineyard Sound. A chain of hills, which is continued 
from Sandwich, runs on the west side of the township, near Buz- 
zard's Bay, and terminates at " Wood's Hole" a harbor at the 
south-western point of the town. The rest of the land in this 
township is remarkably level. The soil is thin, but superior in 
quality to the light lands in the eastern part of the county. An 
extensive pine forest is situated between the villages of Falmouth 
and Sandwich. There are not less than forty ponds in the town- 
ship, and give a great variety to the scenery. 

The engraving shows the appearance of Falmouth village, as it 
is seen from an elevation to the westward, on the road leading to 
Wood's Hole. The village, which is one of the handsomest on 
the Cape, consists of about one hundred dwelling-houses, two 
churches, (one Congregational and one Methodist,) an academy, 
and the Falmouth Bank, with a capital of $100,000. The village 
is twenty-two miles from Barnstable, eighteen from Sandwich, and 
soventy-one from Boston. Wood's Hole is four miles to the south- 
west ; at this place there is a village, and ships of the largest class 
can go up to the wharf. The landing at Falmouth village is 
about three fourths of a mile from the Congregational church. 



The mail is carried over from this place to Holmes' s Hole, on 
Martha's Vineyard, three times a week, in a sail-boat. The dis- 
tance between the two landings is seven miles. 

West view of Falmouth Village. 

Two streams afford a water power, on which are two woollen 
mills, having three sets of machinery. There are five houses of 
worship : three Congregational, one for Friends or Quakers, and 
one Methodist. Population 2,580. In 1837, there were "nine 
vessels employed in the whale fishery; tonnage of the same, 2,823 ; 
sperm oil imported, 4,952 barrels, (148,560 gallons); whale oil, 
275 barrels, (8,250 gallons) ; hands employed in the fishery, 250 ; 
capital invested, $260,000 ; salt manufactured, 35,569 bushels." 

The following is copied from monuments in the village grave- 
yard : 

Here lies interred the body of the Rev. Samuel Palmer, who fell asleep April ye 13th, 
1775, in the 68th year of his age, and 45th of his ministry. 
His virtues would a monument supply, 
But underneath these clods his ashes lie. 

fn memory of Capt. David Wood, who died in his 42d year, in Cape Francois, 
August 10th, 1802, of the yellow fever, with 4 of his men. 

He's gone, the voyage of human life is o'er, 

And weeping friends shall see his face no more. 

Far from the tenderest objects of his love 

He dies, to find a happier world above. 

Around this monument his friends appear, 

To embalm his precious memory with a tear. 

His men who died were Edward Butler, aged 15 years, and Prince Fish, aged 19 
years, both died August 10 ; Henry Green, aged 20 years, "Willard Hatch, aged 12 
years, both died August 17. 

These hopeful youths with life are called to part, 
And wound afresh their tender parents' heart. 


THE original town of Harwich extended across the peninsula of 
Cape Cod. What is now called Harwich, was the second society 


of old Harwich, being the southern part of the town. In 1803, 
the first society of Harwich was incorporated into a distinct town, 
by the name of Brewster. The land in this township is generally 
level and sandy. On Herring river ^ the outlet of Long Pond, are 
a cotton mill and carding-machine. There are in the limits of the 
town four churches : one Baptist, one Congregational, and two 
Methodist. The Rev. Mr. Pell was the first Congregational minis- 
ter in this town; he was succeeded by Mr. Mills. The third 
minister, Rev. Nathan Underwood, was ordained here in 1792. 
Population, 2,771. Distance, thirteen miles easterly from Barn- 
stable court-house, eight to Chatham Lights, and about eighty 
from Boston. " Vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fishery, 
20; tonnage of the same, 1,300; codfish caught, 10,000 quintals; 
value of the same, $30,000 ; mackerel caught, 500 barrels ; value 
of the same, $3,000 ; salt used, 9,000 bushels ; hands employed, 
200; capital invested, $60,000." 

House on Cape Cod. 

Dr. D wight, who travelled through the whole length of the 
peninsula of Cape Cod, thus describes what he says " may be 
called with propriety Cape Cod houses." " These have one story, 
and four rooms on the lower floor ; and are covered on the sides, 
as well as the roofs, with pine shingles, eighteen inches in length. 
The chimney is in the middle, immediately behind the front door, 
and on each side of the door are two windows. The roof is 
straight ; under it are two chambers ; and there are two larger and 
two smaller windows in the gable end. This is the general struc- 
ture and appearance of the great body of houses from Yarmouth 
to Race Point. There are, however, several varieties, but of too 
little importance to be described. A great proportion of them are 
in good repair. Generally they exhibit a tidy, neat aspect in 
themselves and in their appendages, and furnish proofs of comfort- 
able living, by which I was at once disappointed and gratified. 
The barns are usually neat, but always small." 


THIS ancient Indian territory is an incorporated district of the 
commonwealth, and contains 10,500 acres, or about sixteen square 


miles. This tract was procured for the Indians by the efforts of 
Mr. Richard Bourne, of Sandwich. This noble-hearted man, who 
deserves to be had in lasting remembrance, was a native of Eng- 
land, and soon after his arrival at Sandwich began his labors for 
the temporal and spiritual good of the Indians. About the year 
1660, at his own expense, Mr. Bourne obtained a deed of Marshpee 
from Quachatisset and others for the benefit of the Marshpee, or, 
as they were then called, South Sea Indians. In order that the 
Indians might have a place where they might remain in peace 
from generation to generation, Mr. Bourne had the deed or instru- 
ment drawn. u so that no part or parcel of them [the lands] could 
be bought by or sold to any white person or persons, without the 
consent of all the said Indians, not even with the consent of the 
general court." This deed, with this condition, was ratified by 
the Plymouth court. Mr. Bourne, after having obtained the above 
deed, pursued his evangelical work, and was ordained pastor of an 
Indian church in this place in 1670, formed of his own disciples 
and converts. He died about 1685, and was succeeded by Simon 
Popmonet, an Indian preacher, who lived in this character about 
forty years, and was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Bourne, grandson 
of Richard, who was ordained over them in 1729, who resigned 
his mission in 1742, and was succeeded by Solomon Briant, an 
Indian preacher, who was ordained pastor. In 1758, Rev. Gideon 
Hawley was installed as pastor of these people. 

Marshpee lies south of Sandwich, and is bounded on the south 
by the ocean. It is well fitted for an Indian residence, being indent- 
ed by two bays, and shoots into several necks or points of land. It 
is also watered by several streams and ponds. These, with the 
ocean, afford an abundant supply of fish of various kinds. They 
formerly subsisted by agricultural pursuits, the manufacturing of 
various articles of Indian ware, by the sale of their wood, fishing, 
fowling, and taking deer. Their land is good, well wooded, and 
some parts of it afford beautiful scenery. There are about three 
hundred colored people on this tract, and some whites. There are 
but very few of the Indians which retain pure blood of their 
ancestors. They generally appear to relish moral and religious 
instruction. The central part, is about twelve miles S. E. of Barn- 
stable, nine S. of Sandwich, and sixty-five S. E. of Boston. 

The following cut represents the Indian phurch, built under 
the direction of the Rev. Mr. Hawley, the missionary, and is about 
twelve miles from Barnstable court-house. It stands a short dis- 
tance from the main road, and a forest has grown up around it. 
Public worship is kept up in this house, which is attended both 
by the whites and Indians. Previous to 1834, the government of 
the Indians consisted of a board of white overseers, a guardian 
and treasurer. The office of the guardian was that of a general 
superintendent, to disburse supplies, oversee the poor, and regu- 
late the getting of wood, &c. The Indians getting dissatisfied, 
the government was changed, and it now consists of three select- 
men, a clerk of their own number and choice, and a white com- 


missioner appointed by the governor and council. Many of the 
Indians are employed in the whale fisheries, and they are said to 
make the first-rate whalemen. Those who remain at home cul- 
tivate their little plats of ground and carry wood to market. In 
1837, they built a small vessel, "owned partly by some of the 
proprietors of Marshpee, and partly by sundry white persons," and 
commanded by a capable, enterprising Indian. This vessel is 
employed in carrying their wood to Nan tucket. The land, except 
some small allotments, (as much as each can enclose and cultivate,) 
is common stock. Each has a certain amount of wood allowed 
for his own use, and he pays the Indian government one dollar 
per cord for all he cuts and carries to market. 

South-west view of the Indian Church in Marshpee. 

The Indian grave-yard is by the side of their church, represented 
in the engraving. Nearly all the graves are without monuments. 
The following inscriptions are copied from two monuments stand- 
ing in this place. 

In memory of deacon Zacheus Popmunnet died 22d Octr. 1770 aged 51 years. The 
Righteous is more excellent than his neighbor. 

In memory of Flora Hawley obit 31st Jany. 1785 aged 40 years. A faithful servant. 


THIS town was formerly the south part of Eastham ; it was in- 
corporated into a township by the name of Orleans in 1797. Rev. 
Samuel Osborn, who was ordained at Eastham in 171 8, was the first 
minister in this place, removing here the next year after his ordina- 
tion. " Mr. Osborn was a man of wisdom and virtue. Besides 
teaching his people the use of peat, he contributed much to their 
prosperity by introducing new improvements in agriculture, and 
by setting them the example of economy and industry. But his 
good qualities and services did not avail him ; for, embracing the, 


religion of Arminius, his parishioners, who still retained the faith of 
Calvin, thought proper to dismiss him about the year 1737. 
From Eastham he removed to Boston, where he kept a private 
grammar-school. He died aged between ninety and a hundred." 
Mr. Osborn was succeeded by Rev. Joseph Crocker, who was or- 
dained in 1739. Mr. Crocker died in 1772, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Jonathan Crocker the same year. 

Orleans is of very irregular form, the lines being deeply indent- 
ed with coves and creeks. There are several islands in Pleasant 
Bay which belong to this town, the largest of which is Pocket, and 
is perhaps the best land in the township. The face of the land is 
uneven ; but the hills are not very high, and the soil is generally 
barren and sandy, and the roads here, as in most towns in this 
vicinity, are, on account of the sand, tedious and heavy. There 
are 4 churches in the town, 1 Congregational, 1 Baptist, 1 Metho- 
dist, and 1 Universalist. Population 1,936. Distance 20 miles 
easterly from Barnstable and 85 S. E. from Boston. There were in 
1837 fifty establishments for the manufacture of salt, which manu- 
factured 21,780 bushels ; 33 vessels were employed in the cod and 
mackerel fishery ; 20,000 quintals of cod-fish and 6000 barrels of 
mackerel were taken. In the fishery, 264 hands were employed. 

The following is from an account of Orleans in the Collections 
of the Mass. Hist. Soc. Sept. 1802 : 

" Clams are found on many parts of the shores of New England, but nowhere m 
greater abundance than at Orleans. Formerly five hundred barrels were dug here for 
bait ; but the present year 1000 barrels have been collected. Between one and two hun- 
dred of the poorest of the inhabitants are employed in this business ; and they receive 
from their employers three dollars a barrel for digging the clams, opening, salting them, 
and filling the casks. From 12 to 18 bushels of clams in the shell must be dug, to 
fill, when opened, a barrel. A man by this labor can earn seventy-five cents a day; 
and women and children are also engaged in it. A barrel or clams are worth six dol- 
lars ; the employers, therefore, after deducting the expense of salt and the casks, which 
they supply, still obtain a handsome profit. A thousand barrels of clams are equal in 
value to six thousand bushels of Indian corn, and are procured with no more labor and 
expense. When therefore the fishes, with which the coves of Orleans abound, are also 
taken into consideration, they may justly be regarded as more beneficial to the inha- 
bitants, than if the space which they occupy was covered with the most fertile soil " 


"CAPE COD, now Provincetown, was originally a part of Truro. 
In 1714 it was made a district or precinct, and put under the con- 
stablerick of that town.' 7 It was incorporated into a township, by 
the name of Provincetown, in 1727, and invested with peculiar 
privileges the inhabitants being exempted from taxation. At that 
time, and for 10 or 12 years after, it was a flourishing place, con- 
taining a number of dwelling-houses and stores. Not long after 
this period the inhabitants began to forsake the town ; and before 
the year 1748 it was reduced to two or three families. In 1755 it 
contained about ten dwelling-houses. In 1776 there were in it 36 
families, 205 souls, and about 20 dwelling-houses. It remain- 
ed in a state of depression during the revolutionary war, but after 


its close it gradually rose to a state of prosperity. Mr. Spear was 
the first minister at Provincetown, but he was compelled to follow 
the removal of his congregation. In 1774, Rev. Samuel Parker 
was ordained here, and for twelve years received annually forty- 
five pounds from the government. After that period the pastor has 
been supported entirely by the inhabitants. 

Provincetown is situated on the end of the peninsula of Cape 
Cod, and lies in the form of a hook. It averages about three miles 
and a half in length and two and a half in breadth. The town- 
ship consists of beaches and hills of sand, eight shallow ponds, 
and a great number of swamps. Cape Harbor, in Cape Cod Bay, 
is formed by the bending of the land nearly round every point of 
the compass, and is completely landlocked and safe. It is of suf- 
ficient depth for ships of any size, and it will contain more than 
three thousand vessels at once, and is a place of great importance to 
navigation in this quarter. This was the first harbor the Mai/flower 
touched at on her passage to Plymouth in 1620. This place has 
about 6000 tons of fishing and 400 tons of coasting vessels. The 
fares of fish in 1834 amounted to about 45,000 quintals of cod, and 
17,000 barrels of mackerel. This place gives employment to about 
one thousand men and boys. There are three houses of worship : 
1 Methodist, 1 Universalist, and 1 Congregutionalist. Population 
2,049. In 1837 there were 78 establishments for making salt, 48,960 
bushels manufactured ; 98 vessels were employed in the cod and 
mackerel fishery; 51,400 quintals of cod-fish and 18,000 bar- 
rels of mackerel were taken, and one thousand one hundred and 
thirteen hands were employed in the fisheries. Thirty-five of this 
number went out in the two whale ships sent from this place. 

Provincetown stands on the north-western side of the harbor, on 
the margin of a beach of loose sand. The houses are mostly situated 
on a single street, about two miles in length, passing round near the 
water's edge. A chain of sand hills rise immediately back from the 
houses. These hills are in some places partially covered with tufts 
of grass or shrubs, which appear to hold their existence by a frail 
tenure on these masses of loose sand, the light color of which 
strongly contrasts with few spots of deep verdure upon them. 
These hills, with the numerous wind or salt mills, by which the salt 
water is raised for evaporation, thickly studding the shore through- 
out the whole extent of the village, gives this place a most singular 
and novel appearance. 

The following cut is from a sketch taken in the village street, 
and shows its characteristic appearance. The houses are mostly 
one story in height, and, with their out-buildings, stand along on the 
street, apparently without much of an effort at order or regularity. 
Interspersed among the houses and by the side of the street are seen 
the numerous flakes or frames on which the cod-fish are dried. 
These frames are about two or three feet in breadth, and stand up 
from the ground about two feet, having sticks or slats laid across 
them, on which the fish are laid. The street is narrow, irregular, 



View in the Village of Provincetown. 

and has scarcely the appearance of being a carriage road.* Upon 
stepping from the houses the foot sinks in the sand, which is so light 
that it drifts about the houses, fences, &c., very similar to snow in 
a driving storm. Although near the ocean on every side, the inha- 
bitants obtain good water by digging a moderate depth a few feet 
from the shore. Provincetown is 10 leagues or 30 miles N. E. of 
Barnstable, about 9 leagues or 27 miles across to Plymouth, and 
about 1 16 miles by land and 50 by water to Boston. 

{From the Boston Post Boy, Feb. 19, 1739.] 

We have advice from Province-Town on Cape Cod, that the whaling season is now 
over with them, in which there has been taken in that Harbor six small whales, 
and one of a larger size about six foot bone : beside which 'tis said two small whales 
have been killed at Sandwich, which is all that has been done in that business in the 
whole Bay. Tis added, that seven or eight families in Province-Town, among whom 
are the principal inhabitants, design to remove from that place to Casco-Bay in the 
spring of the year. 

[Boston Post Boy, July 27, 1741.] 

"Province-Town, July 14. On the 4th of this month one of the town disco- 
vered a considerable quantity of Ice on the north side of a Swamp, in this place, who 
broke off a Piece, and carried it several miles undissolved to the Tavern keeper, who 
for his pains treated him with a bowl of punch for his pains." 

The following inscription is copied from a monument standing in 
a deep depression among the sand hills in the village grave-yard. 
It is probably the oldest in the place, and stands in one of the few 
verdant spots in the vicinity : 

Here lies interred the remains of Capt. John Tallcott of Glausenbury in Connecticut, 
son to Deacon Benjamin Tallcott who died here in his return after the victory obtained 
at Cape Breton, A. D. 1745, in the 41st year of his age. 


THE settlement of this town was commenced by quite a number 
of families, from Saugus or Lynn, in 1637. The original grant of 

* So rarely are wheel carriages seen in the place that they are a matter of some 
curiosity to the younger part of the community. A lad, who understood navigating the 
ocean much oetter than land carriage, on seeing a man driving z wagon in the 
place, expressed his surprise at his being able to drive so straight withf 
of a rudder. 


the township was from the Old Colony of Plymouth the same 

" It is ordered" [say the Plymouth Records] " that these ten men 
of Saugus, namely, Edmund Freeman, Henry Peake, Thomas 
Dexter, Edward Dillingham, William Wood, John Carman, 
Richard Chadwell, William Almy, Thomas Tupper, and George 
Knott, shall have liberty to view a place to sit down on, and have 
sufficient land for three score families, upon the conditions pro- 
pounded to them by the governor arid Mr. Winslow. The other 
proprietors were, George Allen, Thomas Armitage, Anthony Besse, 
Mr. Blackmore, George Bliss, Thomas Boardman, Robert Boote- 
fish, William Braybrook, John Briggs, Thomas Burge, Richard 
Burne, George Burt, Thomas Butler, Thomas Chillingworth, 
Edmund Clarke, George Cole, John Dingley, Henry Ewer, John 
Friend, John Fish, Nathaniel Fish, Jonathan Fish, Peter Gaunt, 
Andrew Hallet, William Harlow, William Hedge, Joseph Holway, 
William Hurst, John Joyce, Richard Kirby, Thomas Lander, John 
Miller, William Newland, Benjamin Noye, Mr. Potter, James 
Skippe, George Slawson, Michael Turner, John Vincent, Peter 
Wright, Nicholas Wright, Richard Wade, John King, John Win- 
sor, Mr. Wollaston, and Thomas Willis. Their minister was the 
Rev. William Leveridge. Mr. Dexter and Mr. Willis did not re- 
move at this time." 

The records of the first Congregational church in this town pre- 
vious to the ordination of Rev. Roland Cotton, in 1694, are lost. 
Mr. Cotton was succeeded by Rev. Benjamin Fessenden, who was 
ordained in 1722, and died in 1746. Rev. Abraham Williams, the 
next minister, was ordained in 1749 ; he was succeeded by Rev. 
Jonathan Burr, who was ordained in 1787. According to tradition 
there were among the first settlers of Sandwich two persons some- 
what distinguished for their religious turn of mind, Mr. Richard 
Bourne and Mr. Thomas Tupper. These men took the lead in the 
religious exercises, and officiated publicly on the Lord's day, each 
of them having his party ; but, as they were in all a small com- 
pany, they did not separate, but agreed that the officer who had 
the most adherents at meeting for the time being, should be the 
minister for the day. In process of time the congregation settled 
Mr. Smith, a minister who for a time had officiated at Barnstable. 
Religious matters being settled at Sandwich, Mr. Bourne and Mr. 
Tupper directed their attention towards christianizing the Indians 
in the vicinity. Mr. Tupper founded a church near Herring river, 
which was supplied with a succession of ministers of his name till 
the decease of his great-grandson, Rev. Elisha Tupper, who died at 
Pokessett, in 1787. Mr. Bourne turned his attention towards the 
Marshpee Indians to the south and east. 

Sandwich is the most agricultural town in the county ; the lands 
however in the extreme part of the township are light and un- 

E reductive. There are numerous ponds, some of which are very 
irge, which afford fine fishing and fowling : deer are also found in 
this vicinity. There are in the town 1 cotton mill, 1 woollen 



factory, a furnace, a nail factory, a number of carding-machines, 
&c., with an extensive manufactory of glass. There are 15 or 20 
sail of coasting or fishing vessels belonging here, and a considera- 
ble quantity of salt manufactured. Population 3,579. 

Western view of Sandicich, (centfttl part). 

Sandwich village, containing about 100 houses, is situated on ris- 
ing ground in the northern section of the town, near the waters of 
Cape Cod Bay, 12 miles north-westerly of Barnstable, 30 east of 
New Bedford, and 53 miles south-east of Boston. The engraving 
shows the two Congregational churches, town-house, and in the dis- 
tance some of the buildings connected with the glass works. It 
contains 4 churches : 1 Orthodox, 1 Unitarian, 1 Methodist, and 1 
Roman Catholic. There are in other parts of the town 6 churches 
more : 4 Methodist, 1 for Friends or Quakers, and 1 Congregational. 
It has been in contemplation for a long period to unite Cape Cod and 
Buzzard's Bay by a ship canal across this town. The distance is 
five miles, and the land level. The following is from the statistics 
published by the state in 1837. " Nail factory, 1 ; nails manufactur- 
ed, 500 tons ; value of the same, $57,500 ; hands employed, 20 ; 
capital invested, 13,500 ; glass manufactory, 1 ; value of glass 
manufactured, $300,000 ; hands employed, 250 ; capital invested, 

Dr. John Osborn, who was a physician in Middletown, in Con- 
necticut, was born in this town, in 1713. His father, an educated 
Scotchman, was then a schoolmaster, but afterwards settled in the 
ministry at Eastham. At the age of nineteen, young Osborn 
entered Harvard College, where he was noticed as a lively and 
eccentric genius. The following whaling song of his has obtained 
some celebrity : 


When spring returns with western gales, 

And gentle breezes sweep 
The ruffling seas, we spread our sails 

To plough the wat'ry deep. 

For killing northern whales prepared, 

Our nimble boats on noard, 
With craft and rum, (our chief regar*,) 

And good provisions stored. 



We view the monsters of the deep, 
Great whales in numerous swarms ; 

And creatures there, that play and leap 
Of strange, unusual forms. 

Cape Cod, our dearest, native land, 

We leave astern, and lose 
It* sinking cliffs and lessening sands, 

While Zephyr gently blows. 

Bold, hardy men, with blooming age, 

Our sandy shores produce ; 
With monstrous fish they dare engage, 

And dangerous callings choose. 

Now towards the early dawning east 

We speed our course away, 
With eager minds, and joyful hearts, 

To meet the rising day. 

Then as we turn our wondering eyes, 
We view one constant show ; 

Above, around, the circling skies, 
The rolling seas below. 

When eastward, clear of Newfoundland, 

We stem the frozen pole, 
We see the icy islands stand, 

The northern billows roll. 

As to the north we make our way, 

Surprising scenes we find ; 
We lengthen out the tedious day, 

And leave the night behind. 

Now see the northern regions, where 

Eternal winter reigns ; 
One day and night fills up the year, 

And endless cold maintains. 

When in our station we are placed, 

And whales around us play, 
We launch our boats into the main 

And swiftly chase our prey. 

In haste we ply our nimble oars, 

For an assault design'd ; 
The sea beneath us foams and roars, 

And leaves a wake behind. 

A mighty whale we rush upon, 

And in our irons throw : 
She sinks her monstrous body down 

Among the waves below. 

And when she rises out again, 

We soon renew the fight ; 
Thrust our sharp lances in amain, 

And all her rage excite. 

Enraged she makes a mighty bound ; 

Thick foams the whitened sea ; 
The waves in circles rise around, 

And widening roll away. 

She thrashes with her tail around, 
And blows her recld'ning breath ; 

She breaks the air, a deaf 'ning sound, 
While ocean groans beneath. 

From numerous wounds, with crimson flood 

She stains the frothy seas, 
And gasps, and blows her latest blood, 

While quivering life decays. 

With joyful hearts we see her die, 

And on the surface lay ; 
While all with eager haste apply, 

To save our deathful prey. 


THE settlement of Truro commenced about 1700. Its Indian 
name was Pamet, and appears to have been purchased in 1697. In 
1705, it was erected into a town to be called Dangerfield ; in 1709 
it was incorporated by the name of Truro. The first minister, Rev. 
John A very, was ordained in 1711. He was a physician as 
well as pastor, and was greatly beloved by his people. He died in 
1754, and was succeeded by Rev. Caleb Upham, who died in 1786. 
Mr. Upham was succeeded by Rev. Jude Damon, who was ordain- 
ed in 1786. 

Truro is situated on the northern extremity of the peninsula of 
Gape Cod. The length of the township is about 14 miles, and the 
breadth in the widest part three. Excepting the salt marshes, the 
soil is light, sandy, and free from stone. Hardly any part of it 
produces English grass fit for mowing ; and it can scarcely be said 
to be clad with verdure at any season of the year. The face of the 
township is composed of sand hills and narrow valleys between 
them, running principally at right angles with the shore. The top 
of some of the hills spread into a plain : from some of these in the 
northern part of the town but few objects can be discerned but 
the ocean and one wide waste of sand. A traveller from the in- 
terior part of the country, where the soil is fertile, upon observing 
the barrenness of the northern part of Truro, would at the first 

TRURO. 55 

thought wonder what could induce any person to remain in the 
place ; he will, however, upon reflection and observation, find that 
the inhabitants here, who derive their principal subsistence from the 
sea, are as " well off" as any people in the commonwealth. 

There are four houses of worship, all in the south part of 
the town : 3 Congregational, one of which is Unitarian, and 
1 Methodist. Population 1,806. In 1837 there were 39 esta- 
blishments for making salt, of which 17,490 bushels were 
manufactured ; 63 vessels were employed in the cod and mack- 
erel fishery ; 16,950 quintals of cod-fish and 15,750 barrels of 
mackerel were taken, and 512 hands employed. 

Eastern vierv of Pond Village, Truro. 

The above is a representation of part of what is called the Pond 
village, and is a characteristic specimen of the scenery of this part of 
the Cape. The hills, which rise in regular and graceful swells, are 
of a light gravelly loam and covered with short grass ; they are des- 
titute of trees and shrubbery, and are peculiar in their aspect. Not- 
withstanding the general appearance of the barrenness of the land 
in Truro, it is believed that all the inhabitants of the town might be 
sustained from the produce of its soil, were proper attention paid 
to its cultivation. The fisheries however at this time bring surer 
and better returns than the cultivation of the earth, throughout 
most parts of the Cape. 

The following engraving is a view of the ancient church now 
standing in the central part of Truro, about 8 miles from Province- 
town, 42 from Barnstable, and by land 109 from Boston. The 
" Clay Pounds" a great body of clay, forming the high banks by the 
light-house, near the residence of James Small, Esq., are about a 
mile northward. This church is on one of the highest elevations in 
the town, a short distance southerly from the Pond village, and is 
seen at a great distance from almost every direction. Provincetown 
with its hills of sand is seen to the north-west ; and the waters of 
the wide Atlantic on every side. This building shows that 



Ancient Church in Truro, (south-eastern view). 

" The dark brown years " have passed over it. It stands alone, and on the hill ol 
storms ! It is seen afar by the mariner as he passes by on the dark rolling wave ! 

The following inscription is copied from a monument standing 
by the ancient church on the elevation near the Pond village : 

Here lie the Remains of ye Revd. Mr. John Avery who departed this life. ye 23d of 
April 1754 in the 69th year of his age and 44th of his ministry the first pastor ordained 
in this place. 

In this dark cavern, or this lonesome grave 
Here lays the honest, pious, virtuous Friend 
Him, kind Heaven to us as Priest & Doctor gave 
As such he lived, as such we mourn his end. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1763. Before this, it was called 
the North Precinct in Eastham, and was originally included in the 
Indian Skeekeet and Pamet. The first inhabitants of the place 
attended public worship at Eastham. When their numbers and 
property were sufficient, they built a small meeting-house, in 
which the Rev. Josiah Oaks preached a number of years. The 
Rev. Isaiah Lewis succeeded Mr. Oaks, and was ordained in 
1730; the next minister, Rev. Levi Whitman, was ordained in 

The town of Wellfleet is situated on the northern section of the 
peninsula of Cape Cod, and is bounded on the east and west by 
the ocean. The soil is a sandy barren. From the table lands in 
Eastham, to Race Point, is a large range of high hills, all of them 
sandy, except one large hill or mountain, which is of solid clay, 
in Truro, called the Clay Pounds, because vessels have had the 
misfortune to be pounded to pieces against it, in gales of wind. 
Within these hills in Wellfleet is a range of fresh ponds, where 
sea-fowl obtain fresh water: such as have outlets, receive ale- 
wives, which go up in the month of May. From the harbor 
there are many salt creeks, which are surrounded with salt marsh. 


The harbor, called the Deep Hole, is good for small vessels, and is 
about thirty miles north-easterly from Barnstable. 

Northern viero of Weltfleet Harbor. 

The above shows the appearance of Wellfleet Harbor, as it is 
seen from the north. It is surrounded by sand hills of different 
sizes, but mostly forming obtuse cones, smooth, regular, des- 
titute of verdure, and quite novel in their general appearance. 

The village of Wellfleet contains two Congregational churches, 
and is stated to be one hundred and five miles from Boston by 
land, and by water twenty leagues, and from the Plymouth light 
eight leagues. Population of the town, 2,303. Most of the inha- 
bitants follow the seafaring business. In 1837, there were thirty- 
nine establishments for manufacturing salt, and 10,000 bushels 
were made ; sixty-two vessels were employed in the cod and 
mackerel fishery; 3,100 quintals, and 17,500 barrels of mackerel, 
were taken ; and in this business 496 hands were employed. 

" No shipwreck is more remarkable than that of the noted pirate Bellamy, men- 
tioned by Governor Hutchinson, in his history. In the year 1717, his ship, with his 
whole fleet, were cast on the shore of what is now Wellfleet, being led near the shore 
by the captain of a snow, which was made a prize the day before, who had the pro- 
mise of the snow as a present, if he would pilot the fleet in Cape Cod harbor ; the 
captain suspecting the pirate would not keep his promise, and that, instead of clearing 
his ship, as was his pretence, his intention might be to plunder the inhabitants 
of Provincetown. The night being dark, a lantern was hung in the hrouds of 
the snow, the captain of which, instead of piloting where he was ordered, approached 
so near the land, that the pirates' large ship, which followed him, struck on the outer 
bar : the snow, being less, struck much nearer the shore. The fleet was put in confu- 
sion ; a violent storm arose : and the whole fleet was shipwrecked on the shore. It is 
said that all in the large ship perished in the waters except two. Many, of the smaller 
vessels got safe on shore. Those that were executed, were the pirates put on board a 
prize schooner before the storm, as it is said. After the storm, more than an hundred 
dead bodies lay along the shore. At times, to this day, there are king William and 
queen Mary's coppers picked up, and pieces of silver, called cob-money. The violence 
of the seas moves the sands upon the outer bar ; so 'that at times the iron caboose of 
the ship, at low ebbs, has been seen." 3d vol. Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., p. 120. 

For many years after this shipwreck, a man, of a very singular and frightful 
aspect, used, every spring and autumn, to be seen travelling on the Cape, who was 


supposed to have been one of Bellamy's crew. The presumption is mat he went to 
some place where money had been secreted by the pirates to get such a supply as 
his exigences required. When he died, many pieces of gold were found in a girdle, 
which he constantly wore. Aged people relate that this man frequently spent the 
night in private houses, and that, whenever the Bible or any religious book was read, 
or any family devotions performed, he invariably left the room. This is not impro- 
bable. It is also stated that, during the night, it would seem as if he had in his cham- 
ber a legion from the lower world ; for much conversation was often overheard which 
was boisterous, profane, blasphemous, and quarrelsome in the extreme. This is the 
representation. The probability is, that his sleep was disturbed by a recollection of 
the murderous scenes in which he had been engaged, and that he, involuntarily, 
vented such exclamations as, with the aid of an imagination awake to wonders from 
the invisible regions, gave rise, in those days, to the current opinion that his bed- 
chamber was the resort of infernals." Alden's Coll. Epitaphs, vol. iv. 


THE peninsula of Cape Cod may be well represented by a man's 
arm bent into a certain position. Yarmouth is situated about mid- 
way from the shoulder to the elbow of the Cape. It was incorpo- 
rated in 1639. The early records of this town have been lost. 
In Mather's Magnalia, it is stated John Millar was a minister of 
Yarmouth. It is probable he was the first, and a Mr. Mathews 
(of whom some traditions remain) was the second. Mr. Millar is 
represented in the Magnalia as one of the seventy-seven ministers 
who had been in the ministry previous to their embarkation to 
America, and who are represented as some of the first ministers in 
New England. If the above is correct, the Rev. Thomas Thorn- 
ton, from England, was the third minister of Yarmouth ; his name 
being found in the town records, which are preserved as far back 
as 1677. He continued in the ministry till about the year 1692, 
and was succeeded by Rev. John Cotton in 1693. Mr. Cotton died 
in 1705, and was succeeded by Rev. David Greenleaf in 1708. 
The following ministers here were ordained as follows: Rev. 
Thomas Smith, in 1729; Rev. Grindall Rawson, in 1755; Rev. 
Joseph Green, in 1762 ; the Rev. Timothy Alden, the ninth minis- 
ter, was ordained in 1769. 

This township extends across the Cape, and has a harbor both 
on the north and south shore, and its soil is similar to the other 
towns in this part of the Cape, mostly light, sandy, and barren. 
There are 5 houses of worship : 2 Congregational, 1 Methodist, 1 
Baptist, and 1 for Friends or Quakers. Population 2,454. Dis- 
tance, 3 miles east of Barnstable, and 72 S. E. of Boston. 

The cut shows the appearance of the eastern termination of 
Yarmouth village. From the church which is seen in the engrav- 
ing, to Barnstable court-house, which is upwards of four miles dis- 
tant, the road is lined with houses on both sides. From this spot 
the peculiar scenery of Cape Cod may be said to commence. As 
you proceed eastward, much of the land is unenclosed, often pre- 
senting to the view, a dreary and wide waste of sand. There are 


two churches in the village, a Congregational and Methodist, one 
newspaper establishment, and the " Barnstable Bank," with a 
capital of $150,000. South Yarmouth is situated about four miles 
south of the north village. In this place the salt-works are very 
extensive, and cover a tract of ground about a mile in length and 
one fourth in width. In 1837, there were in the town 52 esta- 
blishments for making salt, and 365.200 bushels were manufac- 
tured; 13 vessels were employed in the cod and mackerel fishery; 
4,300 quintals of cod-fish, and 2,287 barrels of mackerel taken. 

Eastern view of Yarmouth. 

As late as the year 1779, there was a cluster of wigwams about 
a mile from the mouth of Bass river, in the south-eastern part of 
the town, inhabited by the remains of the Pawkunnawkut Indians. 
About this time the small-pox was prevalent, and the most of them 
died. A little to the south-west of this Indian town, is a pond 
called Swan's Pond : on its north-eastern side, just above a spring, 
about eighty years ago, there stood an Indian meeting-house. 
Some anecdotes are preserved of Joseph Naukaught, a very pious 
and worthy Indian deacon, of which the following appears to be 
well authenticated : 

" Deacon Nauhaught was once attacked by a number of large black snakes. Being at 
a distance from any inhabitants, he was, to be sure, in a very precarious situation ; for, 
unfortunately, he had not even a knife about him for his defence. To outrun them, 
he found utterly impossible ; to keep them off, without any weapon, was equally so. 
He therefore came to the determination to stand firm on his feet. They began wind- 
ing themselves about him ; in a little time, one of them had made his way up to the 
Indian's neck, and was trying to put his black head into his mouth. Nauhaught 
opened it immediately. The black serpent thrust in his head, and Nauhaught, putting his 
jams together, bit it off in a moment ! As soon as the blood, streaming from the behead- 
ed, was discovered by the rest of the snakes, they left their intended prey with great 
precipitation, and Nauhaught was liberated from the jaws of impending death." 

Colonel Joseph Thacher, who died in this town in 1763, was a popular character, 
and through his influence principally a company of forty, thirteen of which were 
Indians, was raised, all except six or eight, in Yarmouth, his native town, to go on the 


Cape Breton expedition, in 1745. A condition of their embarking in this bold enter- 
prise was, that Mr. Thacher should be their captain. It is remarkable that of 
the Indians, three only lived to return, two having been killed by the enemy, 
and eight, probably in consequence of a mode of living to which they had not 
been accustomed, dying of disease; and that the rest of the company, though 
exposed to great hardships, were providentially all spared to see their native places 
again, and to participate with their fellow-countrymen in the joy which pervaded the 
land, on the 'eduction of the strongest fortress in America. The following anecdote 
is related of him, by Mr. David Matthews, one of Thacher' s company, who is still 
living. It exhibits the unfeeling disposition of the American savage. Through the 
treacherous conduct of a certain Frenchman, a party of twenty provincial soldiers had 
been ambuscaded, nineteen of which were killed. The Frenchman was taken, and at 
first was given up to the Indians, to be destroyed by them as they might see proper. 
Isaac Peck, a blood-thirsty Indian, began immediately to sharpen his knife, and, 
thinking it too good for the traitor to die at once, said he was going to begin with his 
fingers, and would cut off one joint first, then another, and so on till he had separated 
all his bones, from head to foot. He would probably have executed his purpose, had 
not the criminal been rescued from his hands. One of Thacher's Indians, hired by 
Colonel Vaughan, for a bottle of brandy, was the first of the provincials who entered 
the grand battery at Louisburg. He crawled in at an embrasure, and opened 
the gate, which Vaughan immediately entered, the enemy having withdrawn from 
this battery, though, at the time, this circumstance was not known." Alden's Collec- 


THE county of Berkshire is the western part of the state of 
Massachusetts, and extends entirely across it from north to south. 
It originally belonged to the county of Hampshire, or to what was 
designated the " Old county of Hampshire" until its divison in 
1812 into the three counties of Franklin, Hampshire, and 
Hampden. It was separated, and made a distinct county, by 
an act of the general court of the province at their May ses- 
sion in 1761, in the first year of the reign of George the Third. 
According to the report of the survey of the boundary line 
between this state and that of New York, the west line of the 
county is 50 miles 41 chains and 79 links in length. The width of 
the county on the north is 14 miles, and on the south 24. This 
county is rough and hilly in many parts, but there is a considerable 
quantity of fine land, mostly in the interval of the Housatonic. It 
produces much wool, and all sorts of grain, and exports great 
quantities of pork, beef, butter, cheese, (fee. It is the most elevated 
county in the state. The Green and Taconic mountains cross it 
from N. to S., the average height of which is about 1200 feet above 
the level of the sea. The Housatonic and Hoosic are the two prin- 
cipal rivers in the county ; the former empties into Long Island, 
between Milford and Stratford, in Connecticut, and the latter into 
the Hudson, about ten miles north of Troy, N. Y. 

The county possesses in rich and inexhaustible abundance 
three very important articles of commerce, iron, marble, and lime, 
and its wood and water power are sufficient to enable it to fit them 
for useful purposes. The following is a list of the towns in this 
county, which are 30 in number : 









Great Harrington, 







Mount Washington, 

New Ashford, 

New Marlborough, 












West Stockbridge, 



The population of this county by the census of 1800 was 33,835 ; 
in 1810 it was 35,797; in 1820 it was 35,720; in 1830 it was 
37,825 ; and in the official returns in 1837 it was 39,101. 


T! - 

THE tract comprehended in this township was formerly called 
East Hoosic. It was explored and surveyed, and the limits 
traced, by a committee appointed by the general court of Massa- 
chusetts in 1749, and was laid out 7 miles in length from north to 
south and five in breadth. In 1750, Col. Williams, the founder 
of Williams College, obtained from the general court a grant of 
200 acres, on condition that he should reserve 10 acres for the use 
of the fort, and build a grist mill and saw mill, and keep them in 
repair 20 years for the use of the settlers. On the 2d day of June, 
1762, nine townships in the north-west comer of the state were sold 
at auction by authority of the general court. Of these, East 
Hoosac was No. 1. It was purchased by Nathan Jones, Esq., for 
the sum of 3,200, who after the purchase admitted Col. Elisha 
Jones and John Murray, Esq., as joint proprietors. 

These proprietors, in October of the same year, employed a sur- 
veyor to lay out 48 settling lots, containing 100 acres each. A 
line was drawn through the length of the township, dividing the 
best of the land into two equal parts, and on each side of this line 
was laid out a range of lots. Each lot was 160 rods long from 
west to east, and 100 rods wide. These 48 lots, occupying the 
valley through its whole length, comprised the heart of the town- 
ship. Four years after, Isaac Jones, Esq., who then resided in the 
township, was authorized to survey a further number of lots, not 
exceeding 20, of 100 acres each, and, as agent of the proprietors, 
to admit settlers to the number of 60. This number was men- 
tioned because it was required by the conditions of. settlement, 
fixed by vote of the general court, that when the actual settlers 
should amount to that number, they should build a meeting-house, 
und settle a " learned gospel minister." The rest of the land was 
laid out in 1768 into lots of 200 acres each, and divided among the 
proprietors according to their shares in the property of the town- 

62 ADAMS. 

During the French wars, the Indians traversed this region, but 
they appear to have had no permanent habitation here. No remains 
of Indian settlements have existed within the remembrance of the 
earliest white inhabitants. 

Most of the first settlers of this town were from Connecticut. Of 
these Abiel Smith, Gideon and Jacob, his sons, John Kilbourn, 
his son-in-law, and John McNeil, were from Litchfield ; Reuben 
Hinman and Jonathan Smith came from Woodbury. There were 
also the names of Parker, Cook, and Leavenworth from Walling- 
ford ; and Rev. Samuel Todd, from Lanesborough, was previously 
from Woodbury. These people settled in the north village. The 
first settlers mostly disposed of their lands to purchasers from 
Rhode Island, many of whom belonged to the society of Friends. 
and the population gradually changed till nearly all had sold out 
and removed from the town. The settlements of Friends became 
extensive and prosperous. Several other families, also from Rhode 
Island, came in about the same time, and these two classes of 
inhabitants and their descendants have since occupied the greatest 
part of the town. 

The first settlers formed themselves into a Congregational church 
and society. Their first minister was the Rev. Samuel Todd, from 
North Haven, Conn. The first meeting-house was built of logs, 
and was situated near the center of the town. The Friends' 
society was formed in the year 1781. David Anthony, Isaac Killy, 
Isaac Upton, Joshua Lapham, George Lapham, and Adam Hart- 
ness, with their families, constituted the society at its first organi- 
zation. They worshipped in a log dwelling-house till about 
the year 1786, when they erected a meeting-house about half a 
mile north of the south village. The building lot, with land for 
a burying-ground, the whole containing about four and a half 
acres, was given to the society by Daniel Lapham. In 1819 the 
society numbered about 40 families. A Baptist church of 35 mem- 
bers was organized in 1808, under the ministry of Elder George 
Witherel. About 1785 a body of Methodists were located in the 
south part of the town. The society in the north village construct- 
ed their meeting-house in 1828. A second Baptist church was 
organized in 1826, in the south village, with 14 members, under the 
ministry of Elder Elnathan Sweet, of Cheshire. The present 
Congregational church was organized April 19, 1827. This town 
was incorporated October 15, 1778, and named Adams, in honor of 
Samuel Adams, afterwards governor of the state. 

The natural bridge on Hudson's Brook in this town is a curi- 
osity worthy the notice of travellers. The waters of this brook 
have worn a fissure from 30 to 60 feet deep, and 30 rods in 
length, through a body of white marble or limestone, and formed 
a bridge of that material 50 feet above the surface of the water. 
There is a cavern in this town containing a number of rooms, the 
longest of which, as far as it has been explored, is 30 feet long, 20 
high, and 20 wide. 

The following is a western view of the central part of North 

ADAMS. 63 

Adams, taken from the western side of the south branch of the 
Hoosic river. The building appearing on the left, is the principal 
one connected with the Phenix factory. This manufacturing vil- 
lage is the largest in the county, containing, it is estimated, 2,000 
inhabitants. It is surrounded by lofty hills and mountains in 
every direction, excepting the narrow interval through which the 

Western view of the Center of North Adams. 

Hoosic passes. It contains 3 churches : 1 Congregational, 1 Bap- 
tist, and 1 Methodist; the " Adams Bank," with a capital of 
$200,000, and a printing-office. This village is about three miles 
south from the Vermont line, 27 miles from Lenox, 5 from Wil- 
liamstown, 34 from Greenfield, 40 from Troy, N. Y., and 120 from 
Boston. The village of South Adams is six miles south of the 
north village. It has 3 churches : 1 Baptist, 1 for Friends, and 1 
for various denominations. This is also a manufacturing village, 
having 8 cotton mills. In 1837, there were in the town, 19 cotton 
mills, having 20,800 spindles, which consumed 799,536 Ibs. of cot- 
ton ; 4,752,567 yards of cotton goods, valued at $334,649, were 
manufactured; males employed, 194; females, 434; capital 
invested, $295,725. Four woollen mills, with 7 sets of machinery ; 
wool consumed, 175.000 Ibs. ; cloth manufactured, 215,000 yards : 
value, $137,000 : males employed, 51 ; females, 41 ; capital invest- 
ed, $86,000. Two calico print works, which printed 4,561,680 
yards of calico, employing 93 hands. The population of the 
town exceeds any other in the county, being 4.191. 

The following shows the appearance of Saddle Mountain, as 
seen from the Williamstown road about one and a half miles from 
North Adams village. The elevated peak seen on the left is called 
" Grey Lock," from its hoary aspect during winter. It is stated 
to be 3,580 feet above the tide water at Albany, and is the highest 
land in the state. The other peak of this mountain, seen on the 
right, is called the " Saddle Ball." The depression between the 



two peaks is called " the Notch," and comprises several valuable 
dairy farms. The " Massachusetts Fort " so famous during the 

North-eastern view of Saddle Mountain, (Adams'). 

French wars, stood near the barn represented in the fore part of 
the engraving. The following is from the History of Adams, by 
Rev. John W. Yeomans, in the History of Berkshire County. 

About 1741 or 2, Fort Massachusetts was built in a narrow part of the valley 
leading towards Williamstown. This was a part of the line of defence erected to 
protect the northern and western settlements of New England against French and 
Indian hostilities. The enemy directed their principal movements towards Connecticut 
river. In general, they came down from Canada in the direction of the Connecticut, 
and were repelled by Fort Constitution, at Brattleborough, Vt., Fort Dummer, at 
Hinsdale, N. H., and Fort Wentworth, N. H., further up the Connecticut, all in 
connection with each other on the same line. But some came down the Hudson, and, 
proceeding eastward up the Hoosic, came upon this fortification, and several bloody 
skirmishes took place. They repeatedly appeared in smaller or larger bodies about 
the fort. The following facts are taken principally from the Appendix to the 
" Redeemed Captive," by the Rev. John Taylor, formerly of Deerfield. 

On the 6th of May, 1746, as serjeant John Hawks and John Miles were riding out 
from the fort, they were fired upon by two Indians and wounded. Miles made his 
escape to the. fort ; Hawks fought for some time, and might have taken them both 
prisoners, had he understood their language, as appeared afterwards ; for they asked 
for quarters before he turned to make his escape. 

A party of the enemy appeared again at the fort on the llth of June following, and 
attacked a number of men who were at a distance from the fort ; and a skirmish 
ensued. After sustaining the fire a few moments, the enemy fled, having lost one of 
their men. Elisha Nims and Gershom Hawks were wounded, and Benjamin Tenter 
was taken captive. 

On the 20th of August, in the same year, an army of about 900 French and 
Indians, under Gen. De Vaudreuil, made an attack upon the fort. Col. Hawks, who 
commanded the fort at that time, had only 22 effective men with him, and but 33 
persons, men, women, and children, and was miserably supplied with ammunition. 
Notwithstanding these unfortunate circumstances, he defended the fort 28 hours, and 
probably would never have given it up, had not his ammunition failed. He was 
finally necessitated to capitulate, and offered such articles as were accepted. One 
special article was, that none of the prisoners should be delivered into the hands of 
the Indians. The next day, however, Vaudreuil delivered one half of them to the 
Indians, on the plea that there was danger of mutiny in his army, the Indians being 
irritated that they were cut off from the profits of the conquest. The savages imme- 
diately killed one of the prisoners, because, being sick, he was unable to travel. In 
the siege Col. Hawks lost but one man ; while the enemy, as near as could be ascer- 
tained, lost 45, who were either killed outright or died of their wounds. The 
prisoners were carried to Canada, where 12 of them sickened and died. The residue, 
with other prisoners, were sent on board a flag of truce to Boston, where they arrived 

A L F O R D . 65 

cu the 16th of August, 1747. The chaplain of the fort at the time it was taken, the 
Rev. John Norton, wrote an account of his captivity, which was published. He after 
wards settled in the ministry at East Hampton, a parish in Chatham, Conn. Another 
of the captives was Benjamin Simonds, who afterwards became a distinguished inha- 
bitant of Williamstown, and a colonel of militia. 

While the fort was rebuilding, on the 25th of May, 1747, there being several hundred 
people present, an army of the enemy came with the design of hindering the under- 
taking. About 100 men had been sent to Albany a few days before for stores of 
provisions and ammunition. As these were approaching the fort on their return, a 
scout was sent forward, who, coming within sight of the fort, discovered the enemy 
and began an attack, which gave alarm to the people at the fort, who had not as yet 
discovered the enemy. A few issued out and maintained a small skirmish, until the 
enemy fled. The people remaining at the iort, and the commander of the party with 
the wagons, were much blamed for not affording assistance, and were charged with 
cowardice. In this action three persons were wounded, and a friendly Indian from 
Stockbridge was killed. 

On the 1st of October following, Peter Burvee was taken captive near this fort. On 
the 2d of August, 1748, about 200 of the enemy appeared at the fort. It was then 
under the command of Capt. Ephraim Williams, afterwards Col. Williams, whose 
grant of 200 acres has been already mentioned. A scout was fired upon, which 
drew out Capt. Williams with about 30 men ; an attack began, which continued some 
time ; but, finding the enemy numerous, Capt. Williams fought upon the retreat, until 
he had again recovered the fort. The enemy soon withdrew ; but with what loss was 
unknown. A man by the name of Abbot was killed, and Lieut. Hawley and Ezekiel 
Wells were wounded. In 1755, in the second French war, Col. Williams was sent at 
the head of a regiment to join Gen. Johnson at the north, and was killed on the 8th 
of September in that year, near the southern extremity of Lake George, 

After the death of Col. Williams, the oversight of the fort was committed, it is 
believed, to one Capt. Wyman. He is known to have lived in the house within the 
pickets, and to have occupied the land reserved for the use of the fort. June 7, 1756, 
a body of the enemy came again to this fort, and Benjamin King, and a man by the 
name of Meacham, were killed. The Rev. Stephen West, afterwards Dr. West, 
minister of Stockbridge, was chaplain in 1758, and perhaps in 1757. The location of 
the fort is still indicated by the print of a cellar, and the horse-radish, which was 
planted by the soldiers, and still grows upon the spot. 


THIS town is of irregular form. It is about 5 miles in length, 
and its greatest breadth is a little more than 3 miles. The south- 
west part, bordering on Egremont, called the Shawenon purchase, 
was bought of the Stockbridge Indians about 1736. The time 
when the settlement commenced is not exactly known. There 
were not many families here before 1750 or 55. Among the early 
settlers were Dea, Eleazer Barret, Ebenezer Barret, Dea. Robert 
Johnson, John and Simeon Hurlburt, and the ancestors of the 
Sperry, Wilcox, Kelsey, Hamlin, and Baker families ; most of them, 
perhaps all, from Connecticut. There were also families, who were 
early settlers, by the name of Brunson, Fenton, Hunger, and War- 
ner. This place has been remarkable for changing its inhabitants. 
The first settlers were Congregationalists, and a flourishing church 
of that denomination formerly existed here. The Rev. Joseph 
Avery was settled over it about 1780, but, owing to the tumults 
which occurred in the Shay's rebellion, he was dismissed in 1787, 
and the church and society soon after became extinct. A portion 
of the people early became Baptists, and about 1787 a number 
became Methodists. In 1817, the different denominations united 

66 ^ K C K K T . 

and built a meeting-house by subscription, 46 feet by 34, which 
they agreed to call the " Union Meeting-house." The Methodists 
were to occupy it half of the time, and the other denominations the 
other half. 

The west part of the town is mountainous. The soil of the val- 
leys is generally good. The people are mostly engaged in agricul- 
ture. Population of the town, 441. The center of the place is 24 
miles east of Hudson, 14 S. by W. of Lenox, and 125 miles from 


THIS town was granted to Joseph Brigham and 59 others in 
1735, and a few persons came into the town for the purpose of set- 
tling in it as early as 1740, but for fear of the Indians soon return- 
ed, but not till they had erected a saw-mill in the east part of the 
town, and some other buildings. The first permanent settlement 
was made in 1755, by people who emigrated principally from the 
eastern part of Connecticut. The first settlers were of the name 
of Birchard, Goss, King, Kingsley, Messenger, Wadsworth, Wait, 
and Walker. The descendants of these men, except Goss, yet re- 
main in the town, and those of Wadsworth are, in particular, 
numerous. The first white person born in the town was Jabez 
Wadsworth, in Dec. of the year of the settlement, who, after sus- 
taining a respectable and Christian character, died in April, 1826. 

The first church was gathered and organized Dec. 28, 1758. 
Mr. Ebenezer Martin, a graduate of Yale College, was ordained 
their pastor, Feb. 23, 1759. He was dismissed Oct. 12, 1764, 
and succeeded, by Mr. Zadoc Hunn, a native of Wethersfield, Con., 
June 5, 1771. He was dismissed in Oct. 1788. The first meeting- 
house of this society was built in 1762, and stood about 40 years. 
This society have a fund, raised by the subscription of 60 indi- 
viduals, (who were incorporated as the " First Congregational So- 
ciety in Becket," Feb. 17, 1798,) which now amounts to upwards of 
$5,500. In 1800 the society built a new meeting-house, which was 
dedicated Nov. 19. Rev. Joseph L. Mills was ordained pastor June 
5, 1806. The Baptist church was organized in Sept., 1764. Their 
first pastor was Elder Robert Nesbit. The Baptist meeting-house 
was erected in 1815. 

The town was incorporated by its present name June 21, 1765, and 
the first town meeting was held on the 5th of the succeeding month. 
The town lies on the Green mountain range. The surface is hilly, 
broken, and rocky, the soil hard and cold ; very little clay or sand 
is found. When well cultivated the ground yields rye and corn in 
moderate quantities, but wheat will not succeed. The winters in 
that town are usually very severe, during which season, high 
piercing winds prevail, yet it is generally healthy, and the lon- 
gevity of the inhabitants is uncommon even in New England. The 
center of this town is 15 miles E. S. E. of Lenox and 110 W. of 
Boston. Population, 957. 



THIS town was originally included in the towns of Lanesbo- 
rough, New Ashford, Adams, and Windsor. The form is very 
irregular, as the line in passing round it takes 21 different courses. 
It was incorporated by its present name March 14, 1793. The 
settlement of the town commenced in 1767. Some of the principal 
settlers were Joseph Bennet, Esq., Col. Joab Stafford, John Buck- 
land, Esq., John Lippet, Samuel Low, Simon Smith, Amos Smith, 
Stephen Carpenter, Shubael Wilmarth and John Wilmarth, from 
Rhode Island ; Jonathan Richardson, Isaac Warren, and Charles 
Saben from Con. The inhabitants from the beginning have been 
generally of the Baptist denomination. There are two houses for 
public worship belonging to them in the town ; one at Stafford's 
Hill, and one at the Four Corners. The first Baptist church was 
formed at Stafford's Hill, Aug. 28, 1769. Elder Peter Werden was 
the first pastor, from Warwick, R. I. The second Baptist church 
was formed at the Four Corners of 17 members, under the care of 
Elder Nathan Mason, from Nova Scotia, Sept. 21, 1771. From this 
church was formed a third, of 15 members, under the ministry of 
Elder Elnathan Sweet, Jan. 15, 1824. There is a society of Metho- 
dists in the town, Avhich was formed in July, 1823. 

The center of the town is a rich and fertile valley. To the E. 
and W. of this the ground gradually rises into hills and moun- 
tains. The township is well adapted to grazing, to which the atten- 
tion of the inhabitants is principally given. Large dairies are kept, 
and the Cheshire cheeses are widely and deservedly celebrated. The 
famous Mammoth Cheese presented to President Jefferson, Jan. 1, 
1802, had no small influence to bring these into notice. On a day 
appointed the dairy women sent their curds to one place. The quan- 
tity sent proved to be too great to be pressed even in a cider-mill 
press, so that besides " the monster" three smaller ones were made 
of 70 Ibs. weight each. The mammoth cheese weighed about 1450 
Ibs. Mr. Jefferson sent back a good-sized piece of this cheese to 
the. inhabitants, to satisfy them of its excellence ; and he also sent 
pieces of it to the governors of the several states. The town is 
situated 16 miles N. by E. of Lenox and 120 W. N. W. of Boston. 
Number of inhabitants 924. 


THIS town is seven miles in length and about two and a half in 
breadth. It received its name, it is supposed, from the numerous 
families of Clarks who settled there. The settlement was com- 
menced in 1769, by Capt. Matthew Ketchum, his son Matthew, 
and his cousins Epenetus, Daniel and Samuel. These came from 
Long Island. Nicholas Clark and his brothers Aaron, Stephen and 
Silas moved in about the same time from Cumberland, R. I. The 

68 D A L T CTN . 

town was incorporated March 2, 1798. The petitioners desired to 
have it incorporated by the name of Hudson, from a man of that 
name who was supposed to have cut the first tree in the town 
which was felled by a white man. This man continued in the 
place only two or three months. Why the name inserted in the 
petition was changed, the inhabitants never knew. Hudson's brook 
yet bears the name. 

The surface of this township is uneven, and the soil is hard and 
stony. About two thirds of the town lies on the Bald and Hoosic 
mountains. The mountain land is cold and rocky. Its principal 
commodity is lumber ; considerable quantities of spruce and hem- 
lock timber being annually carried to Adams and Williamstown. 
The people are Baptists and Methodists, there being about an 
equal number of each. Situated 27 miles N. by E. of Lenox and 
125 miles W. by N. of Boston. Population, 386. 


THIS town began to be settled about 1755. Among the first set- 
tlers were the Chamberlains, the Cadys, the Boardmans, Gallups, 
Lawrences, Merrimans, Parks, &c. Dr. Marsh, a graduate of 
Harvard College, and a judge of the county court, was also one 
of the early settlers. The venerable Dea. Williams moved into 
the town some years after from Hatfield. He was a leader and 
guide to the people for many years, and 'an ornament and glory to 
the town. He was a trustee of Williamstown College, and a 
senator in the state legislature. He died March 1, 1808, aged 
74. The town was incorporated in 1784, and named Dalton, after 
the Hon. Tristram Dalton, then speaker of the house of repre- 
sentatives. The length of the township is about 9 miles. The rich 
and beautiful vale of Dalton is in the center of the town. The 
eastern branch of the Housatonic runs through it, and, by a cir- 
cuitous route, encloses as on three sides an elevation of land of more 
than 100 acres in the center of the whole vale. Here are two 
meeting-houses, 1 Congregational and 1 Methodist, and about 25 
dwelling-houses in the vicinity. From this elevation it is esti- 
mated may be seen three fourths of the houses in the town. The 
land is generally productive. Spring wheat is more easily raised 
than in many towns in the county, and the soil is suitable for In- 
dian corn. The meadows on the Housatonic river are not so ex- 
tensive as on many towns below. The Congregational church in 
the town was formed Feb. 16, 1785. Rev. James Thompson was 
the first minister, ordained in March, 1795. The society have a 
parsonage-house, with 70 acres of land, purchased by the avails of 
lands lying in the town devised them by Col. Israel Williams and 
Dea. Obadiah Dickinson, of Hatfield. The present meeting-house 
was built in 1812. There are a few Baptist families in the town, 
and a society of Methodists. The center of the town is 10 miles 
northerly of Lenox, and 120 miles W. of Boston. Population 830 


There is a woollen mill, and two paper-mills, which manufacture 
paper to the value of between 30 and 40,000 dollars annually. 


THE regular settlement of this town commenced about 1730, 
though it is said some Dutch people, supposing it belonged to the 
colony of New York, settled in it at an earlier period. Between 
1730 and 1756, many families moved into the place from New 
York and from the New England colonies. Among the first set- 
tlers were Nicholas Karner, Jacob Karner, Cornelius Spoor, Ebe- 
nezer Baldwin, Aaron Loomis, Josiah Phelps, John Perry, Timo- 
thy Hopkins, Elias Hopkins, Nehemiah Messenger, Benjamin 
Trumain, Samuel Colver, Samuel Younglove, William Webb, Jon- 
athan Welch, Samuel Welch, Robert Joyner, Gideon Church, 
Ebenezer Smith, Aaron Sheldon, Israel Taylor, William Roberts, 
Joseph Hicks, Edward Baily, Abraham Andrews, and John Fuller. 
The township is about five and a half miles in length and four and 
a half in breadth. It was incorporated as a district in 1760, and 
called by its present name. It was invested with full town privi- 
leges, except the right of sending a representative to the general 
court, which right was to be held in common with the town of 
Sheffield : some years after, this right was granted. The soil of 
the township is various, out generally productive. Most of it is 
better adapted to tillage than grazing. The inhabitants erected a 
house for public worship in 1767, and raised money for the support 
of the gospel. Feb. 5, 1770, they invited the Rev. Eliphalet 
Steele, a native of West Hartford and graduate of Yale College, to 
settle with them. On the 20th of the same month, the Congrega- 
tional church was organized, and Mr. Steele ordained on the 28th 
of June following. The people were generally united in their 
pastor, until the time of Shays' rebellion. As he was supposed to 
be friendly to the government, the malcontents became his ene- 
mies and opposers. On one occasion, several armed ruffians vio- 
lently entered his residence in the night, and, after treating him in 
an insolent and abusive manner, took away his watch and various 
articles of clothing. Difficulties continuing to increase, Mr. Steele 
was dismissed by a council on the 29th of April, 1794, and removed 
into the state of New York. The church gradually decreased by 
deaths and removals until 1814, when it was considered to be 
extinct. In 181 6, the present Congregational church was organized. 
It was begun with 14 members. Rev. Gardner Hayden was ordain- 
ed their pastor Nov. 23, 1820. A Baptist church was formed in the 
north part of this town in 1787; the society obtained their act of 
incorporation in 1808, and in 1817 erected their meeting-house. 
There is a Methodist society in the south-west part of the town, 
who hold their meetings in a school-house. This town is 15 miles 
southerly of Lenox, and 128 W. of Boston. Population, 968. 



THIS town began to be settled about 1783. Dr. Daniel Nelson 
settled in it in that year, and in the course of two years he was 
joined by Paul Knowlton, Sylvanus Clark, Nathan Drury, Esq., 
Jesse King, Esq., and Stephen Staples. Soon after 1795 there was 
a considerable accession of inhabitants. The length of the town- 
ship on an average may be about 4 miles. It was incorporated in 
1805. It being situated on the height of the Green mountain 
range, the surface is broken and the climate cold and severe. The 
people derive their support chiefly from their stock and dairies. A 
Congregational church was formed May 4, 1814, consisting of 11 
members. A Baptist church was organized in 1810, with about 
20 members. Their meeting-house was built in 1824. There are 
a. few Methodists in the town, living mostly on Deerfield river. 
Situated 27 miles N. N. E. of Lenox, and 120 W. by N. of Boston. 
Number of inhabitants 457. 


THE settlement of this town commenced about 1730. The 
1'ower part of it was settled in connection with Sheffield. Some 
families it is said were located above the bridge before 1730. Of 
these were Laurens and Sydney Suydam (supposed to have been 
brothers), from Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Some of the first settlers were 
Dutch, others were English. Among the latter were Joshua White, 
Moses Ingersoll, Moses and William King, -Thomas Dewey, Heze- 
kiah Phelps, Israel Orton, and Joshua Root. 

This town is formed of parts of the upper and lower rlousatonic townships, sur- 
veyed by authority of the general court in 1736. There, were 30 proprietors of the 
upper Housatonic township. House or home lots were laid out for them on both 
sides of the river from the bridge to Monument mountain. Here improvements were 
begun. From the house lots, long parallel lots were laid out to Tyringham line. 
The Hop lands (so called), in the north-east part of the town, in the region of Hop brook, 
were laid out in a similar manner. The land on Monument mountain and part of the 
north plain was laid out in equalizing lots, that is, in lots so proportioned as to render 
the preceding divisions equal to the particular right of each individual. The tract em- 
braced in the present town was formed into a parish about 1740, and called the second 
parish of Sheffield. In 1761 it was selected as the seat of justice for the county of 
Berkshire, and in the course of that year it was incorporated a town by the present 
name. County buildings were afterwards erected in the town, and courts held here till 
1787, when they were removed to Lenox. The town is about 7 miles in length, and 
6 in breadth. About 1755, in the second French war, a block-house was built, about 
a mile above the bridge on the west side of the river, as a place of security to which 
the inhabitants might flee in case of an attack. 

In 1743 (when there were only 30 families in the place) the 
people employed the Rev. Samuel Hopkins, afterwards Dr. Hop- 
kins, to preach with them, and after a short trial settled him the 
same year in the ministry. He was ordained the 28th of Dec., on 
which day the church was organized. He was dismissed at his 
own request on the 18th of Jan. 1769. 


He was born at Waterbury, Con., and was a direct lineal descendant of Stephen Hop- 
kins, one of the pilgrims who landed at Plymouth in. Dec. 1620. He graduated at 
Yale College in 1741, and studied theology with the first President Edwards, then 
minister at Northampton. His mental powers were strong, and fitted him for 
deep and thorough investigation. While at Great Barrington, and Newport, R. I., 
(where he settled after he left Mass.) he published a number of sermons and books 
on subjects of doctrine which excited considerable controversy. In 1793 he pub- 
lished his System of Divinity, the sentiments advocated in which were highly Calvin- 
istic, and are generally termed Hopkinsinian. 

The village of Great Barrington, which extends about three, 
fourths of a mile on the western borders of the Housatonic, con- 
sists of upwards of 50 dwelling-houses, 2 churches, 1 Episcopal 
and 1 Congregational ist, a printing-office, and various mechanic 
shops. The village is well built, and deeply shaded by elms and 
other trees. It is 6 miles from Sheffield, 14 south of Lenox, 25 
eastward from Hudson, and 125 from Boston. In 1837 there were 
in the town 4 cotton mills, which consumed 170,000 Ibs. of cotton; 
920,000 yards of cotton goods manufactured, valued at $64,600; 
there were 2 woollen mills, which consumed 32,000 Ibs. of wool, and 
52,500 yards of cloth manufactured. There were in the town 
2,657 merino sheep, which produced 6>642 Ibs. of wool, the value of 
which was $3,321 ; one furnace for the manufacture of pig iron, 
employing 20 hands ; 180 tons of pig iron were made, valued at 
$7,200. Population, 2,440. 

The Episcopal society in this town was formed about the 
year 1760. The church was instituted by the Rev. Solomon 
Palmer, then a missionary at Litchfield and New Milford, Con., 
from the society in England for propagating religion in foreign 
parts. The society have a parsonage-house and lands, and besides 
the church they have a chapel in Van Deusenville to accommodate 
the people in the north part of the society. The Congregational 
and Episcopal societies were incorporated by the legislature in 
1791. There are some Methodist people in town, who mostly 
reside in the east and north-east parts. 

The most noted mountain in this section of country is Monu- 
ment mountain, in the north part of this town, which rises up 
directly from the east bank of the Housatonic, and extends into 
Stockbridge. The engraving shows the appearance of this, as it 
is seen from the south-east on the road towards Stockbridge. It 
derived its name from a rude monument of stones on the south- 
eastern point, a short distance from the county road, which it is to 
be regretted is now demolished. The pile was six or eight feet in 
diameter, circular at its base, and raised in the form of an obtuse 
cone over the grave of one of the aborigines. It was a custom of 
the Indians whenever an individual passed by the tomb of his 
countryman to cast a stone upon it. By this slow method of accu- 
mulation, the heap in question rose in a series of years to the size 
just mentioned. According to tradition " the person buried here 
was a female, who had thrown herself from the cliffs of the moun- 
tain through the influence of a passionate love for a cousin, whom 
the religion of the natives would not allow her to marry, because 



South-eastern view of Monument Mountain. 

the connection was deemed incestuous." Some years since a poem 
was written on this tradition, entitled Monument Mountain, by 
William C. Bryant, a native of Cummington, then an inhabitant 
of this town. The following extract from the first part of the poem 
correctly delineates the scenery of this mountain, and in most re- 
spects the description is equally applicable to much of the mountain 
scenery in the western part of the state. 

Thou who wouldst see the lovely and the wild 

Mingled in harmony on Nature's face, 

Ascend our rocky mountain. Let thy foot 

Fail not with weariness, for on their tops 

The beauty and the majesty of earth 

Spread wide beneath shall make thee to forget 

The steep and toilsome way. There as thoustand'st, 

The haunts of men below thee, and above 

The mountain summits, thy expanded heart 

Shall fesl a kindred with that loftier world 

To which thou art translated, and partake 

The enlarjemetit of thy vision. Thou shall loofc 

Up-m the green and rolling forest tops, 

And down into the secrets of the glen 

And streams that with their bordering thickets strive Over the dizzy depth, and hear the sound 

To hide their windings. Thou shalt gaze at once 

Here on white villages, and tilth and herds, 

And swarming roads, and there on solitudes, 

That only hear the torrent and the wind 

And eagle's shriek. There is a precipice 

That seems a fragment of some mighty wall 

Built by the hand that fashioned the old world 

To separate its nations, and thrown down 

When the flood drowned them. To the north a path 

Conducts you up the narrow battlement. 

Steep is the western side, shaggy and wild, 

With mossy trees and pinnacles of flint, 

And many a hanging crag. But to the east 

S ieer to the vale go down the bare old cliflfe, 

Huge pillars, that in middle heaven uprear; 

Their weather-beaten capitals here dark 

With the thick moss of centuries, and there 

Of chalky whiteness, where the thunderbolt 

Has splinter'd them. It is a fearful thing 

To stand upon a beetling verge and see 

Where storms and lightning from the huge gray wall 

Have tumbled down vast blocks, and at the base 

Dashed them in fragments, and to lay thine ear 

Of winds, that struggle with the woods below, 

Come up like ocean murmurs. But the scene 

Is lovely round ; a beautiful river there 

Wanders amid the fresh and fertile meads, 

The paradise he made unto himself, 

Mining the soil for ages. On each side 

The fields swell upward to the hills; beyond, 

Above the hill, in the blue distance, rise 

The mighty columns with which earth props heaven. 

That there were anciently Indian settlements in this town, is evident from various 
circumstances. In addition to utensils and weapons of Indian manufacture, which 
have been often found, it is known that, as early as 1726, the river used to be crossed 
half a mile below the bridge, at what was then called the " Great Wigwam." This 
place was sometimes called the " Castle," or rather, perhaps, the great wigwam stand- 
ing upon it. There is also a tradition that there was a considerable Indian settlement 
at this spot. Indian graves have also been found three fourths of a mile above the 
bridge, on the east side of the river. One man, in digging thirteen post-holes to secure 
his barn-yard, discovered the remains of six bodies. 

This settlement must have been abandoned before the autumn of 1734 ; for at that 
time there were no Indians in the county, except at Stockbridge and Sheffield, and 
perhaps a family or two in New Marlborough. But in the two winters following, the 


Indians were collected from Stockbridge and Sheffield, somewhere in this town, for the 
purpose of receiving instruction more conveniently from the missionary and school- 
master sent among them, previous to the final establishment of the mission in Stock- 
bridge. They may have been collected at the Great Wigwam, but were probably 
further north. 

The following circumstance is related by Dr. Dwight as having 
occurred at the great bridge in this town. It is too remarkable 
not to be introduced here. 

" A Mr. Van Rensselaer, a young gentleman from Albany, came one evening in f o 
an inn, kept by a Mr. Root, just at the eastern end of the bridge. The inn-keeper, 
who knew him, asked him where he had crossed the river. He answered, ' On tne 
bridge.' Mr. Root replied, that that was impossible, because it had been raised that 
very day, and that not a plank had been laid on it. Mr. Van Rensselaer said that it 
could not be true, because his horse had come over without any difficulty or reluctance ; 
that the night was indeed so profoundly dark as to prevent him from seeing anything 
distinctly ; but that it was incredible, if his horse could see sufficiently well to keep his 
footing anywhere, that he should not discern the danger, and impossible for him to 
pass over the bridge in that condition. Each went to bed dissatisfied, neither believ- 
ing the story of the other. In the morning, Mr. Van Rensselaer went, at the solicita- 
tion of his host, to view the bridge, and, finding it a naked frame, gazed for a moment 
with astonishment, and fainted." 


THE first and principal grant in this town was made by the 
legislature, in 1760, to Asa Douglass, Esq., and Timothy Hurl- 
burt, of Canaan, Con., Col. John^Ashley of Sheffield, and Josiah 
Dean. The first grantee became a settler in April 1762, with 
whom were soon associated John Clothier, Jesse Squire, Amasa 
and Martin Johnson, Benjamin Davis, Samuel Grippen, David 
Sprague, Samuel Hand, Esq., Capt. Caleb Gardner, David 
Vaughan, Reuben Ely, Henry Hazard and Jonathan Hazard, Esq. 
They were mostly from Connecticut and Rhode Island, and settled 
about the north village, and northward towards Williamstown. 

In 1761, Charles Goodrich, Esq., of Pittsfield, obtained a grant of land on the south 
end of the town, and in 1764 his nephew Daniel Goodrich settled upon it; and the 
following year Benjamin Goodrich, the father of Daniel, settled there, with all his other 
sons, viz. Benjamin, Samuel, Nathan, David, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Hezekiah, Jeremiah, 
and Enoch. Jeremiah and Hezekiah Osborn, father and son, and Israel Talcot, settled 
there about the same time The Goodriches and Osborns were from Ridgfield Talcot 
from Wethersfield, Con. Soon after the grant to Charles Goodrich, small grants 
were made in the north part of the town to Dea. Samuel Brown, of Stockbridge, and 
Col. Farrington. The remainder of the town was sold by a committee of the general 
court to the actual settlers in 1789, at different prices per acre, according to the quality. 
The place was first called Jericho, on account of the high natural walls on each side, 
that is, the mountains. At the time of its incorporation in 1776, it was named Hancock 
in honor of John Hancock, then president of the continental congress, and afterwards 
governor of the state. The township is nearly 16 miles in length, and about t\vo in 
breadth. It was formerly wider, but when the line was finally established between 
Massachusetts and New' York, in 1787, a tier of fine lots, upward of half a mile in 
length, were thrown into the latter state. A narrow valley extends south about 1 
miles from the line of Williamstown to the north village of Hancock, along which is a 
succession of good farms extending from the valley to the right and left on to the sides 
of the mountains. For several miles south from this village, the township is so 
broken and mountainous that no highway has been cut through it. 

The Shakers have a village in the south-east part of the town, 



which extends into the edge of Pittsfield. They sprung up in this 
town about 1780. Some persons about that time began to visit 
mother Ann and the elders at Escuania, near Albany. Approv- 
ing of the tenents of the Shakers, they immediately set up their 
meetings according to the customs of that sect. They built their 
meeting-house in 1784. 

Shaker Village in Hancock. 

The above is a view of some of the principal buildings in the 
Shaker village, which is 4 miles from Pittsfield, 7 from Lenox, 
and 5 from New Lebanon Springs. The large three-story build- 
ing seen in the central part of the engraving is constructed of 
brick, is 102 feet long, and 53 feet wide. There are six families, 
as they are termed, in the settlement, containing in the whole 
about 130 or 40 persons. The circular stone barn seen in the 
engraving in distance, a short distance southerly from the three- 
story building, was built in 1826, and is something of a curiosity. 
" It is 270 feet in compass, with walls laid in lime, rising 21 feet 
above the underpinning, and from three and a half to two and a half 
feet in thickness. The mast and rafters are 53 feet in length, and 
united together at the top. On the lower floor, immediately with- 
in the walls, are stables, 8 feet high, occupying 12 feet in length, 
with the manger, which is inwards, and into which convenient 
places are left for throwing hay and feed from above. In these 
stables, which open to and from several yards, a span of horses and 
52 horned cattle may be stabled. The covering of the stables forms 
the barn floor, on to which from an offset there is but one large 
doorway for teams, which make the circuit of the floor, and pass 
out at the same place. Eight or ten can occupy the floor at the 
same time ; and the hay is thrown into the large area in the center. 
For simply laying the stone of this building the masons were paid 
500 dollars and boarded." 

Most of the inhabitants of the town have ever been of the Bap- 
tist denomination. A congregation was early formed, which held 

H I N S D A L E . 75 

their meetings for a time in a log house about a mile and a quar- 
ter above the north village. Their present meeting-house was 
built in 1797. Elder Clark Rogers, from R. L, was their first 
minister, and was settled over them in about 1770. The town is 
15 miles N. by W. of Lenox, and 129 W. of Boston. Population, 
975. Agriculture is the principal business of the inhabitants. 


THE settlement of this town was commenced about the close of 
the second French war, probably in the year 1762. The first who 
settled in the town were Francis, David, and Thomas Miller, 
brothers, from Middlebury. Francis Miller was a man of conside- 
rable note. He was employed as a surveyor by the government, 
and surveyed the road from Boston to Albany, and run the line 
between Massachusetts and New York. Other of the first settlers 
were Nathan and Wilson Torrey, from Rhode Island, and Joseph 
Watkins and 5 sons from Hopkinton. About 1771, Nathan Fisk, 
who was among the first settlers, built a grist and saw mill, for 
which he received a premium from the government of 250 acres 
of land. In 1774 and 75 Nathaniel Tracy, Abner Bixbe, James 
Wing, and two families by the name of Frost, settled in the town. 
In 1781 Richard Starr, from Groton, Con., came into the town, and 
was of great service to the religious interests of the people. 

This town originally belonged to Peru on the east and Dalton on 
the west. In 1795 they were incorporated as a parish, by the name 
of the west parish of Partridgefield (now Peru), and in 1804 they 
were invested with town privileges and incorporated by the name 
of Hinsdale. In the year first mentioned the Rev. Theodore Hins- 
dale, after whom the town was named, (came from Windsor, Con.) 
and settled in the part of the town which then belonged to Dalton, 
and was very active, in connection with Dea. Starr, in gathering 
and organizing a Congregational church. This church was 
formed in Dec. of that year, consisting of 23 members. In 
1797 a Baptist church was formed, of which Elder Eleazer Smith 
was the first minister. They have a meeting-house, built in 1818. 
There are 3 churches in the center of the town, 1 Congregational, 
1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist. 

This township is situated on the west side of the Green moun- 
tain rang*}, and is 7 miles in length, and from 3 to 4 in breadth. 
It is 15 miles N. N. E. of Lenox and 124 W. of Boston. Population 
832. In 1837 there were 2 woollen mills, which consumed 57,000 
Ibs. of wool ; 25,000 yards of cloth were manufactured, valued at 
$74,000. There were 2,000 Saxony and 8,920 merino sheep, and 
the value of the wool produced in the town was $19,266. 



Southern view of Lanvsbvfough. 

IN January, 1741, Samuel Jackson, with seventy-five others, 
inhabitants of Framingham, Middlesex Co., petitioned the general 
court to grant them a tract of wilderness land, situated near an 
Indian town on the Housatonic river. The grant was made, and 
they were authorized to survey and locate a township, which was 
done the same year. The settlement was commenced about 1754 
or 5, by Capt. Samuel Martin and two other families, which were 
driven off by the Indians in the second French war. Of these, 
Capt. Martin was the only one who returned. Among the earliest 
settlers were Nathaniel Williams, Samuel Tyrrell, John, Ephraim, 
Elijah and Miles Powel (brothers), Lieut. Andrew Squier, James 
Loomis and Ambrose Hall, William Bradley, James Goodrich, 
Thaddeus Curtiss, Ebenezer Squier, Benjamin and Joseph Farnum. 
They all settled here as early as 1760. A fort was built for the 
protection of the settlement from Indian assaults. On the approach 
of the Indians, on one occasion, the settlers fled to Pittsfield. A 
scout was sent after them from Massachusetts fort, who, following 
tracks which they found, discovered two Indian chiefs, who were 
stooping down, tying their moccasons. Each of the scouts selected 
one, and both chiefs were killed on the spot. The scouts escaped 
to the fort, though closely pursued by the Indians. A party 
shortly after set out from the fort in search of the bodies of the 
slain chiefs, who found them buried in their war costume. The 
town was incorporated on the 20th of June, 1765, and then com- 
prehended a large part of the present town of Cheshire. The pre- 
sent length of the town is 6 miles, and the average breadth about 
5 miles. There are beds of iron ore in the town, and several 
extensive quarries of valuable marble. 

The above shows the appearance of the village of Lanesborough 
as it is entered from the south. It is situated on the eastern side 

LEE. 77 

of a branch of the Housatonic, which passes through the central 
part of the town, and runs through Lanesborough Pond, which lies 
partly in this town and Pittsfield. The meadows on this stream 
are luxuriant and beautiful. There are 3 churches : 1 Congrega- 
tional, 1 Baptist, and 1 Episcopal. The Congregational church is 
the one seen in the central part of the engraving ; the Baptist is 
the one standing a little south. The Episcopal church, a Gothic 
building, stands about three fourths of a mile northward. 

The Congregational church in this town was organized March 
28th, 1764, by Rev. Samuel Hopkins, of Great Barrington, and 
Rev. Stephen West, of Stockbridge. It consisted at first of eight 
members. Their first pastor, Rev. Daniel Collins, was ordained 
April 17, 1764. He was a native of Guilford, Con., and a gra- 
duate of Yale College in 1760. The Episcopal church (called St. 
Luke's church) was instituted by the Rev. Samuel Andrews, of 
Wallingford, Con., Oct. 2, 1767, and their first house of worship was 
built in 1783. The Baptist church was formed in 1818, with 12 
members. Elder Augustus C. Beach was their minister. Their 
meeting-house was built in 1828. This town is 11 miles N. of 
Lenox, and 125 W. by N. of Boston. Number of inhabitants, 1,090. 
The following is from the "Statistical Tables," 1837, published by 
the state: "Saxony sheep, 7,814; merino sheep, 4.235; other 
kinds of sheep, 284 ; Saxony woo] produced, 28,193 pounds ; merino 
wool, 13,510 pounds; other kinds of wool, 786 pounds; average 
weight of fleece, 3 pounds ; value of wool, $26,100; capital invested. 


THIS town was incorporated in the year 1777. The eastern par! 
was taken from the town of Washington, called Hartwood ; thf 
south-western, called Hopland, was taken from Great Barrington ; 
the remainder was made up of certain provincial grants, as Glass- 
works grant, Williams grant. &c. The town was named in honor 
of General Lee, then an active officer in the army of the Revolu- 
tion. The first white man who settled in the town was Mr. Isaac 
Davif,, in the year 1760, in quite the south part of the town, on the 
side of Hop brook. Most of the early inhabitants were from Tol- 
land, in Con., and from Barnstable, Sandwich, Falmouth, and 
Great Barrington, in Mass. One of the first settlers, Mr. Jesse 
Bradley, came from .New Haven, Con., another, Mr. Jonathan 
Foot, from Colchester. The Congregational church in this town 
was organized on the 25th of May, 1780, by the Rev. Daniel Col- 
lins, of Lanesborough, consisting of 30 members. For the basis 
of their union, they adopted the same confession of faith which is 
acknowledged by the church at the present time. On the 3d of 
July, 1783, Mr. Elisha Parmelee, of Goshen, Con., a graduate of 
Harvard College, was ordained their pastor. 

78 LEE. 

The township is 6 miles in length and 5 in breadth, and pre- 
sents a very diversified appearance. It embraces a part of the 
interval which lies between the Taconic and Green mountain 
ranges. The Green mountain range runs partly within the eastern 
limits of the town, and presents much picturesque scenery. These 
mountains are, for the most part, of gentle acclivity, and in some 
places are cultivated quite to their summits. From the base 
of these mountains the surface is uneven, but, upon the whole, 
descending, until we reach the plain on the banks of the Housa- 
tonic. In this town is good marble and iron ore. This town is 
5 miles S. E. of Lenox, and 120 W. of Boston. Population 2,095 

South-western view of Lee, (central part). 

The above shows the appearance of the central part of the prin- 
cipal village in Lee, as seen from the heights a few rods from the 
Stockbridge road. The principal part of the village is on the east 
side of the Housatonic, surrounded by lofty hills and mountains. 
South Lee is about three miles south-west from this place, near the 
Stockbridge line : it is much smaller than the central village, con- 
taining a number of paper-mills, a church, and about thirty 
dwelling-houses. In 1837, there were 12 paper-mills in the limits 
of the town, which manufactured 1,200 tons of stock, producing 
paper to the value of $274,500. There was also a woollen mill, 
cotton mill, and forge for manufacturing bar iron. The first paper- 
mill in the town was built by Mr. Samuel Church, in South Lee, 
about thirty years since. 

In- September, 1824, a scene of most appalling desolation was exhibited in this town. 
It was the explosion of an extensive powder factory, owned by Messrs. Laflin, Loomis 
& Co. At the time, it was estimated that there were about 5 tons of powder in the 
different buildings. On a very pleasant morning, when the workmen thought all 
things were going on securely, in a moment every building was razed from its foun- 
dation with a tremendous explosion. Three of the unfortunate workmen were 
instantly killed, and a fourth, who was thrown into the river, lingered for a short 
time, till death, like a friend, relieved him from his pains. Every house and building 
in the neighborhood was more or less injured, and every breast was shocked. Such 

LENOX. 79 

was the consternation produced in the minds of the inhabitants, that they universally 
protested against the rebuilding, and. the feelings of the proprietors coinciding, thi 
site and water privilege were soon after sold ; and an extensive paper-mill erected. 


THE Indian name of the greater part of the tract embraced in this 
township was Yoknn, so called after an Indian sagamore of that 
name. Some small individual grants united ; the town was incor- 
porated in 1767, and called Lenox, (the family name of the Duke 
of Richmond). Its length is about 6 miles, and its mean breadth 
4. The first English inhabitant of this town was Mr. Jonathan 
Hinsdale, from Hartford, Con. He moved into the place in 1750, 
and built a small dwelling about 50 rods south of Court-house hill, 
on the east side of the county road. A Mr. Dickinson soon after 
built a house just north of Mr. Hinsdale. In 1755, these, with 
some other families who had settled in the vicinity and in Pitts- 
field, removed to Stockbridge, through fear of the Indians, who 
were instigated to hostilities by the French in Canada. While the 
few families north of Stockbridge were hastening to that place for 
safety, a man by the name of Stephens, while passing a ledge of 
rocks in the south part of the town, was shot by the Indians, and 
fell dead from his horse. The horse was also killed, but a young 
woman by the name of Percy, who was on the horse with Mr. 
Stephens, by the aid of Mr. Hinsdale, escaped unhurt. Among the 
first permanent settlers were Jacob Bacon, Messrs. Hunt, McCoy, 
Gleason, Steel, Waterman, Root, Dewy, Miller, Whitlocke, Parker, 
Richard, Collins, Treat, Andrus, Wright, and others. A majority 
of the familes who first settled in the town, moved from West 
Hartford and Wallingford, Con. The first town officers were 
chosen March 5, 1767. The inhabitants about this time began to 
make preparation for the organization of a church and the settle- 
ment of a minister. The church was formed in 1769, by the Rev. 
Samuel Hopkins, then of Great Harrington. Rev. Samuel Munson, 
of New Haven, a graduate of Yale College, was ordained pastor 
November 8, 1770. Soon after his settlement, a house for public 
worship was erected near the place where the present Congrega- 
tional meeting-house is located, and was occupied till Jan. 1, 1806, 
when the present one was dedicated. The first burying-ground 
was more than a mile north of the village, and west of the county 
road. Soon after the first meeting-house was built, a piece of 
ground near it was marked out for a grave-yard. It has since 
been enlarged, and is now the principal burying-place in the town. 
The land on which the meeting-house stands, and for the burying- 
ground, was given to the society by a Mr. Reynolds. Mr. Mun- 
son was a man of good abilities, of ardent piety, sound in the faith, 
and zealous in promoting the cause of religion, but he lived in 
times of trouble. The revolutionary war occasioned very bitter 
animosities among the people ; and, subsequently, what is called 



the Shays' insurrection was productive of much evil in the town. 
There has been an incorporated Episcopal society in the town 
since 1805. They have a handsome church, standing a few rods 
east of the court-house. There are also in this town a few fami- 
lies of the Baptist and Methodist denominations. Lenox academy 
was incorporated in 1803. At the time of the incorporation, tjie 
legislature made to it the grant of half a township of land in the 
state of Maine, which at that time belonged to Massachusetts. 
This land, for a number of years, was wholly unproductive, but it 
was sold a few years since, and produced a respectable fund, 
the avails of which are appropriated to the support of the institu- 

Lenox is the shire town of Berkshire county. It is situated 
130 miles W. of Boston, 6 S. of Pittsfield, 42 from Springfield, 56 
from Hartford, 30 from Hudson, and 34 from Albany. Popula- 
tion, 1,275. The judicial courts have been held here since 1787. 

Northern view of Lenox. 

The above is a representation of Lenox village, as it is seen from 
near the Congregational church, which is situated on an eminence 
at the northern extremity of the village. On this spot the observer 
has a fine prospect of the village ; beyond which, are seen various 
ranges of lofty hills and mountains, and, far in the distance, is 
seen, towering above all others, the lofty summit of Mount Wash 
ington. The village is uncommonly beautiful in its situation and 
general appearance : it consists of about forty dwelling-houses, 3 
churches, (1 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, and 1 Methodist,) a 
court-house constructed of brick, in a handsome style of architec- 
ture, a hotel, academy, printing-office, and other public buildings. 
The refined state of society in this place, the fine mountain air 
and scenery, and the superior accommodations at the hotel now 
kept by Mr. Wilson, all render Lenox a most desirable place of 
resort during the warm season of the year. 



The following, termed " the Covenant signed hi Lenox, 1774," 
was, by a unanimous vote of the town, in 1828, ordered to be put 
upon the town records, " at the special request of Hon. William 
Walker and Col. Elijah Northrup, the only persons now living in 
the town whose names are in the following list." 

Whereas the Parliament of Great Britain have of late undertaken to give and grant 
away our money, without our knowledge or consent, and, in order to compel us to a 
servile submission to the above measures, have proceeded to block up the harbor of 
Boston ; also have or are about to vacate the charter and repeal certain laws of this 
province, heretofore enacted by the General Court, and confirmed to us by the king 
and his predecessors : therefore, as a means to obtain a speedy redress of the above 
grievances, we do solemnly and in good faith covenant and engage with each other, 

1st. That we will not import, purchase, or consume, or suffer any person for, by, 
or under us, to import, purchase, or consume in any manner whatever, any goods, 
wares, or manufactures which shall arrive in America from Great Britain, from and 
after the first day of October next, or such other time as shall be agreed upon by the 
American Congress; nor any goods which shall be ordered from thence from and 
after this day, until our charter and constitutional rights shall be restored, or until it 
shall be determined by the major part of our brethren in this and the neighboring 
colonies, that a non-importation or non-consumption agreement will not have a ten- 
dency to effect the desired end, or until it shall be apparent that a non-importation or 
non-consumption agreement will not be entered into by the majority of this and the 
neighboring colonies, except such articles as the said General Congress of North Ame- 
rica shall advise to import and consume. 

2dly. We do further covenant and agree, that we will observe the most strict obe- 
dience to all constitutional laws and authority, and will at all times exert ourselves 
to the utmost for the discouragement of all licentiousness, and suppressing all disor- 
derly mobs and riots. 

3dly. We will exert ourselves, as far as within us lies, in promoting peace, love, 
and unanimity among each other, and for that end we engage to avoid all unnecessary 
lawsuits whatever. 

4thly. As a strict and proper adherence to the non-importation and non-consump- 
tion agreement will, if not seasonably provided against, involve us in many difficulties 
and inconveniences, we do promise and agree, that we will take the most prudent care 
for the raising of sheep, and for the manufacturing all such cloths as shall be most 
useful and necessary, and also for the raising of flax, and the manufacturing of linen , 
further, that we will, by every prudent method, endeavor to guard against all those 
inconveniences which might otherwise arise from the foregoing agreement. 

5thly. That if any person shall refuse to sign this or a similar covenant, or, after 
having signed it, shall not adhere to the real intent and meaning thereof, he or they 
shall be treated by us with all the neglect they shall justly deserve, particularly by 
omitting all commercial dealing with them. 

6thly. That if this or a similar covenant shall, after the first day of August next, 
be offered to any trader or shopkeeper, in this county, and he or they shall refuse to 
sign the same, for the space of forty-eight hours, that we will, from thenceforth, pur- 
chase no article of British manufacture or East India goods from him or them, until 
such time as he or they shall sign this or a similar covenant. 

Witness our hands, dated at Lenox, this 14th dayof July, A. D. 1774. 

Israel Dibbell, Isaiah Smith, jr., Timothy Cruttenden, Reuben Root, 

Samuel Guthrie, Samuel Northrup, Isaiah Smith, Elijah Northrup, 

Lazarus Hollister, David Clark, Titus Curtiss, Samuel JVIimson, 

Moses Miller, Joel Goodrich, Thomas Tracy, David Clark, jr., 

Bildad Clark, Joseph Hollister, Enos Curtiss, Eleazer Barret, 

Jared Ingersol, Isaac Bateman, Joseph Dwight, Rufus Branch, 

Elisha Pangs, John Root, Rozel Ballard, Solomon Hollister, 

Moses Wood, Prosper , Joel Blin, Job St. Leonard, 

John Adams, Timothy Steel, Moses Hyde, Uriah Cross, 

Amos Stanley, Noah Yale, Charles Mattoon, Thomas Gates, 

Timothy Way, Mathias Hall, Jehiel Hollister, Samuel Jerome, 

Jcdidiah Cruttenden, Silas Blin, James Richards, Thomas Benedict, 

Jrsse Hollister, Paul Dewy, Ephraim Cary, Charles Dibbell, 


Thomas Steel, 

Elias Willard, jr., 

Ebenezer Turrill, 

Gershom Martindaie, 

Oliver Beldin, 

Matthew Miller, 

David Root, 

Titus Parker, 

Caleb Hyde, 

Ashley Goodrich, 

Jacob St. John, 

Ashbel Treat, 

John Patersom, 

Reuben Sheldon, 

Daniel Keeler, 

John Treat, 

Ephraim Smith, 

James Guthrie, 

Stephen Cruttenden, 

James Richards, jr.,* 

Edward Gray, 

Jonathan Foster, 

David Hinsdell, 

Stephen Titus, 

Elias Willard, 

William Walker, 

Gorden Hollister, 

Asa Bacon, 

Allen Goodrich, 

Samuel Whedon, 

Amos Benton, 

Hopson Beebe, 

Alexander Mackay, 

Jonathan Hinsdale, 

Ephraim Hollister, 

Caleb Culver, 

Thomas Landers, 

William Martindale, 

Samuel Wright, 

Samuel Pond, 

Abraham Northrup, 

Simon Willard, 

Jeremiah Hull, 

Elisha Osborn, 

Thomas Bateman, 

Caleb Bull, 

Nehemiah Tracy, 

David Perry, 

William Maltby, 

Samuel Bement, 

John Gray, 

Enos Stone.} 

Luther Bateman, 

Lemuel Collens, 

Samuel Goodrich, 

Israel Dewey, 

Thomas Foster, 

Zenas Goodrich, 


As early as 1753 or 4, a few families moved into the town. 
George Robinson, Joseph Graves, Thomas Wolcott, and John Dib- 
ble, were among the first settlers. In 1757, the Indian right to the 
land, whatever it might have been, after the sale of the two Hou- 
satonic townships, was purchased for 15. Soon after this, John 
Dibble, John King, Nathan Benjamine, Peter Wooden, Benjamin 
Osborn, Charles Paterson, and others, petitioned the legislature to 
grant them a township here ; and in 1760 the township was actu- 
ally surveyed, under the direction of the legislature, into 50 lots, 
though the grant prayed for was not made until 1774. The town 
was incorporated in 1779. The form of the township is irregular ; 
its length is about six miles, and its average breadth three and a 
half. It was formerly called Tagonic or Taconic Mountain. Its 
surface is uneven, and is very elevated, the center being nearly 
2,000 feet above the neighboring towns, while a mountain ridge 
around this center rises nearly 1,000 feet higher. This ridge con- 
sists mostly of broken ledges of rocks, and but few trees of much 
size grow upon it. There is only soil enough intermingled with 
the rocks to support shrubs from one to four feet high. The 
whortleberry-bush abounds, and the inhabitants in the vicinity 
resort to it in the months of August and September, to gather the 
fruit. This town is 22 miles S. S. W. of Lenox, and 135 W. by S. 
of Boston. Population, 377. In 1835, it is stated in the " Mas- 
sachusetts Directory," that this town " has no minister of any 
denomination, no doctor, no lawyer, no postoffice, and no tavern." 
Since this period a house of worship has been erected in the cen- 
tral part of the town. 

* Mr. R. adds this to his signature : " I, James Richards, jr., do sign the whole 
of this paper, except these words put in, ' particularly by omitting all commercial 
dealing with them :' these words I refuse. J. R." 

f One of the first principal settlers of Rochester, N. Y. 



THIS town began to be settled about 1762, by emigrants from the 
eastern part of the state, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Among 
the early settlers were Nathaniel, Abel, and Gideon Kent, Uriah, 
Peter, and Eli Mallory, William Green, Jacob Lyon, Samuel Grid- 
ley, Jonathan Beach, Samuel P. Tyler, Abraham Kirby, William 
Campbell, Amariah Babbit, Evans Rice, Capt. Martin, and a Mr. 
Mason. This place was incorporated as a district Feb. 26, 1781, 
and enjoyed all the privileges of a town, except that it could not elect 
a representative to the legislature. A small, neat house, for pub- 
lic worship, was erected here in 1828, and dedicated in Jan., 1829. 
Most of the inhabitants are Methodists, who enjoy circuit preach- 
ing about half of the time. 

' This town is about 4 miles square, and is situated principally on 
the steep and rugged hills which make from Saddle mountain on 
the east, and the Taconic range on the west, and which here 
approach each other. In the narrow valley between these hills, 
along the rise of the western branch of the Housatonic and the 
eastern branch of Green river, are some small tracts of more feasi- 
ble laud. Valuable quarries of blue and white marble were opened 
in this town about 1822, which furnish a considerable branch of 
business. This town is 18 miles N. of Lenox, and 130 W. by N. 
of Boston. Population, 253. 


THIS township was originally called No. 2, and was granted in 
1736 to 72 proprietors, mostly belonging to Marlborough and its 
vicinity, in the county of Middlesex, by " The Great and General 
Court or Assembly of his Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England, held at Boston." The proprietors obtained 
the township of the Indians and took a deed, which was confirm- 
ed by the general court. Among other divisions of land into 
which the township was surveyed, were house lots consisting of 
60 acres each, to the number of 63, besides one for each grantee. 
The first improvements were made in 1739, by Mr. Benjamin 
Wheeler, from Marlborough. During the hard winter of 1739-40, 
he remained the only white inhabitant in the town. The Indians, 
though in most respects friendly, forbade him the use of the gun f 
lest he should kill the deer, and thus withheld from him part 
of the means of his support. His nearest white neighbors were in 
Sheffield, a distance of 10 miles, some of whom came on snow- 
shoes to see him. In the following summer he visited Marlborough 
and returned with his family. Among the other first settlers were 
Noah Church, Jabez Ward, Thomas Tatlow, Elias Keyes, Joseph 
Blackmer, Jesse Taylor, John Taylor, William Witt, Philip 
Brookins and Samuel Bryan, from Marlborough or the vicinity, in 


1741; Joseph Adams, Moses Cleaveland, Silas Freeman, in 1744; 
and Charles Adams, Solomon Randsford, Nathan Randsford and 
Jarvis Pike, in 1745, from Canterbury, Con. Families by the name 
of Sheldon, Wright and Allen, from Northampton, Mass, and Shel- 
don, Norton, and Harmon, from Suffield, Con., moved in about 1745, 
and William Alexander and John Thompson the succeeding year, 
from Dedham. The first born in town were twins, children of Mr. 

The first church in the town was organized on the 31st of Oct. 1744, with 5 members 
On the following day, the Rev. Thomas Strong, a native of Northampton and graduate 
of Yale College, was ordained pastor of this church. His salary was 50. The first 
meeting-house was erected in 1743. The expense of building it was defrayed by the 
proprietors of the town. The second meeting-house of this society was built in 1793 
In consequence of some disagreement concerning the location of this house, anothei 
house was built the same year, and in 1794 the town was divided by the legislature, 
and a new parish, called the south parish, incorporated. On the 25th of April, 1794, the 
second or South church was formed, of 21 members, from the first church. The first 
pastor of this church, Rev. John Stevens, a native of Danbury, Con., and graduate of 
Yale College, was settled over the society Oct. 22, 1794. This parish has a ministerial 
fund, obtained by subscription in 1794, amounting to about $3,150. 

This town was incorporated in 1759, is eight and a half miles 
in length and 5 in breadth. The surface is generally uneven and 
hilly, and, like most of the more elevated towns in the county, stony ; 
though at the time of the settlement, the stones were so deeply 
covered with vegetable mould that the first inhabitants are said to 
have expressed their fears that they should not find stone enough 
to answer the purposes of building. Their fears were removed by 
finding a quarry of white stone, split by nature into blocks of dif- 
ferent sizes nearly square, on an elevation called Dry Hill. In the 
north-west part of the town is Six-mile pond, first so called by some 
Indians who lived six miles distant from it in Great Harrington, 
and who resorted to it, for the purpose of fishing. The outlet from 
this pond is called Konkapot, from the circumstance that an Indian 
family of that name lived by its side in the borders of Sheffield. 
A stream called Umpachene rises in the east part of the town, and 
passing by the center, runs S. W. and empties in the Konkapot. 
This stream also derives its name from an Indian. In the S. E. 
part of the township is a pond nearly two miles in circumference, 
called Hermit pond, which is the source of a stream, which runs 
S. W. into Canaan. This pond derived its name from the circum- 
stance that a hermit lived for several years on the south-eastern 

The name of this hermit was Timothy Leonard. He came from Fredericksburg, 
Dutchess county, N. Y., five or six years before the revolutionary war ; and though 
he purchased a farm, he led a solitary life till his death. He died June 13, 1817, from 
infirmity and old age, being, as was supposed, in his 70th year. Unwilling that any 
one should remain with him during a single night, he died as he lived, alone and un 
attended. The cause of his leading a solitary life is supposed to be explained by the 
fact that he was an inveterate hater of woman. His description of them was, 

" They say they will, and they won't ; 
What they promise to do they don't." 

" Let none smile at the history of Timothy Leonard, for he is not a solitary instance 
in which disappointed hope and mortified pride have been suffered tc blot out the social 
affections, and produce uselessness, wretchedness and ruin." 

OTIS. 85 

In the west part of the town is a cave of some little note. It 
has several apartments of various dimensions, whose sides and 
roofs are limestone, on which stalactites are continually forming. 
About one fourth of a mile S. W. of the south meeting-house is a 
rock judged to weigh 30 or 40 tons, so equally balanced on another 
rock, that a man may move it with one finger. This town is 20 
miles S. by E. of Lenox, and 130 S. W. by W. of Boston. Popu- 
lation, 1,570. 


THIS town consists of the former town of London and the dis- 
trict of Bethlehem. London was incorporated in 1773. Previously 
it was called Tyringham Equivalent, because it had been granted 
to the proprietors of that town to compensate them for some losses 
which they had sustained. Bethlehem was incorporated in 1789. 
This was originally called the north eleven thousand acres, in refer- 
ence to Southfield, which was called the south eleven thousand acres. 
The settlement of London commenced probably about 1750 or 55. 
Some of the earliest inhabitants whose names can be ascertained 
were David Kibbe, Stephen Kibbe, Isaac Kibbe, Dan. Gregory, 

Larkeom from Enfield, Con., Jeremy Stow, Eldad Bower, E. 

Pel ton, George Troop, Ebenezer Trumbull, Jacob Cook, Timothy 
Whitney, Jonathan Norton and Samuel Marcy. The vote to 
build the first school-house was passed in 1774. The town settled 
but very slowly. Bethlehem began to be settled several years after 
London. The names of some of the first settlers were Thomas 
Ward, Daniel Sumner, Phineas Kingsbury, John Plumbe, Adonijah 
Jones, Ebenezer Jones, Miles Jones, James Brackenridge, John 
Spear, and Robert Hunter. Most of these, and the subsequent in- 
habitants who moved into the district, came principally from Con. 
In June 1809 the district of Bethlehem was united with the town 
of London, the town still bearing the name of London. At a town 
meeting held in May 1810 it was proposed to have the name of the 
town altered at the discretion of P. Larkeom, Esq., then representa- 
tive at the general court ; and in June he obtained for it the name 
of Otis, in honor of the speaker of the house of representatives, the 
Hon. H. G. Otis of Boston. 

It appears from the records of the town that money was voted from year to year to 
hire preaching. About 1772, before the incorporation of the town, a person came into 
it by the name of George Troop, who asserted himself to be a candidate for the minis- 
try, whom the inhabitants employed several years ; though it appeared finally that 
he had no license to preach. On a time appointed some of his hearers undertook to 
ordain him, and he on his part to form them into a church, after which he led them to 
the choice of deacons. The people at length becoming dissatisfied with him, an eccle- 
siastical council, convened in 1775, decided that he had no authority to preach or to 
organize a church, and that his church was not a regular church of Christ. He left 
the town in 1776 and joined the United States army in the character of chaplain, ami 
his church separated and dissolved. On the 2d of Feb. 1779 a regular church was 
formed of 7 members. The Bethlehem church was organized Sept. 14, 1795, of 8 
members. At a conference of these churches, held June 5th, 1810, it was mutually 
agreed to become one church. No house of worship was ever built in Loudon, though 
different attempts were made for the purpose. Before the union of the town and dis- 
trict in 1809,the united society agreed to erect a meeting-house, and procured timber and 

b6 PERU. 

fixed upon a place to set it. This house was built by subscription, and was dedicated 
in the autumn of 1813. For a while after, the society had the services of Rev. Aaron 
Kinne, and some other clergymen. In Nov. 1814, the Rev. Jonathan Lee was invited 
to preach in the place, and was ordained pastor June 28, 1815. 

When Shays' insurrection broke out in 1786, a number of people who lived in the 
north part of the town, and attended meeting at Sandisfield, became alienated from 
their minister, the Rev. Mr. Storrs, on account of his opposition to the party of Shays. 
They withdrew from his ministry and professed themselves Baptists, and united with 
some inhabitants in the western part of Bethlehem in forming a Baptist church. They 
built a meeting-house, which stands in the south-western corner of this town. In the 
sjouth-eastern section is a Methodist society, who have a meeting-house, which was 
erected by subscription in 1816. There is an Episcopal society in the center of the 
lown, which was organized on the 1st of Jan. 1828. 

The general aspect of this town is uneven and broken. It 
abounds with granite rock, which renders the tillage difficult and 
expensive. At the distance of half a mile west of the center is a 
rock, with an opening or cavity in it, near the surface of the ground, 
where crystals of quartz and iron pyrites have been found. In 
the early settlement of Bethlehem, Daniel Sumner, while hunting 
for deer near by this rock, heard a sudden loud explosion, which 
much surprised and alarmed him. Curiosity leading him to exam- 
ine from what source it proceeded, he found an unusual appear- 
ance of the rock, which was discolored, where a fissure had been 
made, from which he concluded that the sound had proceeded 
from that place. It was probably produced by the combustion of 
hydrogen gas. This town is 15 miles S. E. of Lenox, and 120 W. 
by S. of Boston. Population, 1,077. 


THIS township included the greater part ol Hinsdale until 1804. 
The whole was purchased at auction, at Boston, June 2, 1762, for 
1,460. This was denominated No. 2 of the nine townships which 
were sold at that time. It went into the hands of Oliver Partridge 
and Elisha Jones, and, in honor of the former gentleman, was called 
Partridgefield from its incorporation in 1771 until 1806, when it 
received its present name. It is about 6 miles long and four and a 
half broad. Within these limits the settlement commenced about 
1764. Between this time and 1768, Henry Badger, from New 
Jersey, Nathaniel Stowell, from Connecticut, Peter, Daniel, and 
Nathan Thompson, brothers, from the eastern part of this state, set- 
tled in it, and Ebenezer Pierce shortly after. This town, occupying 
the height of land on the Green mountain range, has a cold, severe 
climate. The surface is uneven, and the soil hard and stony, and] 
best adapted to grazing. There is a limestone quarry, from which 
lime is made of the best quality. The first team is said to have 
crossed the mountain in this town in 1767, over which a turnpike 
road now passes. 

The inhabitants of this place have been distinguished for their 
zeal in supporting the institutions of the gospel. They are mostly 
Congregationalists, though there are some Baptists and Methodists 

V * 



belonging to societies in the adjoining towns. The church was 
organized with about 35 members, in 1770, and the Rev. Stephen 
Tracy, from Norwich, Connecticut, was ordained their pastor in 
April, 1772. The first meeting-house was erected in 1780, arid 
the present one July 18, 1807. It is a remarkable fact, that the 
rain from the east roof of this house flows into Connecticut river, 
and from the west into the Housatonic. This town is about 15 
miles N. E. of Lenox, and 111 W. of Boston. Population, 656. 


THE settlement of this town was commenced in 1752, by Solo- 
mon Deming, who moved with his family from Wethersfield, Con., 
and settled in the east part of the town. Charles Goodrich and a 
number of others soon followed. Mrs. Deming was the first white 
female who came into the town, and was often left alone through 
the night by the necessary absence of her husband, when there 
was not another white inhabitant in the town, and the wilderness 
was filled with Indians. She was the last, as well as the first, of 
the settlers, and died in March, 1818, aged 92. Mr. Goodrich 
(who died in 1815, in the 96th year of his age,) drove the first cart 
and team into the town from Wethersfield, and was obliged to cut 
his way through the woods a number of miles. In the year 1753, 
Simeon Crofoot, Charles Goodrich, Jacob Ensign, Solomon Deming, 
Stephen Crofoot, Samuel Taylor, and Elias Willard, obtained an 
act from the general court, incorporating them by the name of 
" The proprietors of the settling lots in the township of Poontoo- 
suck." This was the Indian name of the place, which was retained 
until 1761, when the town was incorporated by the name of Pitts- 
field, in honor of the celebrated statesman William Pitt. The pro- 
prietors were driven off once or twice by the Indians in the time 
of the second French war. Three small forts were erected in dif- 
ferent parts of the town, as places of safety against the Indians. 

The first meeting-house was erected a little south of the present 
Congregational church. The Rev. Thomas Allen was ordained 
the first pastor, April 18, 1764. He continued in that relation till 
his death, which occurred Feb. 11, 1810. Owing to political differ- 
ences this church was divided from 1808 till 1817, during which 
time the minority were a separate church, and settled Mr. Thomas 
Punderson their minister, but were again united in the last-men- 
tioned year, and Rev. Heman Humphrey installed their pastor. 

Pittsfield is finely situated at the junction of the principal branches 
of the Housatonic river, and occupies a beautiful expansion of the 
valley between the Taconic and Green mountain range. The 
soil of this township is of a superior quality, and is divided into 
farms exhibiting fine specimens of agriculture. The village in the 
central part of the town is one of the largest and best built in the 
county. There is a public square in the center, containing about 


four acres: in the center of this square is a large elm, which 
was left standing when the original forest was cleared away. It 
is 126 feet in height, and 90 feet to the limbs. It is a striking 
object, and never fails to attract the notice of strangers. There are 
in the village 4 churches : 1 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 1 Bap- 
tist, and 1 Methodist; the Berkshire Medical Institution, and a 
number of other public buildings. There is also a bank, the 
" Agricultural Bank," incorporated in 1818, with a capital of $100,- 
000 ; a printing-office, an academy, and other seminaries of learn- 
ing. The Berkshire Medical Institution waa incorporated in 1823, 
and is connected with Williams College, at Williamstown. There 
is a Lyceum of Natural History connected with this institution, 
formed by its trustees, according to act of the legislature. Pitts- 
field is 6 miles from Lenox, 33 E. S. E. from Albany, and 125 W. 
from Boston. Population, 3,575. 

In 1837, there were in the town 2 cotton mills, consuming 125,- 
000 Ibs. of cotton ; 500,000 yards of cotton manufactured ; 6 woollen 
mills, consuming 315,000 Ibs. of wool; 233,000 yards of cloth 
manufactured, valued at $547,000. There were 2,135 Saxony 
sheep ; 10,534 merino sheep ; other kinds of sheep, 293 ; the value 
of the wool produced, $19,443 ; capital invested, $349,974. The 
value of muskets manufactured, $24,000 ; and 30 hands employed. 
Value of carriages manufactured, $20,000 ; hands employed, 30. 
Beside the above, various other articles are manufactured, such as 
buttons, brooms, hats, leather, chairs, &c. 


THIS township was first purchased of two chieftains of the Stock- 
bridge tribe of Indians, by the agency of Samuel Brown, jr., Esq., of 
Stockbridge, in or about the year 1763. The consideration for the 
purchase was 1,700. It appears that by a resolve of the general 
court, passed Feb. 17 of the same year, the purchase was confirmed 
to the several proprietors on condition of their paying the stipulated 
sum of money to the Indians, and that they should, within five 
years' time, have 50 settlers residing within the limits, who should 
each have a good dwelling-house, and that they should have a 
learned Protestant minister settled among them within the time 
specified. The settlement of the town commenced in 1760. In 
the summer of that year, Capt. Micah Mudge moved his family 
into the place, and in the succeeding autumn Mr. Ichabod Wood, 
from Rehoboth. These two families settled about 3 miles apart, 
and remained alone in the wilderness through a long and gloomy 
winter. In the year 1761, several families moved to this place, 
viz. Elijah and Isaac Brown, John Chamberlain, David Pixley, 
Joseph Patterson, and Daniel, Timothy, and Aaron Rowley, who 
generally settled in the south and west parts of the town. In 1762, 
Joseph and Paul Raymond, and John and Daniel Slosson, from 


Kent, Con., moved in, and some others. From that time, the set- 
tlement advanced rapidly, until every part of the town was inha- 
bited. The most part of the first settlers were from Connecticut 
and Long Island. The church was formed in Richmond about 

1765. In that year, the Rev. Job Swift, afterwards the minister 
of Bennington, Vt, was settled as their pastor. He was a native 
of Sandwich, Mass., and a graduate of Yale College in 1765. 
President D wight says, " Dr. Swift was one of the best and most, 
useful men I ever knew. To the churches and ministers of Ver- 
mont he was a patriarch : and wherever he was known he is 
remembered with the greatest veneration." The present Congre- 
gational meeting-house was built in 1794, at the cost of $4,000. 
The Methodist society have a neat and convenient meeting-house, 
which was built in 1825. 

This town was incorporated on the 20th of June, 1765, by the 
name of Richmond, (after the Duke of Richmond). In the year 

1766, on the 26th of February, the township was divided by an 
act of the legislature, and the easterly part incorporated by the 
name of Lenox. The tract included between the mountains is a 
pleasant and fertile valley, averaging about 3 miles in width, 
enclosed by hills on the east and west, commanding delightful 
prospects. An intelligent gentleman, who had spent many years 
in foreign countries, after passing through this town, and viewing 
the valley from the hill on the west, observed that in natural 
scenery it excelled the view from the famous Richmond Hill, in 
England. This town joins Lenox : distance from that place, 5 
miles, and 135 W. of Boston. Population, 820. There is a fur- 
nace in the town for the manufacture of pig iron, which in 1837 
employed 40 hands, who manufactured 600 tons, valued at $26,400. 
There were 4,835 merino sheep, whose fleeces averaged 3 pounds 
and valued at $8,703; capital invested, $90,000. 


THIS town, in connection with others, was granted to a company 
who petitioned for the same in 1735. It was called No. 3. The 
proprietors mostly lived in the county of Worcester. The patent 
of the town was granted in 1736, and soon after the location of 
town lots was made. No family moved into the place till 1750. 
Thomas Brown was the first. Soon after, his father, Daniel 
Brown, Esq., moved in with his numerous family. He -was one 
of the principal men ; was born near Boston, but had lived for 
some time in Enfield, Con. The settlement of the town advanced 
rapidly. A large number of families came in from Wethersfield, 
Con., and the adjoining towns, and also a considerable number from 
the towns below Plymouth, on Cape Cod. The first white child bora 
in the town was named Lot Smith, Aug. 7, 1757, because the pro- 
prietors, meeting on the day he was born, proposed giving him a 
lot of land. The town enjoyed the preaching of the gospel within 

90 SAVOY. 

6 or 6 years of the first settlement. The first meeting-house was 
erected in 1757, and stood till 1796, when a new one was built. 
The site is nearly in the center of the town, and the house is lite- 
rally founded on a rock. The church was formed in 1756. Rev. 
Cornelius Jones, a native of Bellingham, and a graduate of Har- 
vard College in 1752, was the first minister in the place. He was 
ordained at the time the church was organized. The place of the 
transactions of the day, for the want of a more convenient place, 
was a barn. The first President Edwards, then settled over the 
Stockbridge Indians, was moderator of the council, and preached 
the ordination sermon. There are two Baptist churches in this 
town, though the meeting-house of the second society is in the N. 
W. corner of Otis. The first was organized Aug. 21, 1779. Their 
first pastor was Elder Joshua Morse, who was ordained Oct. 2, of 
the same year. The second Baptist church, consisting of 19 mem- 
bers, was constituted April 25, 1788. Mr. Benjamin Baldwin, a 
native of Otis, was ordained over this church June 9, 1790. This 
town was incorporated in 1762, and now includes the original 
township of Sandisfield, and the tract formerly called the south 
11,000 acres. This tract was incorporated as a district in 1797, 
and annexed to Sandisfield in 1819. The length of the township 
is about 9 miles and the breadth six. The surface is hilly ; the 
hills rise to a considerable height, but not abrupt, they being 
mostly large swells. A considerable mountain rises, however, on 
the western bank of Farmington river, in the S. E. section of the 
town, known by the name of Hanging mountain. It is 450 feet 
in height above the bank, and presents to the S. E. a mural perpen- 
dicular front. This town was originally Indian hunting-ground. 
In clearing a piece of wood-land a few years ago, a large number 
of arrow-heads of stone were found carefully deposited between 
two rocks, probably placed there ages ago. It does not appear 
that the town was ever an Indian settlement. This town is 20 
miles S. E. by E. of Lenox, and 112 W. by S. of Boston. Popu- 
lation, 1,493. 


THE general court, in 1770 or 71, granted to Col. William Bul- 
lock, of Rehoboth, agent for the heirs of Capt. Samuel Gallop and 
company, a township of land 6 miles square, in consideration 
of the services and sufferings of the said Gallop and com- 
pany in an expedition into Canada in 1690, in King William's 
war. The greater part of this grant composes the present town 
of Savoy. The first family settled in this town in Sept., 1777, 
and within 10 years from that time 35 families were located in 
the place. Some of these were Lemuel Hatheway, Daniel 
Wetherell, William Wilbore, Zachariah Padelford, and Joseph, 
William, Thomas, and Joseph (jr.) Williams, fromTaunton, John 


Bourn, Joseph Bishop, Comfort Bates, Abiel Dunham, Michael 
Sweet, and David Matthews, from Attleborough, and families of 
the names of Babbit, Shearman, Reed, Bennet, Ingraham, Nelson, 
Rogers, Fuller, Putney, and Heath, from other places. Public 
worship was early established in this town. Most of the people 
ire Baptists, though there are some Methodists and Congregation- 
alists. The Baptist church was organized June 24, 1787. Their 
first minister was Elder Nathan Haskins, a native of Shutesbury, 
ordained in 1789. The society built their meeting-house half a 
mile north of the hollow, in 1804. Savoy is a mountainous town- 
ship, and a large portion of it too broken for cultivation. The 
best lands are in the north and east parts. The inhabitants are 
mostly farmers, who raise stock and keep large dairies. The vil- 
lage called Savoy village is in the south part of this town, on the 
north branch of the Westfield river. This little village consists 
of 2 churches, (1 Baptist, 1 Methodist,) 2 taverns, 2 stores, and 
about 15 dwelling-houses. Distance, 25 miles from Lenox, 7 from 
South Adams, 28 to Northampton, 29 to Greenfield, and 44. to 
Troy, N. Y. 


As early as 1722, Joseph Parsons and 176 other persons within 
the county of Hampshire, petitioned the general court of Massa- 
chusetts for two townships of land on the river Housatonic or 
Westbrook. This petition was granted Jan. 30, 1722-3, and a 
committee appointed for the purpose of making the purchase of 
the Indians, dividing the tract, granting lots, admitting settlers, 
&c. On the 25th of April, 1724, the committee made the pur- 
chase of the Indians and received from them a deed, "in conside- 
ration of 460, three barrels of cider, and thirty quarts of rum." 
This deed was signed and sealed by Konkepot and twenty other 
Indians at Westfield, before John Ashley, justice of the peace. The 
Indians in this deed reserved to themselves two small tracts, which 
on their removal, about 10 years after, they exchanged for land in 
Upper Housatonic, within the present town of Stockbridge. There 
were two or three small Indian settlements in this town, though 
but a few traces of them are now to be found. On a gravelly 
hillock in the north part of the town, in a tract which they reserved, 
it is supposed was their burying-place. Human bones were 
discovered in making the turnpike road through the town two 
and a half miles south of the meeting-house, on the rise of ground 
a few rods south of the turnpike gate, which led* to the conclusion 
that this spot too was an Indian burying-place. 

In 1725, Capt. John Ashley and Capt. Ebenezer Pomroy, two 
of the committee, made a general division of the lower township, 
especially of the part lying upon the river ; and soon after the 
place began to be settled by individuals from the county of Hamp- 



shire, and mostly from the town of Westfield. In 1726 the settlers 
were subjected to much inconvenience and vexation by some of 
the Dutch inhabitants of the province of New York, who con- 
tested the titles to the lands. They were also subjected to priva- 
tion through fear of the Indians, and were obliged for safety to 
picket in two or three dwellings in different parts of the town, to 
which they resorted to spend the night. 

Southern view of Sheffield, (central part). 

In 1733 the lower township Housatonic was set off and 
incorporated as a town, eight miles long on the river, and wide 
enough to include 7 square miles ; and was named Sheffield, pro- 
bably from Sheffield in England. It extended north to Great 
Barrington bridge. In 1761 the town was reduced to its present 
limits, 8 miles in length and 7 in breadth. Among the first settlers 
of this town were those of the name of Noble, Austin, Westover. 
Kellogg, Pell, Callender, Corban, Muggins, Smith, Ingersoll, Dewey, 
Root. &c., in all about 60, who had their lands, from 250 to 1,000 
acres each, confirmed to them by the committee. Mr. Obadiah 
Noble, from Westfield, was the first white man who resided in the 
town. He spent the first winter here with no other human being 
than the Indians. In spring he went back to Westfield, and in 
June returned with his daughter. The first church in this town 
was organized on the 22d of Oct., 1735. Mr. Jonathan Hubbard, 
of Sunderland, and a graduate of Yale College, was ordained their 
pastor on the same occasion. The people had built a meeting- 
house the summer previous. 45 feet by 35. This house stood till 
1762. when a new one was erected. 

The engraving above is a view of the Congregational church 
(the only church in the town) and some other buildings in the 
central part of the town, with the east mountain in the distance. 
The first meeting-house stood about half a mile north of the pre- 
sent house, near the house of Mr. Hubbard, the first minister, 
which is still standing and occupied by his son. This place is 
20 miles from Lenox, 28 from Hudson, 28 from Litchfield, 48 from 
Hartford, and about 125 from Boston. Population, 2,308. 


A Baptist church was formed in this town on the 7th of July, 
1825, with 15 members. There are a few Episcopalians and 
Methodists in the town. 

The town includes an extensive vale, and, except on the east, is 
generally level. In that part there is an extensive chain of con- 
siderable hills, extending from one end of the township to the 
other. On the west it is mountainous : Taconic, or Mount Wash- 
ington, as this part of the Taconic range is more generally called, 
is about 2500 feet in height, and presents a magnificent spectacle. 
A part of this mountain is within the limits of Sheffield. This 
town affords great abundance of white marble, and much of ex- 
cellent quality. The soil of the township is generally productive, 
and in the vale easily tilled. Large quantities of hay are easily 
obtained from the extensive intervals lying upon the river. The 
Housatonic, which passes through the length of the town, is here 
a silent, sluggish stream, from 6 to 8 rods in breadth. From this 
town it passes into Connecticut, and, flowing through the western 
part of the state, empties into Long Island Sound between Mil- 
ford and Stratford. 13 miles west of New Haven. 

The following singular occurrences are said to have taken place 
near the boundary line between Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
Part of these occurrences took place in this town, and part in the 
adjoining town of" Salisbury, in Connecticut. The relation of 
these circumstances was obtained from Mr. S. Sage and his family, 
who are still living on the spot, (June, 1836,) and could be corro- 
borated by great numbers of people now living : 

" These occurrences commenced Nov. 8th, 1802, at a clothier's shop. A man and 
two boys were in the shop ; the boys had retired to rest, it being between 10 and 
11 o'clock at night. A block of wood was thrown through the window ; after that, 
pieces of hard mortar, till the man arid boys became alarmed, and went to the house 
to call Mr. Sage, who arose from bed and went to the shop, and could hear the glass 
break often, but could not discover from whence it came, notwithstanding the night 
was very light. He exerted himself to discover the cause without success. It con- 
tinued constantly till day-light, and then ceased till the next evening at 8 o'clock, 
when it commenced again, and continued till midnight ; then ceased till the next 
evening al dusk, and continued tiH some time in the evening, and then ceased. The 
next day it commenced about an hour before sun-down, and continued about an hour, 
and then it left the shop and began at the dwelling-house of Mr. Ezekiel Landon, 100 
rods north, in the town of Sheffield. It continued several hours, and ceased till 
the next morning: when the family were at breakfast it began again, and continued 
two or three hours, and ceased till evening, when it began again and continued 
several hours, and ceased till the next morning, when it began again and con- 
tinued all the forenoon, and then ceased altogether. The articles thrown into the 
shop were pieces of wood, charcoal, stone, but principally pieces of hard mortar, 
such as could not be found in the -neighborhood. Nothing but stones were thrown 
into the house of Mr. Landon, the first of which were thrown into the,dooi. There 
were 38 panes of glass broke out of the shop, and 18 out of the dwelling houses : 
in two or three instances persons were hit by the things that were thrown. What 
was remarkable, nothing could be seen coming till the glass broke, and whatever 
passed through, fell directly down on the window-sill, as if it had been put through 
with a person's fingers, and many pieces of mortar and coal were thrown through 
the same hole in the glass in succession. Many hundreds of people assembled to 
witness the scene, among whom were clergymen and other gentlemen, but none 
were able to detect the source of the mischief. The more credulous readily 
believed it to be witchcraft, but it was generally thought to be some slight of hand, 
effected by a combination of individuals, as the windows were broken on different 
sides of the buildings nearly at the same time." 


The following inscriptions are taken from monuments in the 
grave-yards in this place. 

Sacred to the memory of Jonathan Hubbard, and Mrs. Rachel Hubbard his consort, 
this monument is erected. The Rev. J. Hubbard was the first pastor of the church in 
Sheffield. He was blessed with a lively genius and solid judgment. His public dis- 
cources were judicious, and his conversation instructive. He departed this life July 
6th, 1765, in the 62d year of his age. Our Fathers where are they ? and do the Pro- 
phets live forever ? 

Beneath this stone lies the body of the Rev. John Keep, A. M., pastor of the church 
in Sheffield, who died Sept. 3d, A. D. 1784, JEtat. 36, et ministerii 13, calmly resign- 
ing his mortal life in hope of a blessed immortality thro' the atonement of Jesus 
Christ. He was blessed with natural genius improved by education, and a benevolent 
heart, and was illustrious as a Divine, a Preacher, a Friend and a Christian. 

When Suns and Planets from their orbs be hurl'd 

And livid flames involve this smoking world ; 

The Trump of God announce the Savior nigh 

And shining hosts of angels crowd the sky 

Then from this tomb thy dust shall they convey 

To happier regions of eternal day. 

Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Ephraim Judson, Pastor of the church in Sheffield. 
He died on the 23d of February, A. D. 1813, in the 76th year of his age, and 23d of his 
ministry in Sheffield, having been previously the pastor of the church in Norwich, 
and also in Taunion. Mr. Judson was esteemed as a learned divine, an acute 
logician, and an evangelical preacher. He was mild, courteous, and hospitable. 
By his numerous friends he was deemed a wise counsellor, an active peace-maker, 
dc a sincere Christian. "What he was in Truth, the Great Day will disclose. 

Here lies deposited the body of Major General John Ashley, who died Nov. 5, 1799, 
in the 64th year of his age. 

Make the extended skies your tomb, 
Let stars record your worth ; 
Yet know vain mortals all must die, 
As natures sickliest birth. 

This monument is erected to perpetuate the memory of Col. John Ashley, who 
departed this life Sept. 1st, 1802, in the 93d year of his age. 
Virtue alone has majesty in death, 
And triumphs most when most the tyrant frowns j 
Earth highest station ends in Here he lies 
And dust to dust concludes her noblest song. 


THIS town was originally laid out by the general government 
of the state in 1735, for the accommodation of the Indians. In 
the year previous a mission was commenced among the Housa- 
tonic Indians by Mr. John Sergeant, then a candidate for the 
ministry, assisted by Mr. Timothy Woodbridge as schoolmaster, 
under the patronage of the board of commissioners for Indian 
affairs in Boston, of which his excellency Jonathan Belcher, then 
British governor of Massachusetts, was an active and influential 
member. At that time about half of these Indians lived in the 


great meadow on the Housatonic in this town, called by them 
Wnahktukook. Here Konkapot the chieftain resided, who had 
just before been honored by Gov. Belcher with a captain's com- 
mission. His cabin stood on a knoll a few rods north of the 
Konkapot brook, on the east side of the county road. The other 
Indians lived on their reservation in Sheffield, called by them 
Skatehook. For the better improvement of their moral condition 
it was soon found desirable to have these united and settled in one 
place, with such other Indians in the vicinity as might be disposed 
to join with them. Being made acquainted with their situation, 
the legislature, on the 17th of March, 1735, granted them a town- 
ship 6 miles square, to be laid out on the Housatonic river, 
immediately north of Monument mountain, provided the proprie- 
tors and settlers of the Upper Housatonic could be induced to 
give up their right to that portion of their lands on which the new 
township would partly fall. It was wished to include the fine 
alluvial ground at Wnahktukook, where the chieftain resided, and, 
which, to some extent, was under cultivation. The committee met 
with but little difficulty in performing the duties assigned them, 
and in April, 1736, they laid out the town in a square, which inclu- 
ded the present townships of StockbrMge and West-Stockbridge. 

Early in May of that year the Indians began to move into their plantation, and by 
the last of June there were more than 90 persons in the settlement. In Jan., 1737, 
the subject being laid before the legislature by the governor, they ordered that a 
meeting-house 40 feet by 30, together with a school-house, should be built for the 
Indians at the charge of the province. On the 7th of May in this year, the grant of 
the town was confirmed to the Indians, their heirs and assigns ; and in 1739, the town 
was incorporated by the name of Stockbridge, after the town of that name in Eng- 
land. Their meeting-house was first opened for public worship on the 29th of Nov., 
1739, the day of thanksgiving in the commonwealth. It stood a few rods north-east 
of the site of the present south meeting-house. The settlement gradually increased 
for many years, until they numbered, at one time, nearly 500, though it is probable 
that their average number, while they remained in the town, was about 400. A short 
time before the revolutionary war, a township, 6 miles square, was given them by 
the Oneidas, in the state of New York. After the close of the war, in 1783, some of 
them removed, a large proportion of them in 1785, and the residue in 1788. In 1810, 
they are represented to have numbered more than 600. In 1822 these Indians began 
to move to Green Bay, on the southern shore of Lake Michigan, on to a tract of 
5,000,000 acres, purchased for them and other Indians in the state of New York, for 
$500, of the Menominie and WLnnebago tribes. The head of Green Bay is near the 
center of their purchase. The residence of Capt. Konkapot has been mentioned- 
that of King Ben [Benjamin Kokkewenaunaut] was on the elevated ground back of 
the Housatonic, half a mile west of the plain. In 1771, being then 94 years old, 
this chieftain told his people that they must appoint another king, and king Solomon 
[Solomon Unhaunnauwaunnutt] was chosen his successor. His house was on the 
south bank of the Housatonic, opposite Little Hill. He died in Feb., 1777, aged 50. 
King Ben lived till April 1781, being 104 years old. Some of the Indians' houses 
were on the plain, some on the meadows near the river, and a few about Barnum's 
brook. These Indians at first were called by the English River Indians, afterwards 
more generally Housatonic. Indians, until the incorporation of this town ; since which 
they have more generally been called Stockbridge Indians. They have also some- 
times, as well as the tribe at Norwich, Conn., been called Mohegans, which is a cor- 
ruption of their proper name Mahhekaneew or Muhhekaneok, signifying "the people 
of the great waters, continually in motion.'" 

One very important effect which this mission produced was, that the friendship of 
these Indians was effectually secured to the English. They performed numerous 
kind offices for the early settlers of the county ; in time of war they were spies for 
the English, and often fought and sometimes shed their blood for them in the army. 


Though Fort Massachusetts was repeatedly attacked in the time of the first French war, 
and terror was spread through all this region, yet, in consequence of the well-known 
friendship of the Muhhekaneews ; no hostile Indians ventured down into the vicinity 
ol ihis place, and the southern section of the county was saved from such calamities 
as befel some of the settlements on Connecticut river, and others to the west, in the 
state of New York. Though in the second French war a few families in different 
parts of the county were disturbed, yet the mischief was small compared with what 
probably would, have been done, had it not been for the friendship of the Stockbridge 
tribe. In this war many of the Indians were received as soldiers in the service of 
Massachusetts, and showed their fidelity by fighting for the whites. In the revolu- 
tionary war a part of the company of minute men under the command of Captain 
Goodrich, of this town, was composed of these Indians. A company went to 
White Plains under Capt. Daniel Nimham, where some were slain, and others died 
with sickness. Numbers served at other places. At the close of the war General 
Washington directed the contractors for supplying a division of the army at West 
Point with provisions, to give the Indians a feast, in consideration of their good conduct 
in the service. An ox weighing 1,100 Ibs. was roasted whole ; the whole tribe partook of 
it; the men first, and then the women, according to custom. The Rev. John Sergeant 
(the younger) and a Mr. Deane presided at the table, and the principal men of the 
place attended. The feast was kept near the residence of King Solomon, and after 
this was over the Indians buried the hatchet in token that the war Avas past, and 
performed some other ceremonies in their own style for the gratification of the com- 
pany. The school commenced among these Indians by Mr. Woodbridge, in the 
autumn of 1734, was kept by him many years, and was regularly kept aftenvards 
(for some time by Mr. John Sergeant, Jim.) until the Indians emigrated to the region 
of the Oneidas, 

The following account of Mr. Sergeant's labors is taken from 
the History of Stockbridge, by the Rev. David D. Field. 

In 1741, Mr. Sergeant projected the plan of a boarding-school, which was summa- 
rily this : That a tract of land of about 200 acres should be set aside for the use of 
the school, and a house erected upon it ; that a number of children and youth, be- 
tween the ages of 10 and 20. should be received, and placed under the care of two 
masters, one of whom should take the oversight of them in their hours of labor, and 
the other in their hours of study, and that their time should be so divided between the 
hours of labor and study, as to make one the diversion of the other; that the fruit of 
their labors should go towards their maintenance, and to carry on the general design ; 
and that a stock of cattle should be maintained on the place for the same purpose. It 
was also proposed to take into the number, on certain conditions, children from any 
of the Indian tribes around, that by their means the principles of virtue and Christian 
knowledge might be spread as far as possible. 

This project was very popular among the Indian and English inhabitants of this 
place, and much was eventually done by them, considering their circumstances, for 
promoting it. It was also popular with the commissioners and their friends in Boston. 
But before much was done, the first French war commenced, which rendered it neces- 
sary that the actual establishment of the school should be postponed for a season. In 
the mean while, as the Corporation for Indian Affairs, under which the commissioners 
acted, existed in London, the project attracted the favorable notice of such blessed 
men there as Dr. Isaac Watts and Capt. Thomas Coram, who exerted themselves to 
raise funds for the support of the school. The Prince of Wales headed a subscription 
with 20 guineas, and a few others high in rank and office subscribed for it. Mr. Isaac 
Hollis made provision at first for supporting 12 boys, and afterwards for supporting 
24. and was so anxious that the children should be instructed immediately, that Mr. 
Sergeant took 12 under his care in the beginning of 1748. But as it was not alto- 
gether safe for them to remain here during the war, he procured Capt. Martin Kel- 
logg, of Newington, in Wethersfield, Conn., to take them in May, and instruct them 
for a year. In 1749, the war being closed, a house for the boarding-school was erected, 
which stood on the southern end of the garden belonging to Mr. Benoni C. Wells. 

The heart of Mr. Sergeant was drawn exceedingly towards this school. His suc- 
cessor, President Edwards, thought much of it, and, directly after his settlement in 
this place, a large council from the Six Nations sat here to consider the subject of 
sending their children to the school. After it was opened, the Rev. Gideon Hawley, 
afterwards missionary at Marshpee, it is understood, instructed it for a time. " He 
taught a few families of Mohawks, Oneidas and Tuskaroras." The Rev. Cotton 


Mather Smith, who afterwards settled in Sharon, Conn., also instructed it for a season. 
But arrangements for managing the school were never very thoroughly made ; and 
admirable as was the plan, and as much as it promised, the occurrence of the second 
French war nearly destroyed it. 

Notwithstanding this unhappy issue, however, in this school, in connection with the 
common school, a considerable number of Indians received a good education. A few 
also were instructed at the Indian charity school at Hanover, N. H., and Peter Poli- 
quonnoppeet was graduated at the college in that town in 1780. This Sir Peter, as 
he was commonly called, was a man of good talents and character, and connected with 
Joseph Quanaukaunt, Capt. Hendrick Aupaumut, and Capt. John Konkapot, in a 
council, which, after the decease of King Solomon, regulated the affairs of the tribe. 
The regal power, it is said, belonged to Joseph Quanaukaunt ; bur being a very modest 
and unassuming, as well as sensible man, he chose not to be king, but wished the 
tribe to be governed by a council. 

Many of the Indians were fitted for the transaction of all ordinary business. A part 
of the town offices were uniformly sustained by them while they remained in this 
place. The speech of one of the chiefs to the Massachusetts congress in 1775, m 
Bingham's Columbian Orator, tendering his services in the revolutionary war, may 
be taken as a specimen of the talent at oratory which some of them possessed. 

As to religion, it is evident that the Spirit of God was poured forth under the minis- 
try of Mr. Sergeant, and that his labors were blessed to the conversion of many souls. 
The Lord's supper was first administered here on the 4th of June, 1738; but as a 
number had made a profession years before, the church must be considered as pre 
viously existing, although we have no express account of the time and manner of its 
organization. About 100, from first to last, made a profession of Christianity ; and 
though it is not certain all these were genuine converts, yet we have no authority for 
restricting the operations of grace entirely to those who became professors, nor indeed 
to the members of this tribe ; for considerable numbers from other tribes occasionally 
listened here to the instructions of the gospel. 

But the extent to which they were civilized and christianized, will be more fully un 
derstood by attending to the labors of the successive missionaries. 

At the time Mr Sergeant received his appointment, he was a tutor in Yale College. 
He visited the Indians in the autumn of 1734, and again in the spring of 1735, and 
in July in the latter year, having relinquished the duties of the tutorship, he took up 
his residence with the Indians for life. On the 31st of August following he was or- 
dained at Deerfield, where Gov. Belcher had made an appointment to meet some In- 
dian tribes about that time, for the purpose of making a treaty with them. The or- 
dination took place on the Sabbath, in the presence of the congregation usually wor- 
shipping there, of the governor and a large committee of both houses of the legisla- 
ture, of the Indians collected from several tribes, and of some of the Housatonic 
Indians, who sat by themselves, and formally received Mr. Sergeant as their mis- 

In the winters of 1734 and 5, and of 1735 and 6, the Indians were instructed in 
Great Barrington, and in the intermediate summer in Sheffield and Stockbridge. 
Upon their removal to this town in May in the year last mentioned, Mr. Wood bridge 
removed here and boarded with Capt. Konkapot. Mr. Sergeant boarded with a fami- 
ly in Great Barrington until January, 1737, when he moved into town, a"hd boarded 
with Mr. Woodbridge, who had settled in a family state. The first residence of Mr. 
Woodbridge was on the " Hill," eastward from the house of Dea. Josiah Jones. He 
afterwards built a house on the farm now owned by Mr. Samuel Goodrich. In the 
course of 1737, Mr. Sergeant built the house on the " Plain," occupied at the present 
time by the widow of Gen. Silas Pepoon, and which is now the oldest house in town. 
He afterwards built the house on the Hill, now occupied by his grandson, Maj. Sewn 11 
Sergeant. In this he died. 

Ignorant of their language, Mr. Sergeant at first instructed the Indians, of neces- 
sity, by the aid of an interpreter. In this way he translated into their language some 
prayers for their daily use, and Watts's first catechism for the benefit of children. But 
as the disadvantages of this mode were many, he applied himself diligently to the 
study of the language, and in August, 1737, began to declare unto them in their own 
tongue the wonderful works of God. Afterwards he made such proficiency in it, that 
the Indians were accustomed to say he spoke their language better than they did. 

The effect of his labors upon the Indians was very happy. From 8 or 10 families 
they had increased to more than 50, during his ministry, had been reclaimed from 
many errors and vices, had assumed a stable character as a society, regularly attended 
public worship, had 20 houses built after the English manner, and paid considerable 


attention to the cultivation of the earth. In singing they were great proficients. Fifty 
or sixty who had become hopeful converts were admitted to full communion by him ; 
some of whom died in the faith before him : 42 survived him. He baptized 182 na- 
tives, adults and infants. His services were also greatly useful to the English who 
settled here. 

Ancient House in Stockbridge. 

The above is a south-eastern view of the house of Mr. Daniel 
B. Fenn, in the central part of Stockbridge village. It was built 
by Mr. Sergeant in 1737, and is the oldest house in the town. 
This house was occupied by the Rev. Jonathan Edwards while he 
resided in this town, and within its walls he completed his cele- 
brated production, " The Freedom of the Will," which is thought 
by many to be the greatest production of the human mind. His 
study was on the lower floor in the south-west corner of the build- 
ing, and was quite contracted in its limits, being but about five feet 
by four, as it appears by the marks of the partition still remain- 
ing. The walls of the house are lined with brick. After Presi- 
dent Edwards left it was occupied by Jehiel Woodbridge, Esq., then 
by Judge Sedgwick, then Gen. Silas Pepoon, and now by Mr. 

Mr. Sergeant was a native of Newark, N. J., and graduate of 
Yale College 1729. In stature he was rather small, but possessed 
a very intelligent, expressive countenance. He died on the 27th 
of July, 1749, and was succeeded in the labors of the mission by 
the Rev. Jonathan Edwards. He entered upon the same general 
course of instruction which his predecessor had pursued, and dis- 
charged his duties with his wonted faithfulness, and to the good 
acceptance of both the people and commissioners. Besides per- 
forming his ministerial duties, he here wrote some of his greatest 
works. Mr. Edwards continued here till Jan., 1758, when he was 
dismissed, to take the presidency of Princeton College. At the 
time of his dismission, the number of Indian families were reduced 
to 42. Rev. Stephen West, of Tolland, Conn., and a graduate of 
Yale College, was ordained the next pastor of this church, June 
13th, 1759, and continued over them until the removal of the 
Indians to the state of New York. 


This town was gradually settled by the English, who bought 
out the Indian rights one after another before their emigration. 
Some of the earliest white settlers, next to Mr. Sergeant and Mr. 
Woodbridge, were Col. Williams, Josiah Jones, Joseph Wood- 
bridge, Samuel Brown, Samuel Brown Jr., Joshua Chamberlain, 
David Pixley, John Willard, John Taylor, Jacob Cooper, Elisha 
Parsons, Stephen Nash, James Wilson, Josiah Jones Jun., Thomas 
Sherman, and Solomon Glezen. Families by the name of Ball, 
Hamilton, Cadwell, and Lynch were in the west part of the town, 
of Curtis and Churchill in the north, and of Bradley and Williams 
in the east, at an early period. 

The great body of the people in this town have ever been Con- 
gregationalists ; though there are some Episcopalians, a few Bap- 
tists and Methodists. The principal village, about half a mile in 
extent, is beautifully situated on the Plain, a tract of level land 
between tl the Hill" and the Housatonic, moderately elevated above 
the river. It consists of about 40 dwelling-houses, a Congrega- 
tional church, a bank, and academy. The scenery of the town 
has been much admired by strangers. It is situated 6 miles S. of 
Lenox, 44 from Springfield, 59 from Hartford, 32 from Hudson, 
34 from Albany, and 130 W. of Boston. Population, 2,036. There 
are in the town a cotton mill with 3,780 spindles, 2 woollen mills 
with 8 sets of machinery, and 2 furnaces, one of which is for the 
manufacture of pig iron, of which in 1837 thirteen hundred arid 
thirty-seven tons were made, valued at $53,480. 

[From the Boston Post Boy, Sept. 3, 1739.] 

"In a letter from a friend in the country, dated Aug. 21, 1739, we have the follow- 
ing passages. I have lately been to see my friends at Housatonnoe, (now called Stock- 
bridge,) and was well pleased to find the Indians so well improv'd, particularly in 
husbandry, having good fields 'of Indian corn, and beans, and oiher sorts of grain, as 
oats, &c. They have good fence about their field, made with their own hands. Some 
of them live in houses built after the English manner, and Capt. Concopot has built a 
barn that is well shingled, &c. They have several horses among them, and some 
cows, hogs, &c. They are many of them grown industrious and diligent in busi- 
ness ; I observed several young women sewing cloth, making shirts, &c. But I was 
in special gratify'd to find them improv'd in learning ; several of them have made good 
proficiency, can read in their Testaments and Bibles, and some of them can write a 
good hand : the children are in general as mannerly as you find in any country town. 
There are about 20 families of Indians that live there ; and now the great and general 
court have taken such effectual care, and put them in possession of the land, they 
have designed for them, (which hitherto they have been hindered from possessing,) 
I make no doubt but they will greatly increase in number ; for several Indians have 
been with them, and manifested a desire to tarry with them, could they have land to 
work upon. There is a church gather d and fourteen Indian communicants ; the 
number of the baptiz'd is near sixty. While I was at Stockbridge, the Rev. Mr. Ser- 
geant (the minister there) was married to Mrs. Abigail Williams, a virtuous and 
agreeable young gentlewoman, daughter of Ephraim Williams, Esq.' There were 
ninety Indians present at the marriage, who behaved with great gravity while the 
prayers were made, yea, during the whole solemnity ; and seem'd exceedingly well 
pleased that their minister was married ; they show him great respect, &c. And 1 
hope he may prove yet a great blessing among them, and be instrumental of turning 
many of them from darkness to light. 

lam your's, fyc." 

The following is the inscription on the monument of Mr. Ser- 
geant, in the grave-yard near the Congregational church. 



Here lies the body of the Rev. Mr. John Sergeant, who dy'd the 27th day of July, 
A. D. 1749 in the 46th year of his age. 

Where is that pleasing form I ask. thou canst not show, 
He's not within false stone, there's nought but dust below ; 
And where's that pious soul that thinking concious mind, 
Wilt thou pretend vain cypher that's with thee inshrin'd ? 
Alas, my friend's not here with thee that I can find, 
Here's not a Sergeant's body or a Sergeant's mind: 
I'll seek him hence, for all's a like deception here, 
I'll go to Heaven, and I shall find my Sergeant there. 


THE settlement of this town commenced in 1739. In April of 
that year Lieut. Isaac Garfield, Thomas Slaton, and John Chad- 
wick, moved into the place. In August following, Capt, John 
Brewer, from Hopkinton, moved into the town and put up a 
house ; and erected mills for the use of the inhabitants, agreeably 
to a contract with the proprietors, on the site of the present Lang- 
don mills. Concerning Capt. Brewer, it is worthy of notice that 
he was the father of 13 children, and his youngest child, Col. Jo- 
siah Brewer, (born in 1744,) had exactly the same number. In 
the French war beginning in 1744, several houses were fortified, 
and the fortifications were rebuilt upon the alarm produced by two 
or three murders in the vicinity, in August, 1755. The first and 
principal of these fortifications was around the house of Capt. 
Brewer, at which some soldiers were placed by the provincial gov- 
ernment. Among thes.e were William Hale, who had assisted in 
building Fort Massachusetts, in Adams. He became a settler here 
as early as 1747, and was afterwards a deacon in the church. 
About 1750, John Jackson moved into the town from Weston, and 
persons by the names of Thomas and Orton ; and four brothers 
by the name of Warren, with their father Joshua, (the first person 
born in Watertown,) moved into it about the same time. The 
south part of the town, sometimes called South Tyringham, was 
generally settled at an early period ; but Hopbrook, or North Ty- 
ringham, was left as an insalubrious marsh for more than 20 years. 
The first log house in this section of the town was erected by Dea. 
Thomas Orton, about 1762. The first settlers were Congregational- 
ists, and in 1743 they erected a meeting-house. The church was 
formed of S members, Sept. 25, 1750, and on the 3d of October fol- 
lowing Rev. Adonijah Bidwell, a native of Hartford, Con., and 
graduate of Yale College in 1740, was ordained its pastor. Iri 
1796, the society built the second meeting-house near the old one, 
which was dedicated July 4, 1798. In 1782, a portion of the peo- 
ple became Shakers, and set up meetings at each other's houses, 
according to the customs of this sect. In 1792, they collected 
together in a body, and formed themselves into what they 
denominate church order. Their settlement is in the north part 
of the town, at Hopbrook, where they own nearly 2,000 acres of 
land. The spiritual concerns of the three settlements at Tyring- 


ham, Hancock, and Enfield, in Con., are superintended by a presid- 
ing elder, assisted by a subordinate elder in each settlement. After 
the close of the revolutionary war some Baptists moved into the 
town from Rhode Island, and there are also some families of 
Methodists. These denominations have meeting-houses in the 
north part of the town. 

This town is 7 miles in length and 5 in width. It was incor- 
porated by the general court May 18, 1762. It is said the name 
was given at the suggestion of Lord Viscount Howe, who owned 
property at Tyringham in England, and who passed through this 
town a few days before he fell near Ticonderoga, July 6, 1758. 
This town is 14 miles S. E. of Lenox, and 116 W. of Boston. 
Population, 1,288. 


THIS town was purchased of the Indians, in 1760, by a com- 
pany, most of which lived in Hartford and Suffield, Con. Some of 
the proprietors settled on their lands the same year. These were 
George Sloan, Andrew Mumford, William Milekan, Elijah Crane, 
Amos Beard, William Beard, Joseph Knox, Nathan Ingraham, 
Joseph Chaplin, and Matthew DeWolf. After the settlement was 
commenced, the proprietors met with some difficulty by the pro- 
vince authorities claiming a right to the township; whereupon 
Nathaniel Hooker, John Townly, and Isaac Sheldon, of Hartford, 
in behalf of themselves and 57 others, proprietors, in the begin- 
ning of 1762 petitioned the general court of Massachusetts to grant 
them the township. This grant was made in February of the 
following year, from which time till 1777 it was called Hartwood, 
The church in this town was formed as early as 1772. After two 
unsuccessful efforts to settle a pastor, the Rev. William G. Ballan- 
tine, of Westneld, was ordained, June 15, 1774. The first meet- 
ing-house was built in 1773, which stood till 1792, when a new 
one was erected. An Episcopal church, called St. John's church, 
was formed here in 1825. There are a considerable number of 
Baptists and also of Methodists in the town. 

This town was incorporated by its present name April 12, 1777. 
It being situated on the Green mountain range, the surface is 
uneven, diversified by hills and valleys. The township is well 
watered by pure springs and brooks, and furnishes in every part 
good farms for grazing. A few years since a considerable number 
of the principal farmers exchanged their improved farms in this 
place for new lands in Ohio, on the St. Lawrence, in New York, 
and elsewhere, and removed, by which the population and prop- 
erty of the town have been much diminished. This town is situ- 
ated 8 miles E. of Lenox, and 120 W. of Boston. Population, 7W. 




North-western view of West Stockbridge Village. 

THIS town originally belonged to the Stockbridge Indians, and 
was sold by them in parcels to individual purchasers. The first 
person who settled in the town was Joseph Bryan, from Canaan, 
Conn., in 1766. In the fall of the same year Col. Elijah Williams, 
from Stockbridge, settled in that part of the town now called 
West Stockbridge village. Between this time and 1774, about 
40 families settled in the town, among whom were the families of 
Increase He wings, Elisha Hooper, Lemuel Burghardt, Christopher 
Brazee, John Minkler and Samuel Boynton, from different places 
in this state, and Ichabod Miller, Samuel Mudge, Elijah Slosson, 
Josiah Arnold, John Deming, Matthew Benedict, Roderic Messen- 
ger, Benjamin Lewis, John Ford, Ambrose Collins, and Amasa 
and James Spencer, from Connecticut. 

The early settlers generally planted themselves down in the north part of the town, 
where the lands are the most feasible and productive. The first meeting-house in this 
town was built in 1788, and the church organized June 4, 1789. Their first minister 
was the Rev. Oliver Ayres. The Baptist church was organized in 1792, and the 
society incorporated and a meeting-house built in 1794. The Rev. Samuel Whelpley, 
from Stockbridge, preached to them for a number of years from the time the society 
was formed. 

This town was incorporated in 1774, and its name was derived from its relation to 
Stockbridge. Before its incorporation it was called Queensborough. A collection of 
rugged hills occupy the center of the town. Near the south-west corner is a mountain 
called Tom Ball, extending into Great Barrington and Alford, while Stockbridge moun- 
tain is on the eastern side. The south and south-eastern parts consist generally of 
rough, broken land. Lime quarries abound. There is much valuable marble in the 
town, of various colors ; some hardly less inferior in whiteness to snow, some parti- 
colored, mostly with blue ; some is dove-colored, some is gray, and some is black. In 
Boynston's quarry, near the village, (in 1828,) an opening or fissure in the rocks, 
about 15 feet deep and from 18 to 4 inches in diameter, was charged with 204 pounds 
of powder. Upon firing it a mass of marble was raised, about 60 feet square on the 
surface and 8 feet thick, and at least twice that quantity was loosened. 

West Stockbridge village is situated near the north line of the town, on Williams' 
river, a mill stream passing through the whole extent of the town. It consists of about 
30 dwelling-houses, 2 churches, 1 Congregational and 1 Methodist, (erected in 1838,) 
and a number of mills for sawing marble. Stockbridge mountain rises immediately 
eastward of the village, and is the boundary between the towns. This place is 5 miles 
from Lenox, 5 from Stockbridge, 47 from Springfield, 63 from Hartford, 28 from Hud- 
.son, 30 from Albany, and 135 from Boston. Population of the town, 1,244. 




THIS town is in the north-west corner of the state. It was ex- 
plored, together with the town of Adams, and the limits traced, oy 
a committee of the general court, in 1749. The committee con- 
sisted of Col. Partridge, of Hatfield, and Col. Choate and Capt. 
Nathaniel Dwight, of Belchertown. Both towns were intended to 
be 6 miles square, but for some reasons they were laid out 7 miles 
in length and 5 in width. This township was called West Hoo- 
sic and the adjoining one East Hoosic. This was the Indian 
name of the tract embraced in these towns. The first meeting of 
the proprietors of which any record is preserved was held Dec. 5, 
1753, by virtue of a warrant of William Williams, Esq., of Pitts- 
field, " issued in pursuance of a vote of the general court of Mas- 
sachusetts Bay," Sept. 10,1753. But "the house lots" in the 
north part of the town were laid out previous to this meeting. 
The settlement of this town, like that of others of that day, was 
retarded by Indian hostilities. Nehemiah Smedley, William and 
Josiah Hosford, and some other young men, came to prepare for 
themselves and families a settlement here, it is believed, in 1751 or 
52. But they were interrupted by the increasing hostility of the 
Indians in those years. Returning to Connecticut, they enlisted in 
a company raised to protect the frontiers, and came again with 
others to this place and garrisoned a fort, which stood a few rods 
north of the present meeting-house, and also a block-house near 
the west college. A few soldiers were kept here in garrison till 
1760. But the inhabitants were exposed to frequent alarms. Some 
were carried into captivity, and in an attack July 11, 1756, Capt. 
Chapin and two persons by the name of Chidestree were killed. 
The dangers nearly ceased at the close of the French war. The 
following are most of the early settlers from the first, till about 

Capt. Nehemiah Smedley, 

William Hosford, 

Josiah Hosford, 

Col. B. Simmons, 

Seth Hudson, 

Richard Stratton, 

Jonathan Meacham, 

James Meacham, 

Thomas Train, 

Thomas Dunton, 

Wilson Webb, 

Derrick Webb, 

Elkanah Paris, 

Capt. Isaac Searle, 

John Newbury, 

Elisha Higgins, 

Dea. Nathan Wheeler, 

Mr. Seely, 

Elisha Baker and Son, 

William Hine, 

Seth Lewis, 

David Nichols, 

Stephen Davis, 

Titus Harrison, 
Isaac Ovitt, 
Thomas Ovitt, 
Josiah Wright, 
Jesse Ryan, 
Samuel Birchard, 
Joseph Wheeler, 
Asa Johnson, 
Robert Hawkins, 
Derrick Smith, 
Joseph Talmadge, 
Elisha Higgins, 
Stephen Olmsted, 
Nathan Smith, 
Isaac Stratton, 
Daniel Burbank, 
Robert McMaster, 
John McMaster, 
Moses Rich, 

Bartholomew Woodcock, 
Nehemiah Woodcock, 
David Johnson, 
Samuel Sloane, 

Alexander Sloane, 
Thomas Roe, 
Ichabod Southwick, 
Jesse Southwick, 
John Torrey, 
William Torrey, 
Capt. Samuel Clark, 
Moses Young, 
Andrew Young, 
William Young, 
Zebadiah Sabin, 
David Johnson, 2d, 
Asa Corben, 
Amasa Corben,' 
Joseph Corben, 
Samuel Mills, 
Jonathan Sherwood, 
Samuel Sherwood, 
Isaac Sherwood, 


Lieut. Sampson Howe. 

Capt. Smedley (at the head of this list) had five brothers who settled in the place. 


The town received also a large number of inhabitants at differ- 
ent times, between 1770 and 1800, from Colchester, Con., among 
which were all the Buckleys, Bridgeses, Chamberlains, Days, 
Fords, Judds, Northarns, Skinners, Tylers, Judah and Elisha 
Williams, Elijah, Thomas, and Solomon Wolcott. At a meeting 
of the proprietors, March 10, 1763, it was voted, " that for the 
future" they u would have preaching," and accordingly a call was 
given to llev. Moses Warren to preach on probation. Two years 
after this, and immediately after the incorporation of the town, the 
proprietors called Mr. Whitman Welch " to the work of the min- 
istry in this town," July 26, 1765. His settlement was 80, 
($267) to be paid one half the first year, the other half the year 
following. His salary was at first 40, and was to be increased 
3 annually, until it should amount to 70, and he was to have 
the use of the ministry-house lot. He was ordained the latter part 
of the year 1765, and continued the pastor of the church nearly 1.2 

Mr. Welch was a native of Milford, Con., and great-grandson of Thomas "Welch, 
one of the 53 " first planters" of that town. His father dying early, the care of his 
education devolved on an uncle, with whom he went to reside in New Milford. He 
graduated at Yale College, in 1762. He was a man of intelligence, and was social in 
his habits, and at suitable times gay and sportive. He was an animated preacher, 
and attentive to the duties of his office. In the winter of 1776, he went with the 
American army to Canada as chaplain, in a regiment to which a party belonged, 
commanded by Lieut. Zebadiah Sabin, of Williamstown. Mr. Welch died of the 
small-pox in March of the same year, near Quebec. 

The first proposal to build a meeting-house was in 1766, in De- 
cember of which year it was voted to build a house 40 feet by 30, 
and to raise 180 for this purpose. The house was erected in 
1768, and was occupied by the congregation for 30 years, when it 
was removed and fitted up for a town-house, and a new meeting- 
house erected, 76 feet in length and 55 in width, at the cost of about 
$6,000. The meeting-house at the south part of the town was 
erected by subscription in 1812, by the united exertions of Con- 
gregationa lists and Baptists. There was early a small Baptist 
congregation in this town. In May, 1791, the town refused " to 
incorporate Matthew Dunning and 14 others into a Baptist socie- 
ty," according to their petition. The next year " Isaac Holmes 
was chosen tythingman for the Baptist society in this town," 
(town records). This church included some members from Han- 
cock, but was always small, and was dissolved in 1811. In 1814, 
another Baptist church was organized, which is now in a flourish- 
ing state. 

The principal street in Williamstown passes over the highest part 
of three eminences ; on the first of which stands the east college and 
the chapel, on the second the west college, and on the third the 
Congregational church, from which the drawing for the engraving 
was taken. There are about 50 dwelling-houses near the colleges, 
standing compactly enough together to be called a village. This 
place is 20 miles from Pittsfield, 45 from Northampton, 14 from 
Bennington, 34 from Troy, and 135 miles from Boston. 



Williams College, in Williamstown, was founded in 1790, was 
incorporated June 22, 1793, and held its first commencement in 
1795, on the first Wednesday in September, which is still its anni- 
versary. It was thus called in honor of Col. Ephraim Williams, 
a native of Newton, near Boston, and eldest son of Col. Ephraim 

Western view of Williams College and other buildings. 

Williams, who was afterwards one of the first settlers of Stock- 
bridge, and a justice of the court of common pleas in the county 
of Hampshire. The following account of Williams College, and 
of Col. Williams its founder, is by the Rev. Chester Dewey, and is 
extracted from the History of Berksire County. 

11 Col. Williams, the younger, led for a number of years~a seafar- 
ing life, but was induced to relinquish it by the persuasion of his 
father. In his several voyages to Europe, in which he visited 
England, Spain, and Holland, he acquired graceful manners, and 
a considerable stock of useful knowledge. In the war between 
England and France, which continued from 1744 to 1748, he dis- 
tinguished himself as commander of a company in the army rais- 
ed in New England for the Canada service. After the peace, he 
retired a while to Hatfield, but was soon appointed commander of 
the line of Massachusetts forts on the west side of Connecticut 
river, and resided principally at Fort Massachusetts, which stood 
not far from the north-eastern end of Saddle mountain, on the 
north border of the Hoosic, in the edge of "Adams, three and a 
half miles from Williamstown. Under the protection of this fort, 
and a small one in Williamstown, which stood a few rods north- 
west of the present site of the meeting-house, the settlers in this 
section of the county began their improvements. Col. Williams, 
who owned considerable land among them, was much conversant 
with them, witnessed their dangers, difficulties and hardships, and, 
for the purpose of encouraging them, intimated an intention of 
doing something liberal and handsome for them at a future time. 
In the second French war, in 1755, he was colonel of a regiment, 


and was ordered to join Gen. Johnson at the north. On his way 
to that station, on the 22d of July in that year, he made his will 
at Albany. On the morning of the 8th of September following, 
he was ordered out at the head of a scouting party, 1,200 strong, 
and was shot through the head by an ambush party of French 
and Indians, near French mountain, a little east of that point of 
Lake George on which Fort George was built in 1759, in the 42d 
year of his age. His detachment returned to the main army, 
which the same day obtained a memorable victory over the 

In his will, after several bequests to his relatives and friends, 
he directed, " that the remainder of his land should be sold, at the 
discretion of his executors, within five years after an established 
peace ; and that the interest of the monies arising from the sale, 
and also the interest of his notes and bonds, should be applied 
to the support of a free school, in a township west of Fort Mas- 
sachusetts, forever ; provided said township fall within Massachu- 
setts, upon running the line between Massachusetts and New 
York, and provided the said township when incorporated shall be 
called Williamstown ;" otherwise it was to be applied to certain 
other pious and charitable uses. Both of these conditions took 

The executors of the will sold the land agreeably to the direc- 
tions of the testator, and by their provident and faithful manage- 
ment the fund was annually increased. In the year 1785, they 
applied to the general court for an act to enable them to carry into 
effect the benevolent intention of the testator ; and an act was ac- 
cordingly passed, incorporating a free school in Williamstown. 
Nine gentlemen were appointed trustees of the fund and of the 
school, viz. William Williams of Dalton, Theodore Sedgwick, 
Woodbridge Little, John Bacon, Thompson Joseph Skinner, 
Esquires, the Reverend Seth Swift and Daniel Collins, Mr. Israel 
Jones and Mr. David Noble, who voted in 1788 to erect a building 
for its use. The legislature granted them a lottery, which yield- 
ed about $3,500. the inhabitants of the town raised by subscrip- 
tion $2,000 more towards the building, and in 1790 the brick 
edifice, now the west college, was built on the middle eminence 
in the principal street, 82 feet long, 42 broad, four stories, contain- 
ing 28 rooms and a small chapel. The expense of the building 
was about $11,700, and the funds then remaining at interest 
amounted to about the same sum. 

The school was opened in October, 1791, under Mr. Ebenezer 
Fitch, a native of Canterbury, Conn., who had been a tutor at 
Yale College. It consisted of two departments, an academy or 
grammar school, and an English free school ; and, under the direc- 
tion of this gentleman, immediately became prosperous. A con- 
siderable number of students resorted to it from Massachusetts 
and the neighboring states, and even from Canada. Upon the de- 
sire of the people of Williamstown and others, and to effect more 
perfectly the object of the donor, the legislature, in June, 1793, 


erected this into a college, and accompanied the charter with a 
grant of $4,000. The trustees of the original school, together with 
Henry Van Schaack, Esq., of Pittsfield, Elijah Williams, Esq., of 
Deerfield, and the Rev. Stephen West, were constituted trustees of 
the college. In the charter it was provided that the trustees might 
be seventeen in number, (of whom the president ex officio is one,) 
that they might fill their own vacancies, and hold property, the 
annual income of which shall amount to $20,000. Mr. Fitch, 
now the Rev. Dr. Fitch, was elected president, and the college be- 
gan its operations in October of this year, by the admission of 
three small classes. The English free school was discontinued, 
but the academy continued for some years in connection with the 
college. In 1794, a lot was purchased and a house built for the 
president, which together cost $2,400. In January, 1796, the 
legislature granted to the president and trustees, two townships 
of land in the district of Maine, which were sold in May for about 
$10,000 ; which, with a considerable sum besides, were applied in 
1797 and 8 to build the east college. This stands on the eastern 
eminence in the principal street,, about 60 rods from the other col- 
lege, on the south side of the road. This is also of brick, 104 feet 
long, 28 broad, four stories, containing 32 suites of rooms. Both 
colleges front the east. 

Two townships have since been granted to the college, and sold 
less advantageously. The college also received from the com- 
monwealth three thousand dollars annually for ten years, begin- 
ning with 1814; the interest of one fourth of which ($7,500) is 
applied annually to the payment of the bills of such students as 
need assistance. Woodbridge Little, Esq., of Pittsfield, one of the 
first trustees, made a donation of $2,500 in 1811, and raised the 
sum to near $5,700 at the time of his death, in June, 1813 ; the 
interest of which is applied also to assist young men intended for 
the Christian ministry. In 1820, more than $17,500 were added 
to the funds of the college by subscription ; and in 1826, $25,000 
more were raised in the same manner, for the establishment of a 
new professorship, and the erection of a new chapel. In the sum- 
mer of 1828, the chapel was erected, and on the 2d of September 
dedicated to the service of God. It is of brick, stands on the op- 
posite side of the road from the east college, facing the south, 93 
feet long, 38 wide, and three stories high. It contains, besides the 
large and convenient room for the chapel, a chemical laboratory, 
lecture rooms, apartments for the philosophical apparatus, the 
mineralogical collection, the libraries, the meetings of the trustees, 
&c. In addition to the buildings already mentioned, the corpora- 
tion own a house and lot, designed for the accommodation of one 
of the professors, and a right in the meeting-house. 

The fast property of the college, with the library, apparatus, 
and cabinet of minerals, has cost about $44,000, and the produc- 
tive fund is $66,000. 

The college library is a choice selection of books, amounting 
to little more than 2,000 volumes. The library of the students, 



called the Adelphic Union Library, the library of the Theologi- 
cal Society, and a collection of class books, called the Franklin 
Library, for the immediate use of the indigent students, amount to 
about half that number. 

The philosophical and chemical apparatus is well selected. 

The immediate instruction and government of the college is 
placed in the president, professors and tutors, who compose the 
faculty. Besides the president and tutors, there is established a 
professorship of divinity, of law, of moral philosophy and rhet- 
oric, of mathematics and natural philosophy, of chemistry and 
natural history, and of languages, and a lectureship of anatomy. 
There was formerly a professorship of the French language. 

The terms of admission and the course of instruction are the 
same substantially as in the other New England colleges. 

With this college, the Berkshire Medical Institution, at Pittsfield, 
is connected. 

Williamstown was incorporated by the general court of Massa- 
chusetts in 1765. The township is nearly 7 miles in length and a 
little more than 5 in breadth. The general character of the 
soil is clayey, though loam predominates in some places, and a 
few spots of some extent may be called gravelly. Some of the 
best lands lie along the Hoosic, particularly in the eastern part 
of the town, though not a very large tract can properly be called 
meadow. A tract of considerable extent in the south part of the 
town, about the junction of the two principal branches of Green 
river, and along up those streams, is also particularly fertile and 
beautiful. But the hills also, and generally the mountain sides, 
almost, and sometimes quite, upto their tops, have a good and in 
many places an excellent soil, suited both to grazing and tillage, 
though generally best for the former. In 1837, there were in the 
town 2,000 Saxony sheep, merino sheep 5,800, other kinds of 
sheep 200; Saxony wool produced, 5,000 Ibs., merino wool, 17,400 
Ibs. ; 1 cotton and 2 woollen mills. Population, 1,981. 

The following facts, though remarkable, are not solitary ; seve- 
ral similar cases are recorded. 

In 1806, a strong and beautiful bug eat out of a table made from an apple-tree, 
which grew on the farm of Maj. Gen. Putnam, in Brooklyn, Con., and which was 
brought to Williamstown when his son, Mr. P. S. Putnam, removed to that town. It 
was cut down in 1786, sixty-five years after it was transplanted, and if the tree was 
then fifteen years old, it was 80 years old when cut down. As the cortical layers of 
the leaf of the table are about sixty, and extend within about five of the heart, as the 
inner ones are quite convex, about fifteen layers have been cut off from the outside. 
In 1814, a third bug made his way out, the second having appeared two or three years 
before. The last bug came forth from nearest the heart, and 45 cortical layers distant, 
on the supposition of its age, from the outside. The tree had now been cut down 28 
years. Of course, the egg must have been deposited in the wood seventy-three years 
before. This bug eat about three inches along the grain, till it emerged into the light. 
The eating of the insect was heard for weeks before its appearance. These facts were 
given by Mr. Putnam, in whose possession the table still remains, and were first pub- 
lished in the Repertory at Middlebury, Vt., in 1816. One of the bugs, preserved for 


some time by the Rev. Dr. Fitch, " was about an inch and one fourth long, and one 
third inch in diameter ; color, dark glistening brown, with tints of yellow." Hist, of 
Berkshire, p. 39. 


THIS township was purchased at Boston, by Noah Nash, for 
1,430, on the 2d of June, 1762, and called, among the townships 
purchased at that time, No. 4. When it was incorporated in 1771, 
it was called Gageborough, in honor of General Gage, then British 
governor of Massachusetts. In 1778, at the request of the inha- 
bitants, the general court gave to it its present name. The first 
inhabitants of the town were Joseph Chamberlain and Ephraim 
Keyes, from Ashford, Con., Edward Walker, from Hadley, John 
Hall, Jeremiah Cady, and Josiah Lawrence, from Plain field, Con. 
Though Mr. Hail has many descendants still living here, he soon 
moved to Castleton, Vermont, and was killed by a party of Indians, 
about the time of the capture of Burgoyne. The first child born 
in the place was a daughter of Mr. Lawrence ; born May, 1768. 

For many years the people had but one place of worship, and 
most of the inhabitants are yet Congregationalists. The first 
meeting-house erected was unfortunately burnt before it was com- 
pleted. The present brick meeting-house was built in 1823, and 
dedicated the next year, on the 7th of January. The first church 
was formed in 1772, and on the 25th of March, 1773, the Rev. 
David Avery, a native of Groton, Con., and graduate of Yale 
College, 1769, was installed their pastor, having been previously 
ordained an evangelist. He was dismissed April 14, 1777, that 
he might accept the office of chaplain in the army of the United 
States, during the revolutionary war. He was much esteemed by 
the people here, who were extremely unwilling to part with him. 
A second Congregational church was formed in the autumn of 
1811, in the north-east part of the town, with 20 members, taken 
principally from the church in Windsor. A few families in Savoy 
united with them, and they held their meetings, for a time, in a 
dwelling-house, fitted up for the purpose, on the line between the 
two towns. The Rev. Jephthah Poole, from Plainfield, was 
ordained their pastor Oct. 11, 1811. There is a Baptist society in 
this town, who erected their meeting-house in 1819. Elder Noah 
Y. Bushnel preached to them for some years. 

This township is about 7 miles in length and 5 in breadth. The 
surface is uneven. A height of land lies a little west of the center, 
in a north and south direction, from which the descent is gradual, 
both to the east and west. On the east side rises Westfield river, 
and on the west the Housatonic. The origin and sources of these 
streams are but a few rods apart, a little south of the Congrega- 
tional meeting-house. On the Housatonic, in the south-west part 
of the town, near the line of Dalton, are falls, judged to be about 


70 feet. Though the quantity of water is not great, yet it is pre- 
cipitated down the rock with such violence that it affords a pros- 
pect truly sublime. The soil of the township is various ; in the 
eastern section it is sandy. In general it is well adapted to grazing 
and mowing. In 1837, there were in the town 7,157 sheep, pro- 
ducing wool to the value of $10,500. This town is situated 18 
miles N. N. E. of Lenox, and 120 W. by N. of Boston. Popula- 
tion 887. 


THIS county was incorporated in 1685. The surface of the 
county is somewhat broken, but generally level and sandy. It 
has a maritime coast of considerable extent, and many of the inha- 
bitants of this county are engaged in navigation, and a large num- 
ber employed in manufactures. Iron ore is found in large quanti- 
ties in various parts. Taunton and Pawtucket rivers, both passing 
into Narragansett Bay, are the principal streams, and there is abun- 
dant water-power in many of the towns. The tonnage of the two 
districts in this county (New Bedford and Dighton,) is 75,188 
tons. In 1837, there were 57 cotton mills, having 104,507 spindles ; 
4,814,238 Ibs. of cotton were consumed, and 18,382,828 yards of 
cotton goods were manufactured, the value of which was $1,678,- 
226. Population of the county in 1837 was 58,152. The follow- 
ing is a list of the towns. 

Attleborough, Pairhaven, Norton, Somerset, 

Berkley, Fall River, Pawtucket, Swansey, 

Dartmouth, Freetown, Raynham, Taunton, 

Dighton, Mansfield, Rehoboth, Westport. 

Easton, New Bedford, Seekonk, 


IN 1661, Capt. Thomas Willett, of Rehoboth, having been em- 
powered by the court, purchased of Wamsitta, a sachem of Poka- 
noket, a tract of land, which was called the Rehoboth North Pur- 
chase. It was bounded west by Pawtucket river, now the Black- 
stone ; north by the Massachusetts colony, or the Bay line ; east by 
the Taunton North Purchase ; and south by the ancient Rehoboth. 
This purchase included Attleborough, Cumberland, R. I., and a tract 
extending east and west a mile and a half. The land was divided 
into seventy-nine and a half shares. The following are the names 
of the purchasers.* 

* This list is copied from the History of Attleborough, by John Daggett, Esq. It is to 
this work the author is almost entirely indebted for the history of this town. 



Capt. Thomas Willett, 
Mr. Stephen Paine, 
Mr. Noah Newman, 
Lieut. Peter Hunt, 
Mr. James Browne, 
Samuel Newman, 
John Allen, sen., 
John Woodcock, 
Thomas Estabrooke, 
Thomas Willmot, 
Sampson Mason, 
Anthoney Perry, 
John Butterworth, 
Philip Walker, 
John Ormsby, 
Richard Martin, 
Stephen Paine, 
Rober Joans, 
Obadiah Bowen, 
John Pecke, 
James Redeway, 
Samuel Carpenter, 
John Titus, 
Mr. John Myles, 
William Carpenter, 
Joseph Pecke, 
Thomas Cooper, 
Ensign Henery Smith, 

Thomas Cooper, sen., 
Samuel Pecke, 
William Buckland, 
Joseph Buckland, 
Benjamin Buckland, 
John Reade, sen.. 
John Reade, jr., 
Nicholas Pecke, 
Elizabeth Winchester, 
Hannah Winchester, 
Lydia Winchester, 
Daniel Smith, 
Jonathan Bliss, 
Rice Leonard, 
William Saben, 
John Perrin, sen., 
George Kendricke, 
George Robenson, 
John Doggett, 
John Fitch, 
Richard Bowen, 
Elizabeth Bullucke, 
John Miller, 
Robert Fuller, 
Robert Wheaten, 
Ester Hall, 
John Miller, sen., 
Jaret Ingraham, 

John KingSiey, 
Gilbert Brookes, 
Thomas Reade, 
Thomas Grant, 
Jonathan Fuller, 
James Gillson, 
Samuel Luther, 
Nicholas Tanner, 
John Allen, jr., 
Preserved Abell, 
Francis Stephens, 
Nicholas Ide, 
Richard Whittaker, 
Nathaniel Pecke, 
Israel Pecke, 
Jonah Palmer, 
Robert Miller, 
Nathaniel Paine, 
Jeremiah Wheaton, 
Joanna Ide, 
John Savage, 
Thomas Ormsby, 
Jacob Ormsby, 
John Polley, 
William Allen, 
John Lovell, 
Eldad Kingsley. 

The first settlement in the town was commenced by Mr. John 
Woodcock and his sons, in the neighborhood of the Baptist meeting- 
house, where Hatch's tavern now stands : it was soon after the 
division in 1669. He built a public house on the Bay road, and 
laid out about 300 acres of land for his farm. He took up in seve- 
ral parts of the town about 600 acres, some on his own shares, and 
the rest on rights which he purchased of Roger Amidowne, James 
Redeway, Andrew Willett, &c. His house was occupied for a 
garrison. It was licensed in 1670, according to the following 
record: " July 5th, 1670. John Woodcock is allowed by the court 
to keep an ordinary at the Ten-mile river (so called), which is in 
the way from Rehoboth to the Bay ; and likewise enjoined to keep 
good order, that no unruliness or ribaldry be permitted there." 
Woodcock was a man of some consequence in those days. His 
name often appeared in town offices and on committees. In 1691, 
he was chosen deputy to the general court from Rehoboth, and at 
several other times. He was shrewd, hardy, and brave. He did 
not much regard the rights of the Indians. On one occasion, he 
took the liberty of paying himself a debt due to him from an 
Indian, without his consent, for which act the court passed the 
following sentence upon him ; an example of the strict justice of 
the Puritans. 

" 1654. John Woodcock, of Rehoboth, for going into an Indian 
house, and taking away an Indian child and some goods, in lieu 
of a debt the Indian owed him, was sentenced to sit in the stocks 
at Rehoboth on a training-day, and to pay a fine of forty shillings." 
Woodcock died in 1701, at an advanced age. After his death the 



scars of seven bullet-holes were counted on his body. He was a 
strong and implacable enemy to the Indians. His garrison was 
well known as a place of rendezvous in the great Indian war. It 
was part of a chain of fortifications extending from Boston to 
Rhode Island. There was one in Boston, one in Dedham, one in 
Rehoboth, and one at Newport, on the island. This stand, now 
owned and occupied by Col. Hatch, is the oldest in the county of 
Bristol : a public house has been kept on the spot without intermis- 
sion nearly one hundred and seventy years. It is located on the 
Boston and Providence turnpike. 

In 1806, the old garrison was torn down, having stood one hun- 
dred and thirty-six years. The greater part of the timber was 
said to be perfectly sound, though pierced by many a bullet in 
king Philip's time. A large and elegant building has been erected 
on the spot. There was another early settlement at the Falls, 
now the Falls Factories. The advantage of a fine fall of water 
attracted many to the spot. John Daggett, of Rehoboth, was the 

West view of Attleborough. 

first person who laid out lands at the Falls. In 1677, he sold 50 
acres of it to his brother, Thomas Daggett, of Martha's Vineyard. 
Edmund Hall also owned 50 acres here, which he gave to his son 
John, who sold it to John Stevenson and Samuel Penfield, in 1686. 
Penfield sold it to Thomas Daggett, of Edgartown, and Joseph 
and Nathaniel Daggett, of Rehoboth. 

The first mill built at the Falls was a corn-mill, owned and 
occupied by Joseph Daggett. The south-east part of the town 
was early settled by people from Rehoboth. The borders of the 
Bay road that passed through the neighborhood of NewelPs and 
the City, were occupied by some of the first settlers. This was 
the first road in town. 

The above is a view taken in the principal village in Attlebo- 
rough. The Boston and Providence railroad passes through it, 


and is but a few rods eastward of the Congregational church seen 
in the engraving. The " Attleborough Bank," in this village, is 
the first building westward of the church. This place is 11 miles 
fromTaunton, 11 from Providence, and 21 from Boston. Popula- 
tion of the town, 3,396. The following is from the statistical tables, 
published by the state in 1837. Cotton mills, 8 ; cotton spindles, 
13,078 ; cotton consumed, 510,680 Ibs. ; cotton goods manufac- 
tured, 2,500,811 yards; value of the same, $229,571; males em- 
ployed, 157; females, 220 ; capital invested, $259,000 ; manufac- 
tory of metal buttons, 1 ; metal buttons manufactured, 37,560 
fross ; value of the same, $90,000 ; males employed, 42 ; females, 
1 ; capital invested, $90,000 ; value of jewelry manufactured 
$92,000; hands employed, 112; capital invested, $543,000; value 
of planing machines manufactured, $40,000 : hands employed, 15 ; 
capital invested, $18,000 ; value of boots and shoes manufactured, 

The Rev. Matthew Short was the first settled minister in this 
town ; he was ordained in 1712. Difficulties between him and his 
people soon commenced, which resulted in his dismission in 1715. 
According to the agreement made with Mr. Short, he was to be 
paid 50 a year, for the first six years, one third in money, and the 
other two thirds in grain, beef, pork, butter or cheese, at the cur- 
rent price.* " At the 7th year, his salary was to be raised to 60, 
payable as above, and then to continue until there should be 100 
families in town capable of paying public taxes, in the judgment 
of the selectmen, and then it was to be 70 per annum." The 
second minister was Rev. Ebenezer White; he was the pastor 
for 11 years, and died in 1726. He was succeeded by the Rev. 
Habijah Weld. He was distinguished for his usefulness in the 
ministry, and highly respected as a man, both at home and 
abroad. He united, to an uncommon degree, 'the affections of 
his people, for a period of 55 years, during which he was 
their pastor. He was a man of talents and respectable acquire- 
ments, and was extensively known. He was ordained in 1727, 
and died 1782, in the 80th year of his age. 

" Mr. Weld was below the middle stature, and, in the latter part of his life, corpu- 
lent. His constitution was vigorous, and his mind almost singularly energetic. The 
stipend he received from his parishioners consisted of an annual salar5 r of two hun- 
dred and twenty dollars, and the use of a parsonage-lot, which furnished him with 
wood and a little pasture. With his patrimony, he purchased a farm of about 70 
acres, of moderately good land, and a decent house. He had fifteen children, ten of 
whom were married during his life, and one after his death. The remaining four 
died while young. This numerous family he educated, with the means which have 
been mentioned, in a manner superior to what is usually found in similar cir- 
cumstances ; entertained much company in a style of genuine hospitality; and was 
always prepared to contribute to the necessities of others. For the regulation of his 
domestic concerns, he prescribed to himself and his family a fixed system of rules, 
which were invariably observed, and contributed not a little to the pleasantness and 
prosperity of his life. His children, laborers, and servants, submitted to them with 

* These articles were then valued as follows. Corn, 2s. 6d. per bushel; rye, 3s. 6d. 
per bushel ; pork, 3d. per Ib. ; beef, 2d. per Ib. ; butter, 6d. ; and good new milk cheese, 
4d. per Ib. 


cheerfulness ; and his house became the seat of absolute industry, peace, and good 
order. Breakfast was on the table precisely at six o'clock, dinner at twelve, and sup- 
per at six in the evening. After supper he neither made visits himself, nor permitted 
any of his family to make them." From the death of Mr. Weld to the settlement of 
Mr. Wilder, in 1790, nearly 8 years, the first parish was destitute of a settled minis- 
ter. Rev. John Wilder was dismissed Nov. 28, 1822, having been settled upwards of 
32 years. 

The first meeting of the East Parish was on the 6th June, 1743. On the 20th a 
meeting was called "to consider and see what the parish will do in order to placing 
a meeting-house for the public worship of God." This is the first record of an attempt 
to build a meeting-house in this part of the town. The Rev. Peter Thatcher, their 
first minister, was ordained in 1748. The second meeting-house was built in 1825. 

The North Baptist Church was constituted in 1769. Its existence may be traced 
back as early as 1747. It was a small and feeble church, and of the Congregational 
order, though differing from that denomination in some respects. In 1769, they, by a 
vote, changed their constitution from a Congregational to a Baptist church, in what is 
called open communion. Previous to this, in 1767, the church moved Mr. Abraham 
Bloss from Sturbridge to Attleborough ; he preached to them till his death in 1769. 
He was succeeded by Elder Job Seamans, of Sackville, Cumberland county, then in 
"Nova Scotia ; he requested a dismission in 1788, which was granted. His successor 
was Elder Abner Lewis, who was settled 1789, and continued until 1795, when he 
was dismissed. After this, Mr. Laben Thurber preached two years, and then gave 
up the office of the ministry. He was followed by Elder James Reed, who commenced 
preaching here in 1800. He gave so much satisfaction, that in December of the same 
year the church invited him to settle, which invitation he accepted. He was installed 
in 1801. He died in 1814, universally respected as a man. His successor was the 
Rev. Stephen S. Nelson, who settled in 1815, and was dismissed in 1820. The first 
meeting-house was not finished till 1784. The present house was built in 1817. 

South Baptist. The records of this church cannot be found. In 1789, the first and 
second churches in Attleborough met and agreed upon fellowship as sister churches. 
Elder Ellhu Daggett was the first preacher. The next in succession was Elder Eli- 
sha Carpenter, who settled in 1780, and continued till 1798, when he removed to Pro- 
vidence. This church is now extinct. 

First Universalist Society was incorporated in 1818. The first minister was the Rev. 
Richard Carrique, who was ordained 1818, and dismissed in 1822. His successor was 
the Rev. Robert Kilham, who commenced preaching in 1S22, and was dismissed in 

Hebronville Church was gathered by Rev. Thomas Williams, after his dismission from 
the west parish in 1827. A small but neat house was built on the line between Attle- 
borough and Seekonk, half in one town and half in the other, to which and the neigh- 
borhood was given the name of Hebronville by the founder. Mr. Williams' connec- 
tion with the church was dissolved in 1832. 

.Rev. Naphtali Daggett, D. />., president of Yale College, a 
native of this town, w,as born 1727. His ancestor, John Daggett, 
ancestor of all the Daggetts here and in Connecticut, came to 
Attleborough from Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard, in 1709. 

Rev. Naphtali Daggett entered Yale College in 1744, and graduated in 1748. He 
was settled as minister of Smithtown, on Long Island, in 1751. In 1755 he was 
elected Professor of divinity in Yale College, which he accepted, and removed to New 
Haven. After the resignation of Mr. Clap in 1766, he officiated as president till 1777. 
During the barbarous attack on New Haven in July, 1779, he distinguished himself 
for the part he took in the defence of the country. He had made himself obnoxious 
by his bold opposition to the British cause. In the pulpit and in the lecture-room, he 
inculcated upon the students the duty of resisting British oppression j consequently he 
incurred the marked displeasure of the invaders. What he preached, that he practised. 
When the enemy landed, he shouldered his musket to repel them. He was taken pri- 
soner, and treated with all possible indignity. His clerical character did not exempt 

you have been praj 
ing against our cause." " Yes, and I never made more sincere prayers in my lift." 1 Hr 


was saved by the courage of the lady into whose house he had been conveyed. The 
enemy having retired, they sent back an officer and file of soldiers to convey him as 
prisoner on board their fleet. They came to the house, and were refused admittance 
by the lady, who pleaded the excuse that he was so badly wounded that it would be 
impossible to convey him on board alive. "My orders," said the officer, " are positive 
to take nim with me." But she pleaded that he was in the agonies of death. After 
continual demands and refusals, the officer left to report the case, but never returned. 
He died in 1780, in consequence of the wounds he had received in his engagement 
with the British. He held the office of professor of divinity twenty-five years, and 
presided over the University about eleven years. 

The following inscriptions are from monuments in this town. 

Bezaleel Mann, mort. die Octo. ter-t. 1796, an. setat. 74. Early imbued with the prin- 
ciples of moral rectitude, he sustained through the diversified concerns of a long and 
active life, the character of an honest man. As a physician, he commanded, during 
the period of near 50 years, that unlimited confidence and respect which talents alone 
can inspire. The features of his mind were sketched by the glowing pencil of nature, 
filled up with qualities that adorn humanity, and shaded with few infirmities, the fre- 
quent attendants on mental excellence. 

"Bebe Mann, his wife, mort. die Octo. tert. 1793, setat. 61. She was a person of 
bright genius, of few words and much reserved in mind. From early youth, she 
marked all her paths with virtue, and timely took the advice Christ gave to his disci- 
ples, and made to herself a friend of the mammon of unrighteousness, and, when she 
failed, could with Christian confidence say, that her witness was in heaven and her 
reward on high." This stone is erected by the grateful hand of filial piety to protect 
the awful dust of revered parents. 

In memory of Dr. Herbert Mann, who with 119 sailors, with Capt. James Magee, mas- 
ter, went on board the Brig General Arnold in Boston Harbor 25th Dec. 1778, hoisted 
sail, made for sea, and were immediately overtaken by the most tremendous snow 
storm with cold, that was ever known in the memory of man, and unhappily parted 
their cable in Plymouth harbor, in a place called the Cow-yards, and he with about. 
100 others was frozen to death ; sixty-six of whom were buried in one grave. He 
was in the 21st year of his age. And now Lord God Almighty, just and true are all 
thy ways, but who can stand before thy cold ? 

The following is an epitaph on the negro slave Caesar, who was 
given to Lieut. Josiah Maxcy by his mother when he was a child. 
He was a member of the Baptist church, honest and faithful. He 
survived his first master, and after his own death was buried in 
the same grave-yard. A decent stone was erected to his memory 
by his younger master, Levi Maxcy, with this inscription, which 
may be seen in the north-east corner of the"burying-ground, near 
Hatch's tavern. 

Here lies the best of slaves 
Now turning into dust ; 
Caesar the Ethiopian craves 
A place among the just. 

His faithful soul has fled 
To realms of heavenly light, 

And by the blood that Jesus shed 
Is changed from Black to White. 

January 15, he quitted the stage, 
In the 77th year of his age. 


THIS town, situated on the east side of Taunton river, was for- 
merly a part of Dighton. It was incorporated in 1735. It is 5 
miles S. of Taunton, 18 E. of Providence, and 37 S. of Boston. 
Population, 878. In five years previous to 1837, there were 13 



vessels built ; tonnage of the same, 1,267 ; valued at $38,010. This 
place has about ten sail of coasting vessels, and some iron ore. 
The celebrated "Dighton" or "Writing Rock" is in the limits 
of this town, being situated on the eastern shore of Taunton river, 
which divides this town from Dighton. For a description of this 
rock, see Dighton. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1664, and formerly included 
within its limits the present towns of Westport, New Bedford and 
Fairhaven. During Philip's war a great part of this town was 
laid desolate and many of the inhabitants killed. The most of 
the Plymouth forces were ordered thither. In coming to Russell's 
garrison at Ponaganset or Aponaganset, in thi? town, they met 
with a number of the enemy that had surrendered themselves 
prisoners on terms promised by Captain Eels of the garrison, and 
Ralph Earl, who persuaded them to come in, by a friendly Indian 
whom he employed. It is to be regretted, however, that, notwith- 
standing the promises made by the above persons to the Indians, 
they were by the superior authorities carried away to Plymouth, 
" then sold and transported out of the country, being about eight 
score persons." That part, of Dartmouth which was destroyed 
is about 5 miles S. W. of New Bedford. The cellars of Russell's 
garrison are still to be seen. They are on the north bank of the 
Aponaganset, about a mile from its mouth. It is stated that the 
Indians had a fort on the opposite side of the river, and used to 
show themselves, and act all manner of mockery to aggravate the 
English, they being at more than a common gunshot off. It is 
related, however, that an Indian came out at one time, and, hav- 
ing turned his back sides, as usual, in a contemptuous manner 
towards the English, some one, having an uncommonly long gun, 
fired, and put an end to his mockery. 

Dartmouth is principally a farming and fishing town ; the cen- 
tral part of which is about 3 miles from New Bedford, and 21 
from Taunton. There are 3 postoffices, Dartmouth, (at Smith's 
Mills,) North Dartmouth, and South Dartmouth. This last place 
is called Padan Aram ; it is a fishing village, containing a Congre- 
gational church, and perhaps 50 or 60 dwelling-houses. There 
are in the limits of the town 4 houses of worship for Friends, 3 for 
Baptists, 2 of which are Christian, 1 Congregationalist, and 1 for 
Methodists. Population of the town, 3,958. In 1837, 5 vessels 
were employed in the whale fishery; tonnage of the same, 1,490; 
sperm oil imported, 74,000 gallons; whale oil imported, 73,978 
gallons ; hands employed in the whale fishery, 129. There were 
13 establishments for the manufacture of salt ; ship-building is car- 
ried on to some extent. 




THIS town was incorporated in 1712, previous to which time it 
formed a part of the town of Taunton. It is finely situated on 
the west side of Taunton river, and is a port of entry. About 
half a mile from the landing place for sloops, there is a village of 
about 20 dwelling-houses, 7 miles from Taunton and 43 from 
Boston. Population of the town, 1,453. There are 3 cotton mills, 
with 3.564 spindles; a woollen mill, furnace, and nail factory. 
Ship-building is also carried on. 

Dighton Rock as seen from Dighton Shore. 

The celebrated "Dighton Rock" the inscriptions on which 
have caused such a variety of speculations, is on the Berkley side 
of the river, opposite the landing place mentioned above. The 
engraving shows the appearance of the rock and the surrounding 
objects as seen from the Dighton shore. The " Writing Rock," as 
it is sometimes called, is the one by which two persons are seen 

Western side of Dighton Rock. 

standing. The above shows the shape of the rock, with some- 
thing of the appearance of the inscriptions upon it ; which are, 

118 BIGHT ON. 

to some extent, followed in the engraving. The lower part of 
this stone is generally covered to the dotted line at high water. 
Several drawings of these inscriptions have been taken at various 
periods ; the inscriptions, however, are so indefinite, that no two 
of them agree entirely with each other. Several of these draw- 
ings have been copied and recently published in Copenhagen, in 
a splendid work on the Antiquities of America. It is the opinion 
of some learned men, that these inscriptions are the work of the 
Norwegian adventurers who it is supposed visited this coast about 
the year 1000 of the Christian Era. The following account of this 
rock is extracted from the second volume of Kendall's Travels. 
Mr. Kendall travelled through the northern parts of the United 
States in 1807 and 1808 ; he made a careful examination of the 
Dighton Rock, visiting it several times for the purpose. 

" The rock is an insulated mass of fine-grained gray granite or grunstein, lying 
north-west and south-west, on the sands of the river, a few feet above the present low- 
water mark, but covered at every tide. Its length is eleven feet, and its height four 
and a half. Toward the land, its form is broken and irregular, but inclining gradu- 
ally outward from the summit to the base ; toward the water, it presents a regular 
face, and nearly smooth, forming an inclined plane, of about sixty degrees elevation. 
Of this face, which is of the length of the rock, and about five feet broad, the whole 
appears to have been originally filled with sculptures ; but those immediately at the 
base, if such there were, are now entirely worn away. A little above, sculptures dis- 
cover themselves but faintly ; while those at the summit are very perfect. 


" The whole is composed of outlines, hollowed, or cut in intaglio, and of which the 
breadth is generally less than an inch, and the depth, where deepest, does not exceed 
half an inch. From the appearance of the sculpture, and from the hardness of the 
stone, it is probable that the upper parts have suffered little injury ; and yet the edges 
are here broken, and the whole execution appears barbarous. The different states of 
preservation, observable in the lower figures and the upper, may be attributed to the 
action of the water, and perhaps to the collision of floating bodies of ice, both of 
which agents must operate on the lower part of the stone in a greater degree than on 
the upper the upper being covered, at every tide, for a much shorter space of time 
than the lower. The alternate action of salt and the atmosphere have produced an 
equal diversity of color on the surface of the stone ; the upper part being of a deep 
red or purple color, and the lower gradually fading toward the base into a pinkish 
gray. The interior substance is gray. 

"After viewing the rock and its sculptures, which last are sufficiently conspicuous to 
attract notice from the deck of a vessel sailing in the channel of the river, we demand, 
if not the meaning of the sculptures, at least the history of their formation ; but, upon 
the second subject, there is very little to be said, and upon the first, absolutely noth- 
ing. The only solid history is, that the rock, with its sculptures, was found in its 
present place, and apparently in its present condition, by the earliest colonists. 

" But, in the absence of history, there has been an abundance of conjecture. Two 
opinions, though with some subordinate varieties, chiefly divide the learned and 
unlearned. The unlearned believe that the rock was sculptured by the order of a 
pirate, either Captain Kyd or Captain Blackbeard, in order to mark the site of buried 
treasure ; and the shore, for more than a hundred fathom on a side, has been dug, in 
the hope of a discovery. The learned are more attached to a Phoenician origin, and 
suspect that the Writing Rock may be a momument of the first navigators that passed 
the Pillars of Hercules; indeed, they find the Pillars of Hercules among the 


" In accounting for the diversities observed in the copies, a favorite resource is 
that of supposing that the stone moulders away ; but this theory, which would well 
enough explain why sculptures seen in the year 1700 were not seen in the year 
1800, will by no means explain why those seen in 1800 were not seen in 1700: it 
svill account for disappearance, but not for variation. Professor Se wall's drawing, 

EASTON. 119 

which is the earliest, Dr, Mather's excepted, contains no figures that I did not see on 
the rock ; but the two later drawings contain several. 

" But, the question of decay in the sculptures affects the question of their antiquity ; 
and Professor SewalFs drawing, and even Dr. Mather's, is evidence with me, that no 
perceptible decay has taken place within the last hundred years ; and this evidence, 
added to that derived from the durable quality of the stone, and from the degree of 
the decay that is really observable, induces me to believe that the sculptures are very 

"As to traditions, there is, though but in a few mouths, an Indian tradition, which 
purports that, some ages past, a number of white men arrived in the river, in a bird ; 
that the white men took Indians into the bird, as hostages ; that they took fresh water 
for their consumption at a neighboring spring ; that the Indians fell upon and slaugh- 
tered the white men at the spring ; that, during the affray, thunder and lightning 
issued from the bird; that the hostages escaped from the bird ; and that a spring, 
now called White Spring, and from which there runs a brook, called White Man's 
Brook, has its name from this event. 

" This story believed, the inference is, that the rock, which is doubtlessly a monu- 
ment of some event in Indian history, is a monument of the adventure and slaugh- 
ter of the white men of the bird ; but, upon visiting the spring, which is at the distance 
of a quarter of a mile from the rock, on the farm of a Mr. Asa Shove, I could hear 
nothing of the affair : on the contrary, a son of Mr. Shove's related to me, that he 
had always understood the spring and brook to have received their names from the 
death of a white hunter, (a colonist,) who, being heated with the chase, drank freely 
at the spring, and died in consequence, upon the spot. In regard to the spring, one 
neighbor had told me that it was a hot spring, and another that it was remarkable 
for its intense coldness ; and I found it neither warmer nor colder than springs in 
general. The spring is to the north-east of the rock, and the brook enters Taunton 
river a, little above the rock. The rock itself is on the farm of a Mr. Deane ; and 
Asonnet Neck is said to have been a place of banishment among the Indians. I was 
informed that another sculptured rock had been seen in the river, at times when the 
water was particularly low ; but this account, on tracing it to its source, appeared to 
be untrue. The only sculptures on any rock, not on the Writing Rock, consist in 
two or three figures or characters, having some similitude to the letters X O, and 
which are seen on the corner of a slab of stone, lying within a few yards of the 
Writing Rock." 


THIS town, formerly a part of Taunton, was incorporated in 
1725. It forms the north-eastern corner of Bristol county. Popula- 
tion, 1,976. It is situated 10 miles northerly from Taunton, 22 
from Providence, and 22 from Boston. The manufacture of iron 
has been carried on extensively, and the manufacture of shovels, 
spades, &c., is an important branch of business in this town. 
According to the statistical tables published by the state in 1837, 
there were two manufactories of shovels, spades, forks, or hoes, at 
which 84 hands were employed ; value of articles manufactured, 
$108,000; capital invested, $51,000. There were employed in 
the manufacture of boots and shoes, 141 males and 40 females ; 
" 56,200 pair of boots, and 26,400 pair of shoes, bottomed." 
Four cotton mills; cotton spindles, 1,824; cotton goods manufac- 
tured, 180,000 yards; value of the' same, $32,400; males em- 
ployed, 11 ; females, 45 ; capital invested, $31,000. Four air and 
cupola furnaces, which made 250 tons of iron castings, valued at 
$20,000 ; 20 hands were employed : 1 furnace for the manufacture 
of pig iron ; 1 manufactory of cutlery ; value of cutlery made, 
$5,000; 1 wire manufactory; value of wire, $20,000; 1 rnanufac- 


tory of surveyors' instruments ; value of instruments, $4,500 ; 1 
manufactory of pegs, employing 14 hands; 15,000 straw bonnets 
were manufactured, valued at $14,000. 


THIS town was formerly included within the limits of New 
Bedford ; it was incorporated as a distinct town in 1812. The 
village was settled in 1764, and it is said to have received its 
name, Fair-haven, from the beauty of its situation. It is united to 
New Bedford by a long bridge, about three fourths of a mile in 
extent, and is associated with it in many of its enterprises. 

Western view of Fairhaven. 

The above shows the appearance of the village as it is seen 
from near the bridge on the New Bedford side of the river, or 
inlet. It contains 3 churches, 1 Congregational. 1 Freewill Bap- 
tist, and 1 Methodist, a bank, (the Fairhaven Bank,) and an insu- 
rance office. This place, in 1837, had 37 vessels employed in the 
whale fishery, the tonnage of which was 11,564 tons; sperm oil 
imported, 168,524 gallons ; whale oil imported, 350,944 gallons ; 
value of sperm oil, $144,178 56; value of whale oil, $152,780; 
hands employed in the fishery, 945 ; capital invested in the 
same, $957,000; whale-bone, 101,554 Ibs.; value of whale-bone, 
$25,312 86. Population of the town, 3,649. 

During the revolutionary war, on the night of the 7th of Sep- 
tember, 1778, the British troops made an attempt to destroy the 
village of Faithaven, but were bravely repulsed by a small force 
in the command of Major Israel Fearing. The enemy a day or 
two previously had burnt houses and destroyed a large amount 
of property at New Bedford. The following is from D wight's 
Travels, vol. 3d, p. 71. 

" From this place they marched around the head of the river to Sconticut Point, on 
the eastern side, leaving in their course, for some unknown reason, the villages of 


Oxford and Fairhaven. Here they continued till Monday, and then re-embarked. 
The following night a large body of them proceeded up the liver with a design to finish* 
the work of destruction by burning Fairhaven. A critical attention to their move- 
ments had convinced the inhabitants that this was their design, and induced them to- 
prepare for their reception. The militia of the neighboring country had been sum- 
moned to the defence of this village. Their commander was a man far advanced in 
years. Under the influence of that languor which at this period enfeebles both the 
body and the mind, he determined that the place must be given up to the enemy, and 
that no opposition to their ravages could be made with any hope of success. This 
decision of their officer necessarily spread its benumbing influence over the militia r 
and threatened an absolute prevention of all enterprise, and the destruction of this 
handsome village. 

"Among the officers, belonging to the brigade, was Israel Fearing, Esq., a major 
of one of the regiments. This gallant young man, observing the torpor which was 
spreading among the troops, invited as many as had sufficient spirit, to follow him, 
and station themselves at the post of danger. Among those who accepted the invita- 
tion was one of the colonels, who of course became the commandant ; but after they 
had arrived at Fairhaven. and the night had come on, he proposed to march the 
troops back into the country. He was warmly opposed by Major Fearing ; and, find- 
ing that he could not prevail, prudently retired to a house three miles distant, where 
he passed the night in safety. 

"After the colonel had withdrawn, Major Fearing, now commander-in-chief, 
arranged his men with activity and skill ; and soon perceived the British approach- 
ing. The militia, in the strictest sense raw, already alarmed by the reluctance of 
their superior officers to meet the enemy, and naturally judging that men of years 
must understand the real state of the danger better than Major Fearing, a mere youth, 
were panic-struck at the approach of the enemy, and instantly withdrew from their 
post. At this critical moment Major Fearing, with the decision which awes men into 
a strong sense of duty, rallied them ; and, placing himself in the rear, declared, in a 
tone which removed all doubt, that he would kill the first man whom he found re- 
treating. The resolution of their chief recalled theirs. With the utmost expedition 
he then led them to the scene of danger. The British had already set fire to several 
stores. Between these buildings and the rest of the village he stationed his troops,, 
and ordered them to lie close in profound silence, until the enemy, who were advanc 
ing, should have come so near that no marksman could easily mistake his object. 
The orders were punctually obeyed. When the enemy had arrived within this dis- 
tance, the Americans rose, and with a well-directed fire gave them a warm and un- 
expected reception. The British fled instantly to their boats, and fell down the river 
with the utmost expedition. From the quantity of blood found the next day in their 
line of march, it was supposed that their loss was considerable. Thus did this heroic 
youth, in opposition to his superior officers, preserve Fairhavea, and ierit a statue 
from its inhabitants." 


THIS town was formerly a part of Freetown, and was incorpo- 
rated as a distinct town by the name of Troy in 1803. In 1834, 
its name was changed to that of the river within its borders, at the 
junction of which with the Taunton river the village is built. It is 
estimated that about seven eighths of the inhabitants of the town 
are in the village. It is stated that thirty-six years since, there 
were but eleven dwelling-houses in the place. At the north end 
of Main street, there were four houses ; occupied by Charles Dur- 
fee, Daniel Duffington, John Luther, Mary Borden ; in East Cen- 
tral street were Nathan Bowen and Parry Borden ; in West 
Central street were Nathan and Daniel Borden ; in South Main 
street, Simeon Borden, Richard Borden; Thomas Borden lived to 
the west, towards the shore. The first meeting-house in the 


FALL R I V , 1C 

place stood on the dividing line between Fall River and Tiverton. 
R. I. The next meeting-house which was built, was for Friends ; 
it was a small building, and was erected near where their present 
house now stands. The next was a Congregational church, now 
occupied as a school-house in Anna won street. The Baptists and 
Methodists erected their houses afterwards and at about the same 

During the revolutionary war about 200 of the enemy landed 
in the south part of where the present village is built ; they were 
opposed by about fifteen of our people, under the command of Col. 
Joseph Durfee, who from behind the stone walls fired on the 
British troops and killed two soldiers ; upon this, they rapidly re- 
treated to their barges. The two soldiers were buried south of the 
river, where the Pocasset factory now stands. At the erection of this 
factory their remains were taken up and buried in the town grave- 

North view of Fall River. 

The above is a northern view of Fall River village, as seen 
from the western side of Taunton river, at Blade's ferry. Fall 
river, from whence the town derives its name, rises in Wattuppa 
Ponds; one of which is 11 miles in length and 1 in breadth. 
These ponds are produced by perpetual springs, and lie about two 
miles east of the town. The descent of this river is 136 feet. The 
volume of water is constant ; not liable to excess, and of sufficient 
power for the largest manufactories. The harbor on Taunton 
river is safe, easy of access, and of sufficient depth for large ships. 
A marine railway was constructed here in 1834. 

The following view is taken in the main street in the village, 
looking to the southward, showing some of the public buildings. 
This street is upwards of a mile in extent, and is thickly settled 
for about that distance. This village is situated near the Rhode 
Island line, and a few houses, properly belonging to it, are in the 
town of Tiverton, in that state. There are 8 houses for public 


Central part of Fall River. 

worship, 1 for Friends, 1 Orthodox Congregational, 1 Unitarian, 
1 Baptist, 1 Christian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Catholic. 
There are two banks the Fall River Bank, capital $400,000, 
Fall River Union Bank, capital $100,000 and an Insurance 
Company, capital $100,000. Fall River is 17 miles from Taun- 
ton, 14 from New Bedford, 17 to Newport, 49 from Boston, and 30 
by water to Providence. Population, 6,352. 

In 1837, there were in Fall River 10 cotton mills, having 25,000 
spindles; 1,547.300 Ibs. of cotton were consumed. Cotton goods 
manufactured, 7,767,614 yards ; value of the same, $668,028 ; 
males employed, 337; females, 648; capital invested, $700,000. 
One woollen mill ; woollen machinery, 8 sets ; wool consumed, 
175,000 Ibs.: cloth manufactured, 150,000 yards; value of the 
same, $180,000 ; males employed, 65 ; females, 55 ; capital in- 
vested, $50,000; sperm oil used, 6,500 gallons. Two print 
works ; cloth printed, 12,000,000 yards ; value of the same, 
$1,680,000; capital invested, $300,000; hands employed, 500. 
One nail factory: nails manufactured, 1,780 tons; value of the 
same, $260,000; hands employed, 40; capital invested, $75,000. 
There were six vessels employed in the whale fishery ; tonnage of 
the same, 1,359; sperm oil imported, 63,000 gallons; whale oil, 
42,338 ; hands employed, 120 ; capital invested, $125,000. There 
were also in the place 2 air and cupola furnaces, a rolling and 
slitting mill, and various other establishments for manufacturing 

The following account of some remains found in this town is 
from an article by John Stark, Esq., of Galena, Illinois, published 
in the third volume of the American Magazine, Boston, 1837. 

" These remains were found in the town of Fall River, in Bristol county, Massachu- 
setts, about three years since. In digging down a hill near the village, a large mass, of 


earth slid off, leaving in the bank, and partially uncovered, a human skull, which on 
examination was found to belong to a body buried in a sitting posture ; the head being 
about one foot below what had been for many years the surface of the ground. The 
surrounding earth was carefully removed, and the body found to be enveloped in a cov- 
ering of coarse bark of a dark color. Within this envelope were found the remains of 
another of coarse cloth, made of fine bark, and about the texture of a Manilla coffee bag. 
On the breast was a plate of brass, thirteen inches long, six broad at the upper end 
and five at the lower. This plate appears to have been cast, and is from one eighth to 
three thirty-seconds of an inch in thickness. It is so much corroded, that whether or 
not any thing was engraved upon it has not yet been ascertained. It is oval in form, 
the edges being irregular, apparently made so by corrosion. 

" Below the breast-plate, and entirely encircling the body, was a belt composed of 
brass tubes, each four and a half inches in length, and three sixteenths of an inch in 
diameter, arranged longitudinally and close together ; the length of a tube being the 
width of the belt. The tubes are of thin brass, cast upon hollow reeds, and were fast- 
ened together by pieces of sinew. This belt was so placed as to protect the lower 
parts of the body below the breast-plate. The arrows are of brass, thin, flat, and tri- 
angular in shape, with a round hole cut through near the base. The shaft was 
fastened to the head by inserting the latter in an opening at the end of the wood, and 
then tying it with a sinew through the round hole, a mode of constructing the weapon 
never practised by the Indians, not even with their arrows of thin shell. Parts of the 
shaft still remain on some of them. When first discovered, the arrows were in a sort 
of quiver of bark, which fell in pieces when exposed to the air. 

"The annexed cut will give our readers an 
idea of the posture of the figure and the position 
of the armor. When the remains were discovered 
the arms were brought rather closer to the body 
than in the engraving. The arrows were near 
the right knee. 

" The skull is much decayed, but the teeth are 
sound, and apparently those of a young man. 
The pelvis is much decayed, and the smaller bones 
of the lower extremities are gone. The integu- 
ments of the right knee, for four or five inches 
above and below, are in good preservation, appa- 
rently the size and shape of life, although quite 

"Considerable flesh is still preserved on the 
hands and arms, but none on the shoulders and 
elbows. On the back, under the belt, and for two inches above and below, the 
skin and flesh are in good preservation, and have the appearance of being tanned. 
The chest is much compressed, but the upper viscera are probably entire. The 
arms are bent up, not crossed so that the hands turned inwards touch the shoulders. 
The stature is about five and a half feet. Much of the exterior envelope was decayed, 
and the inner one appeared to be preserved only where it had been in contact with 
the brass. 

" The preservation of this body may be the result of some embalming process j 
and this hypothesis is strengthened by the fact, that the skin has the appearance of hav- 
ing been tanned ; or it may be the accidental result of the action of the salts of the brass 
during oxydation ; and this latter hypothesis is supported by the fact, that the skin and 
flesh have been preserved only where they have been in contact with, or quite near, 
the brass ; or we may account for the preservation of the whole by supposing the 
presence of saltpetre in the soil at the time of the deposit. In either way, the preser- 
vation of the remains is fully accounted for, and upon known chemical principles. 

" That the body was not one of the Indians, we think needs no argument. We 
have seen some of the drawings taken from the sculptures found at Palenque, and in 
those the figures are represented with breast-plates, although smaller than the plate 
found at Fall River. On the figures at Palenque the bracelets and anklets appear to 
be of a manufacture precisely similar to the belt of tubes just described. These fig- 
ures also have helmets precisely answering the description of the helmet of Hector in 

'' If the body found at Fall River be one of the Asiatic race, who transiently settled 
m Central North America, and afterward went to Mexico and founded those cities, in 
exploring the ruins of which such astonishing discoveries have recently been made ; 
then we may well suppose also that it is one of the race whose exploits with ' brazen 


spears ' have, although without a date and almost without a certain name, been im- 
mortalized by the Father of Poetry ; and who, probably, in still earlier times, con- 
structed the Cloacae under ancient Rome, which have been absurdly enough ascribed to 
one of the Tarquins, in whose time the whole population of Rome would have been 
insufficient for a work, that would, moreover, have been useless when finished. Of 
this Great Race, who founded cities and empires in their eastward march, and are 
finally lost in South America, the Romans seem to have had a glimmering tradition 
in the story of Evander. 

" But we rather incline to the belief that the remains found at Fall River belonged 
to one of the crew of a Phoenician vessel. 

" The spot where they were found is on the sea-coast, and in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of < Dighton Rock,' famed for its hieroglyphic inscription, of which no suffi- 
cient explanation has yet been given ; and near which rock brazen vessels have been 
found. If this latter hypothesis be adopted, a part of it is, that these mariners the 
unwilling and unfortunate discoverers of a new world lived some time after they 
landed ; and, having written their names, perhaps their epitaphs, upon the rock at 
Dighton, died, and were buried by the natives." 


THIS town was first settled about 1659, and incorporated in 
1683. The principal village in the town is Assonett, situated at 
the head of an inlet from Taunton river, 8 miles from Taunton, 8 
from Fall River, 16 from New Bedford, and 26 from Boston. The 
village consists of about fifty dwelling-houses and 2 churches, 1 
Congregational and 1 Baptist. Ship-building is carried on in the 
village. Population of the town, 1,779. There are in the town 
2 nail factories, 2 air and cupola furnaces, 1 axe manufactory, 1 
manufactory of cntlery, and 1 for shovels, spades, &c. Eight ves- 
sels were built in five years preceding 1837, tonnage 636 ; value of 
the same, $36,200 ; hands employed in building, eleven. 


THIS town was formerly a part of Norton ; it was incorporated 
as a distinct town in 1770. The central part of this town is 12 
miles from Taunton and 28 from Boston. Population, 1,444. Col. 
Ephraim Leonard was one of the most distinguished of the first 
settlers of this place ; he built his house about two miles eastward 
of the Congregational church in the center of the town. The Rev. 
Mr. White, the first minister, lived about one mile south of the 
meeting-house. Nathan Williams, another of the first settlers, 
located his house where the tavern now stands. A number of 
families, by the name of Wellman, had their houses about half a 
mile south of the meeting-house ; Deacon Abial Leonard lived 
at the distance of about three miles. Benjamin, brother to Nathan 
Williams, lived about a mile north of the meeting-house ; these 
brothers owned lands extending to the old colony line. A family 
of Deans settled in the south part of the town ; Deacon Skinner 
in the western part. Families by the name of Grover were among 
the early inhabitants. 

This town is well watered by three principal branches of Taun- 
ton river, called Rumford, Cocasset, and Canoe rivers ; the two 


first mentioned are valuable streams. There are in the town 6 
cotton mills, running 3,412 spindles. In 1837, there were 680,971 
yards of cotton goods manufactured, the value of which was up- 
wards of $40,000. There is a woollen mill, and 2 nail factories. 
In the same year 30,000 straw bonnets, valued at ,$30,000; 1,500 
palm-leaf hats, valued at $382, and $4,000's worth of baskets, were 


THE Indian name of New Bedford was Acchusnutt or Acushnet. 
It was incorporated as a town in 1787, previous to which it 
formed a part of the town of Dartmouth. At what time and by 
whom the first settlement was commenced in the limits of tho 
town, does not distinctly appear. It is supposed, however, that 
the Friends or Quakers were the first white inhabitants. The 
first settled minister appears to have been the Rev. Samuel Hunt, 
who died about the year 1735 ; it is supposed he was ordained 
here about 1700. The next minister was Rev. Richard Pierce ; he 
was settled in 1735, and was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Cheever. 
Mr. Cheever was dismissed in 1759, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Samuel West, D. D., who was settled in 1761. The villages of 
New Bedford and Fairhaven, on the opposite side of the river, 
were settled about the same time, 1764. The first house in New 
Bedford village was built by Mr. John Louden, of Pembroke. 
The land on which the place is built was owned by a Mr. Russell. 
This being the family name of the Duke of Bedford, Mr. J. Rotch, 
one of the principal purchasers and settlers, declared that the place 
where they built should go by the name of Bedford. It afterwards 
received the prefix Neiv, on account of there being another town 
of the same name in the limits of the commonwealth. Mr. Rotch, 
a member of the society of Friends, was a man of sagacity and 
enterprise. He speedily built a house, stores, and wharves ; and 
was joined by several associates. By his previous knowledge of 
the whaling business which he had acquired in Nantucket, Mr. 
Rotch and his friends were able to carry on this business to great 
advantage, which has been a great source of great wealth and 
prosperity to the place to the present time. " By his peculiar ad- 
dress he procured first from the government of France, and then 
from that of Great Britain, the privilege of exporting oil to those 
countries, duty free ; and was thus enabled to carry on his own 
business with the highest profit, and essentially to befriend that of 
lu's neighbors." 

New Bedford is a half shire town of Bristol county and port 
of entry, on the west side of the Acushnet river, or, more properly, 
an inlet from Buzzard's Bay. The ground upon which the town 
is built rises beautifully from the water, and as the town is ap- 
proached from the water or from the Fairhaven side it presents a 
fine appearance. The harbor, though not easy of access, is capa- 


cious, and well secured from winds. A wooden bridge and cause- 
way, the whole of which extends about three fourths of a mile, 
connects the town with the village of Fairhaven. The almost 
entire business of the place is the whale fishery and other branches 
of business connected with it : this business was commenced before 
the revolutionary war, and has gradually risen to its present impor- 
tance. In 1838, the number of vessels belonging to New Bedford, en- 
gaged in the whale fishery, was one hundred and seventy, employ- 
ing four thousand hands. There are seventeen candle houses arid oil 
manufactories. In 1837. there was imported into the United States 
181,724 bbls. of sperm oil, and 219,138 bbls. of whale oil: of this 
quantity 75,675 bbls. of sperm oil, and 85,668 bbls. of whale oil, 
was imported into the New Bedford district. There are 4 banks. 
The Bedford Commercial Bank, with a capital of $400,000, was in- 
corporated in 1816 ; the Merchants Bank was incorporated in 1825, 
with a capital of $400,000 ; the Mechanics Bank incorporated in 

1831, capital $200,000 ; and the Marine Bank, incorporated in 

1832, with a capital of $300,000. There are three insurance offi- 
ces, whose united capitals amount to 350,000 dollars. The " New 
Bedford Institution for Savings" has an amount invested of about 
220,000 dollars. There are 14 churches : 3 Baptist, 2 of which are 
Christian societies ; 3 Congregational, 1 of which is Unitarian ; 2 
Methodist Episcopal, 1 Episcopal, 1 for Friends, 1 Universalist, 1 
Bethel, 1 African and 1 Catholic. Few towns in Massachusetts 
have increased more rapidly than New Bedford. By the census of 
1790, the population of the village was about 700 ; in 1820, it was 
3,947; in 1830, it was 7,592 ; and in 1836, it was 11,113; making 
an increase of nearly 47 per cent, in six years. Distance 52 miles 
S. of Boston, 52 N. W. of Nantucket, 24 from Taunton, and 214 
north-easterly from New York. 

During the revolutionary war New Bedford was a place of 
resort for American privateers. In order to destroy them, 4,000 
British troops, under Gen. Gray, landed upon Clark's Neck, the 
western boundary of the river at its mouth. From this point they 
marched to the town, and burnt houses, wharves, &c., to the 
amount of 11,241. They also destroyed English and West India 
goods, provisions, naval stores, shipping, &c., to the amount of 
85,739 ; amounting in the whole to 96,980, or $323,266. 


NORTON was incorporated as a town in 1711. It was originally 
a part of Taunton, and when incorporated included in its limits 
the present towns of Easton and Mansfield. The first settler within 
the limits of the town was a cabin-boy, named William Witherell, 
who received a tract of land by the gift of his master, and built a 
house upon it in 1670.^ A settlement was made in 1696, by 

* Spofibrd's Gazetteer of Massachusetts. 


George Leonard, Esq., a name which has been identified with 
much of the public and mechanical business of the town. He was 
led to the settlement by the discovery of iron ore, and finding 
water power suitable to its manufacture. The iron manufacture 
has been continued in the family of the Leonards till the present 
time. Several of this name have been distinguished in civil life, 
and are persons of wealth and respectability. " The soil is not of 
the first quality, though equal to the adjoining towns. Much of 
this town is occupied by tenants, greatly to the disadvantage of its 
agriculture ; there being 146 freeholders, and 107 tenants under 

Norton is 8 miles N. W. of Taunton, 30 S. of Boston, and 17 N. 
E. from Providence. Population, 1,530. In 1837, there were in 
this town 4 cotton mills, 1,993 spindles; cotton goods manufac- 
tured, 290,376 yards; value of the same, $53,167 82; males 
employed, 53 ; females, 35 ; one air and cupola furnace, which 
made 375 tons of iron castings, valued at $37,500 ; twenty-five 
hands were employed ; eight air and cupola furnaces for rolling 
and refining copper ; 500 tons of sheet copper and copper bolts 
were manufactured, valued at $280,000 ; thirty- three hands were 
employed ; capital invested, $226,000. 


THIS town was formerly within the limits of Seekonk. It was 
incorporated as a distinct town in 1828. It is two miles square, 
lying on the east side of Paw tucket river. The village of Paw- 
tucket is centrally divided by the river ; that part lying on the 
west side is within the limits of the town of North Providence, in 
Rhode Island. 

The cut shows the appearance of the village as it is entered 
from the south on the Rhode Island side of the river. It is said 
that the first manufacture of cotton cloth in this country, by water 
power machinery, was commenced at this place. The water 
power is very great, and the fall of the river within a short dis- 
tance is fifty feet. There are in the village 12 cotton factories, with 
35,000 spindles and 1000 looms. The Franklin calico printing 
works do an extensive business. There are also 5 machine shops 
and a number of iron works. About 2000 operatives are employed 
in these establishments. The river is navigable to the village ; it 
runs 4 miles S. by W. to Providence river, at India Point one 
mile below the center of the city of Providence. The river above 
the village takes the name of Blackstone. This place is 4 miles 
N. of Providence, 16 from Taunton, 38 S. E. of Worcester, and 36 
from Boston. The whole village is said to contain about 6,000 
inhabitants. There are 7 churches: 2 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 
Methodist, and 1 Catholic on the Rhode Island side ; 1 Congrega- 

* Spofford's Gazatteer of Massachusetts. 



South view of Pair tucket, Mass, and R. I. 

tional and I Freewill Baptist on the Massachusetts side. In the 
town of Pawtucket, according to the Statistical Tables published 
by the state of Massachusetts, in 1837, there were 6 cotton mills, 
with 15,317 spindles; 2,156,266 yards of cotton goods manufac- 
tured ; 125 males and 243 females employed. One print works, 
which printed 4,894,597 yards of cloth, employing 196 males and 
28 females. The " Pawtucket Bank," with a capital of $100,000, 
is in this town. Population, 1,881. 

[From the Commercial Advertiser, 1838.] 

" EVASION OF THE LAWS. Following in the footsteps of Massachusetts, Rhode Island 
has prohibited the sale or vending of ardent spirits in less quantities than fifteen gal- 
lons. These prohibitory laws in both states are producing great excitement, and we 
should not marvel were they to result in violent political action. Meantime the great 
inventor of the alembic is teaching his followers every possible device for evading the 
laws, as will appear from the following law report from the Providence Journal. 

"' The Ark.' At the present session of the supreme court in this city, evidence was 
brought before the grand jury to obtain an indiclment for a violation of the license 
law. It appears that some person or persons had procured a raft or scow, erected a 
shanty thereon, and moored the same on Pawtucket river, where it was regularly fur- 
nished with a " great variety of choice liquors." Attached to the scow was a platform, 
which, when lowered, enabled persons from the shore to walk to the ark, as the float 
was designated, and the vessel was moored so that this platform could be used on 
either side of the river, as profit or policy might dictate. On gaining it, there could 
be seen faucets variously marked, R, G, B, 6cc., from either of which, on being turned, 
gushed forth the beverage its initial represented. This place of resort became very 
soon as popular as any natering place in the country ; as at it glasses were always 
ready, although no attendants were at hand. Those who partook of the refreshing 
streams, as a matter of course, left something as satisfaction for trouble, which, by 
some legerdemain we could not comprehend, and therefore cannot describe, was 
taken possession of by some spirit unseen and unknown. As the dividing line between 
Rhode Island and Massachusetts is at high-water mark on the east side of the river, 
it will be perceived that customers from our sister state, by the platform being placed 
on their side, could be accommodated without violation of Massachusetts laws. Not 
so, however, with the laws of Rhode Island. Against these laws there was an offence 
committed, but establishing the identity of the offender was a very difficult matter. 
"Witnesses in abundance were produced, who testified that they had drunk deep of the 
waters of the ark, but whom they obtained them of, they had neither desire or 
ability to say. One person in Pawtucket testified that he furnished from $75 to ' 


1 30 K A Y N H A M . 

worch of liquors per week ; that he charged it to "the ark ;" that he delivered it some- 
times to one and sometimes to another, who were employed to do chores ; and, finally, 
he identified one person who had at one time received it, against whom the grand 
jury returned a true bill, and whose trial will take place at the present term of the 
court. It is surmised that, as none of the brood were preserved in the ancient, it was 
from this modern ark came the "striped pig"* which has so recently been astonish- 
ing the natives of Boston. Notwithstanding the cloud of mystery in which the operators 
envelop themselves, one thing is very certain, the parties have been stimulated in 
their course by evil spirits." 

R A Y N H A M . 

THIS town was formerly a part of Taimton, and was incorpo- 
rated as a distinct town in 1731. It originally made a part of those 
lands known by the name of Cohanet, in the colony of New Ply- 
mouth. They were first purchased of Massasoit, the Indian chief, 
by Elizabeth Pool and her associates. It appears the first settle- 
ment made in the town was about the year 1650. The first meet- 
ing-house was built in 1730. At this period there were about thirty 
families in the place. This house stood for forty-two years. The 
second meeting-house was erected in 1771, nearly in the center of 
the town. The first minister ordained here was Rev. John Wales ; 
this was in 1731. Mr. Wales died in 1765. and was succeeded by 
Rev. Peres Fobes, LL. D., who was ordained in 1766. 

The lands in Raynham are in general level and the soil light. 
Taunton river washes the southern border of the town; there 
are also a number of ponds, which produce a water power. There 
is a large shovel factory, a wire mill, a furnace, and a nail factory, 
which has produced eleven tons of nails daily. Iron ore is found 
here. There are 3 houses of worship : 1 Unitarian, 1 Orthodox, 
and 1 Baptist, Population, 1,379. Distance 3 miles N. E. of Taun- 
ton. 24 E. of Providence, and 30 miles S. of Boston. 

The following cut represents the original Leonard House in 
this town, "where tradition says that Philip's head was deposited 
for some time. It is still occupied by one of the family, of the 
sixth generation from the builder, and, so far as we are informed, 
is the oldest mansion now standing in this country. The vane at 
one of the gable-ends is inscribed with the date 1700 ; but there is 
little doubt of the house having been erected at least thirty years 
previous. The workmanship, especially within, is remarkably 
massive and sound. It is apparently modelled after an English 

* Keferenee is here made to the exhibition of a " striped pig" in Dedham, or some 
other place in the vicinity of Boston, on a day of general military muster. The exhi- 
biters of this curiosity, having obtained permission of the proper authorities, gave 
notice that this strange animal could be seen at the low price of six cents. This pig 
drew quite a number of visiters. Those who visited the exhibition, state that they 
found the pig as represented ; the stripes, however, were laid on with a painter's brush. 
They found also a choice variety of liquors, a glass of which was allowed gratis to 
each visiter, in addition to the privilege of seeing this remarkable pig. There was 
something so attracting about the animal, that quite anumber of individuals, not satis- 
fied with one sight, were known to visit the exhibition a number of times the same 

R A Y N H A M . 131 

Ancient Leonard House in Raynham. 

fashion of the eighteenth century, with some modifications proper 
for defence against the Indians. It was garrisoned during the war. 
The Fowling Pond, still so called, has become a thick swamp. 
An aged gentleman was living not many years since who in boy- 
hood had frequently gone off in a canoe, to catch fish in its waters. 
Indian weapons and utensils are still found on its borders."* 

The first iron forge in America was set up in this town. On 
the banks of one of the ponds in this place, the celebrated King 
Philip had a hunting house. The following is taken from the Rev. 
Dr. Fobes' description of Raynham in 1793. 

" The first adventurers from England to this country, who were skilled in the forge 
iron manufacture, were two brothers, viz. James and Henry Leonard. They came to 
this town in the year 1652, which was about two years after the first settlers had plant- 
ed themselves upon this spot ; and in the year 1652, these Leonards here built the 
first forge in America. Henry not long after moved from this place to the Jerseys 
and settled there. James, who was the great progenitor, from whom the whole race 
of the Leonards here sprang, lived and died in this town. He came from Ponterpool 
in Monmouthshire, and brought with him his son Thomas, then a small boy, who after- 
wards worked at the bloomery art, with his father, in the forge. This forge was situ- 
ated on the great road ; and, having been repaired from generation to generation, it is 
to this day still in employ. On one side of the dam, at a small distance from each other, 
stand three large elms and one oak tree. Two of the elms are near three feet in cir- 
cumference, and are still nourishing. These trees are now almost a hundred and twenty 
years old ; which, with the ancient buildings and other objects around, present to the 
eye a scene of the most venerable antiquity. In the distance of one mile and a quar- 
ter from this forge is a place called the Fowling Pond, on the northerly side of which 
once stood King Philip's house. It was called Philip's hunting house, because, in the 
season most favorable to hunting, he resided there, but spent the winter chiefly at 
Mount Hope, probably for the benefit of fish. Philip and these Leonards, it seems, 
long lived in good neighborhood, and often traded with each other ; and such was 
Philip's friendship, that as soon as the war broke out, which was in 1675, he gave out 
strict orders to all his Indians never to hurt the Leonards. During the war, two 
houses near the forge were constantly garrisoned. These buildings are yet standing. 
One of them was built by James Leonard, long before Philip's war. This house still 
remains in its original gothic form, and is now inhabited, together with the same pater- 
nal spot, by Leonards of the sixth generation. In the cellar under this house, was 
deposited, for a considerable time, the head of King Philip; for it seems that even 

* Thatcher's Indian Biography. This interesting relic of antiquity, we regret to 
state, is now no more, it having been, as we are informed, taken down quite recently 
oy the proprietor. 


Philip himself shared the fate of kings j he was decollated, and his head carried about 
and shown as a curiosity, by one Alderman, the Indian who shot him. 

There is yet in being an ancient case of drawers, which used to stand in this house, 
upon which the deep scars and mangled impressions of Indian hatchets are now seen ; 
but the deeper impressions made on those affrighted women, who fled from the house 
when the Indians broke in, cannot be known. Under the door-steps of the same build- 
ing now lie buried the bones of two unfortunate young women, who in their flight 
here were shot down by the Indians, and their blood was seen to run quite across the 
road ; but more fortunate was the flight of Uriah Leonard, who, as he was riding from 
Taunt on to the forge in this place, was discovered and fired upon by the Indians. He 
instantly plucked off his hat, swung it around, which startled his horse, and in full 
career he reached the forge dam, without a wound ; but several bullets were shot 
through the hat he held in his hand, and through the neck of the horse near the mane, 
from which the blood on both sides gushed and ran down on both his legs. 

While deacon Nathaniel Williams, with some others, were at work in the field, on 
the south side of the road about half a mile from the forge, one of the number disco- 
vered a motion of the bushes at a little distance ; he immediately presented his gun and 
fired ; upon which the Indians were heard to cry, Cocoosh, and ran off ; but soon after 
one of the Indians was found dead near the Fowling Pond. Near the great river are 
now to be seen the graves of Henry Andross and James Philips, who, with James 
Bell and two sons, were killed by a number of Indians, who lay in ambush. This 
happened in the place called Squabette. 

The place already mentioned, by the name of Fowling Pond, is itself a great curios- 
ity. Before Philip's war it seems to have been a large pond, nearly two miles long 
and three quarters of a mile wide. Since then, the water is almost gone, and the large 
tract it once covered is grown up to a thick-set swamp of cedar and pine. That this, 
however, was once a large pond, haunted by fowls, and supplied with fish in great 
plenty, is more than probable, for here is found, upon dry land, a large quantity of 
white floor sand, and a great number of that kind of smooth stones, which are never 
found except on shores or places long washed with water. There is also on the east 
side a bank of sand, which is called the Beaver's Dam, against which the water must 
formerly have washed up ; and if so, the pond must once have been of such amplitude 
as that above mentioned. Add to this, that a large number of Indian spears, tools, 
pots, &c., are found near the sides of this pond. This indicates that the natives were 
once thick-settled here. But what could be their object ? What could induce Philip 
to build his house here ? It was, undoubtedly, fishing and fowling, in this then large 
pond. But, more than all, there is yet living in this town a man of more than ninety 
years old, who can well remember that when he was a boy he had frequently gone off 
in a canoe to fish in this pond ; arid says, that many a fish had been caught where the 
pines and cedars are now more than fifty feet high. If an instance, at once so rare 
and well attested as this, should not be admitted as a curious scrap of the natural his- 
tory of this country, yet it must be admitted as a strong analogical proof that many 
of our swamps were originally ponds of water : but, more than this, it suggests a new 
argument in favor of the wisdom and goodness of that Divine Providence which 
"changes the face of the earth," tc supply the wants of man, as often as he changes from 
uncivilized nature to a state of cultivation and refinement. 


THE original limits of Rehoboth were extensive, comprehending 
the present town, Seekonk, Pawtucket, Attleborough, Cumber- 
land, R. I., and part of Swansey and Barrington. The first pur- 
chase of land here for a settlement was made of Massasoit, in 1641, 
comprehending a tract of land about ten miles square, embracing 
the present towns of Rehoboth, Seekonk, and Pawtucket. The 
first white settler in the original limits of the town was William 
Blackstone, a non-conformist minister of England, who fled from 
persecution and sought an asylum in the wilds of America. He 
was the first white man who lived on the peninsula where the 


city of Boston now stands. He sold his lands on the peninsula in 
1634, and probably removed to Rehoboth the next year. He loca- 
ted himself in what is now Cumberland, R. I., on the river which 
bears his name, about three miles above the village of Pawtucket. 
His house, which he named " Study Hall," stood near the east bank 
of the river, a few rods east of a knoll which rises abruptly from 
the meadow on the brink of the river to the height of 60 or 70 feet. 
His grave and the well which he dug are still to be seen. The 
celebrated Roger Williams for a short time, when driven from 
Massachusetts, first pitched his tent in the limits of Rehoboth, and 
resided there for a short period. 

Rev. Samuel Newman* may be considered as the founder of 
Rehoboth. He removed here with part of his church in Weymouth 
in 1644. The first meeting of the original planters to be found on 
record is dated at " Weimouth the 24th of the 8th month [October] 
1643." The second meeting was held in Dec. following, when 
regulations were made as to the planting of corn. The teacher 
was to have a certain portion from each settler ; servants, after 
four years, to be inhabitants, and entitled to their privileges. The 
following appears to be a list of all the planters at Seekonk or Re- 
hoboth in July, 1644. It is prefixed in the following manner : 

" This combination, entered into by the general consent of all the inhabitants, after 
general notice given the 23d of the 4th month. We whose names are underwritten, 
being, by the providence of God, inhabitants of Seacunk, intending there to settle, do 
covenant, &c. 

Walter Palmer, Samuel Newman, Peter Hunt, Ralph Alin, 

Edward Smith, Wm. Cheesborough, William Smith, Thomas Bliss, 

Edward Bennett, Richard Wright, John Peren, George Kendricke, 

Robert Titus, Robert Martin, Zachery Rhoades, John Allen, 

Abraham Martin, Richard Bowen, Job Lane, William Sabin, 

John Matthewes, Joseph Torrey, Alex. Winchester, Thomas Cooper. 

Edward Sale, James Clark, Henry Smith, 

Ralph Shepherd, Ephraim Hunt, Stephen Payne, 

"Though the proprietors purchased their land of the Plymouth colony, yet it appears, 
from the compact signed by them, that they considered themselves independent of any 
jurisdiction but their own, though they were afterwards claimed by both Plymouth 
and Massachusetts Bay. In 1645, they submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of 
the Plymouth court, or rather were assigned to that by the commissioners of the 
United Colonies, and were incorporated by the Scripture name of Rehoboth, a name 
selected by Mr. Newman; for, said he, " the Lord hath made room for s."f 

The town of Rehoboth in its present limits is formed from the 

* Mr. Newman was a man of great learning and piety. He compiled a Concor- 
dance of the Bible, a herculean labor, which was published in London in 1643, in folio. 
After his removal to Rehoboth (now Seekonk), he revised this work and greatly im- 
proved it, using in the evening, according to President Stiles, pine knots instead of 
candles. He died at Seekonk, in 1663. " The manner of his death,"- says Elliot, 
" was peculiar. He had a certain premonition of it, and seemed to triumph in the; 
prospect of its being near. He was apparently in perfect health, and preached a ser- 
mon from these words, Job xiv. 14 : ' All the days of my appointed time will I wait till 
my change come.' In the afternoon of the following Lord's day he asked the deacon to 
pray with him, saying he had not long to live. As soon as he had finished his prayer, 
he said the time was come when he must leave the world ; but his friends, seeing 
no immediate signs of dissolution, thought it was the influence of imagination. Bui 
he turned round, saying, 'Angels, do your office/ and immediately expired.'' 

f Bliss' History of Rehoboth, p. 31. 


second precinct of the ancient Rehoboth. This was incorporated 
as a separate society in 1759. As early as 1711, the inhabitants 
of the south-east part of the town, called the "neighborhood of 
Palmer's river," petitioned for a division of the town into two pre- 
cincts. This was opposed by the western or older part of the town. 
In 1717, the general court granted permission to the people at 
Palmer's River to build a meeting-house in their part of the town. 
This house was commenced the same year, and stood on a small 
elevation about half a mile N. W. of the Orleans factory. Jethnial 
Peck, Capt. Samuel Peck, and Jonathan Bliss, gave each an acre 
of land for the site of the meeting-house. In 1721 a church was 
organized here, under the pastoral care of Rev. David Turner. 
Mr. Turner was succeeded by Rev. Robert Rogerson, who was 
settled in 1759 ; he died in 1799, and was succeeded by Rev. Otis 
Thompson, who was ordained in 1800. The second meeting-house 
was erected in 1773, "upon the plaine near Timothy Headways," 
There are at present in Rehoboth 5 churches : 2 Baptist, 1 Congre- 
gational, 1 Reformed Methodist, and 1 Christian. There is a cot- 
ton factory, with 1,440 spindles. Population, 2,202. Distance, 10 
miles S. W. of Taunton, 7 east of Providence, and 40 south-west- 
erly of Boston. 

South-west view of Annaworfs Rock, Rehoboth. 

The above is a representation of the celebrated rock, called 
Annawon' s Rock, in the eastern part of Rehoboth, a few rods south 
of the new turnpike from Taunton to Providence, about eight miles 
from the former and ten miles from the latter place. The whole 
rock extends N. E. and S. W. 70 or 80 feet, and its height is 25 
or 30 feet. It is on the northern border of a great swamp of nearly 
3000 acres, called Squannakonk, by which it is rendered inaccessible 
except on the northern side. This place is rendered memorable 
by the capture of Annawon, the last and bravest of King Philip's 
chieftains, on 28th of Aug. 1676. Annawon, after the death of 
Philip, Aug. 12th, with a few brave warriors, ranged the woods in 


the vicinity of Rehoboth and Swanzey, much to the terror of the 
inhabitants. Capt. Church, so celebrated in this war, was sent foi, 
who with his party immediately commenced upon the pursuit. 
Having captured a number of Annawon's company, one of them 
having his life spared offered to conduct him to his chieftain's retreat. 
The following interesting account is taken from the account given 
in Drake's Hist, of Indian Chiefs, published in Boston in 1832. 

Having travelled through swamps and thickets until the sun was setting, the pilot 
ordered a stop. The captain asked him if he had made any discovery. He said, 
''About that hour of the day Annurvon usually sent out his scouts to see if the coast 
was clear, and as soon as it began to grow dark the scouts returned, and then we may 
move securely." When it was sufficiently dark, and they were about to proceed,. 
Capt. Church asked the old man if he would take a gun and fight for him. He 
bowed very low and said, "I pray you not to impose such a thing upon me as to 
fight against Capt. Annarvon, my old friend, but I will go along with you, and be help- 
ful to you, and will lay hands on any man that shall offer to hurt you." They had 
proceeded but a short space, when they heard a noise, which they concluded to be 
the pounding of a mortar. This warned them that they were in the vicinity of Anna- 
tvon's retreat. 

# * #####*## 

When they arrived near the foot of the rock, Capt. Church, with two of his Indian 
soldiers, crept to the top of it, from whence they could see distinctly the situation of 
the whole company, by the light of their fires. They were divided into three bodies, 
and lodged a short distance from one another. Annarvori's camp was formed by felling 
a tree against the rock, with bushes set up on each side. With him lodged his son, 
and others of his principal men. Their guns were discovered standing, and leaning 
against a stick resting on two crotches, safely covered from the weather by a mat. 
Over their fires were pots and kettles boiling, and meat roasting upon their spits. 
(Japt. Church was now at some loss how to proceed, seeing no possibility of getting 
down the rock without discovery, which would have been fatal. He therefore creeps 
silently back again to the foot of the rock, and asked the old man, their pilot, if there 
were no other way of coming at them. He answered, " No," and said that himself 
and all others belonging to the company were ordered to come that way, and none 
could come any other without danger of being shot. 

The fruitful mind of Church was no longer at a loss, and the following stratagem 
was put in successful practice. He ordered the old man and the young woman to go 
forward and lead the way, with their baskets upon their backs, which, when Anna- 
won should discover them, would take no alarm, knowing them to be those he had 
lately sent forth upon discovery. Capt. Church and his handful of soldiers crept 
down also, under the shadow of those two and their baskets. The captain himself 
crept close behind the old man, with his hatchet in his hand, and stepped over the 
young man's head to the arms. The young Annarvon, discovering him, whipped his 
blanket over his head, and shrunk up in a heap. The old captain Annawon started up 
on his breech, and cried out "Horvoh /" which signified, "I am taken." All hope of es- 
cape was now fled forever, and he made no effort, but laid himself down again in perfect 
silence, while his captors secured the rest of the company. For he supposed the Eng- 
lish were far more numerous than they were, and before he was undeceived his 
company were all secured. 

One circumstance much facilitated this daring project. It has been before mentioned 
that they heard the pounding of a mortar on their approach. This continued during 
their descent down the rock. A squaw was pounding green dried corn for their 
supper, and when she ceased pounding to turn the corn they ceased to proceed, and 
when she pounded again they moved. This was the reason they were not heard as 
they lowered themselves down from crag to crag, supported by small bushes that 
grew from the seams of the rock. The pounded corn served afterwards for a supper 
to the captors. 

# ## # * * # * * * 

The two companies situated at a short distance from the rock knew not the fate of 
their captain, until those sent by Church announced to them that they were all pris- 
oners; and, tc prevent their making resistance, were told that Capt. Church had en- 
compassed them with his army, and that to make resistance would be immediate 
death ; but if they all submitted peaceably, they should have good quarter. " Now 

136 S E E K O N K . 

they being old acquaintance, and many of them relations," readily consented ; deh 
vering up their guns and hatchets, were all conducted to head quarters. 

Things being thus far settled, Captain Church asked Annawon what he had for sup. 
per ; " for,'' said he, " I am come down to sup with you." Annanon replied, " TaubutJ 1 
with a majestic voice, and, looking around upon his women, ordered them to hasten 
and provide Capt. Church and his company some supper. He asked Capt. Church 
11 whether he would eat cow beef or horse beef." He said he \vould prefer cow beef. 
It was soon ready, which, by the aid of some salt he brought in his pocket, he made a. 
good meal. And here it should be told, that a small bag of salt, which Church carried 
in his pocket, was the only provision he took with him upon this expedition. 

When supper was over, Capt. Church set his men to watch, telling them that if they 
would let him sleep two hours they should sleep all the rest of the night, he not hav- 
ing slept any for thirty-six hours before ; but after lying a half hour, and no dispo- 
sition to sleep came, from the momentous cares upon his mind, for, 

" The dead alone in such a night can rest ;" 

he looked to see if his watch were at their posts, but they were all fast asleep. Anna- 
won felt no more like sleeping than Church, and they lay for some time looking one 
upon the other. Church spoke not to Annawon, because he could not speak Indian, 
and thought Annawon could not speak English, but it now appeared that he could, 
from a conversation they held together. Church had laid down with Annawon to pre- 
vent his escape, of which however he did not seem much afraid, for after they had 
laid a considerable time Annawon got up and walked away out of sight, which 
Church considered was on a common occasion. But being gone some time, " he began 
to suspect some ill design." He therefore gathered all the guns close to himself, and 
lay as close as he possibly could under young Annawon 1 s side, that if a shot should be 
made at him it must endanger the life of young Annawon also. After lying a while 
in great suspense, he saw, by the light of the moon, Annawon coming with something 
in his hands. When he had got to Capt. Church he knelt down before him, and after 
presenting him what he had brought, spoke in English as follows: "Great captain, 
you have killed Philip, and conquered his country. For I believe that I and my com- 
pany are the last that war against the English, so suppose the war is ended by your 
means, and therefore these things belong unto you." He then took out of his pack a 
beautifully wrought belt, which belonged to Philip. It was nine inches in breadth, 
and of such length as, when put about the shoulders of Capt. Church, reached to his 
ankles. This was considered at that time of great value, being embroidered all over 
with money, that is wampampeag, of various colors, curiously wrought into figure* 
of birds, beasts, and flowers. A second belt, of no less exquisite workmanship, was 
next presented, which belonged also to Philip. This, that chief used to ornament his 
head with ; from the back part of which flowed two flags, which decorated his* 
back. A third was a smaller one, with a star upon the end of it, which he wore upon 
his breast. All three were edged with red hair, which Annawon said was got in the 
country of the Mohawks. These belts, or some of them, it is believed remain at this 
day, the property of a family in Swansey. He next took from his pack two horns of 
glazed powder and a red cloth blanket. These, it appears, were all of the effects of 
the great chief. He told Capt. Church that those were Philip's royalties, which he 
was wont to adorn himself with when he sat in state, and he thought himself happy 
in having an opportunity to present them to him. 

The remainder of the night they, spent in discourse, in which Annawon "gave an 
account of what mighty success he had had formerly in wars against many nations of 
Indians, when he served Asuhmequin, Philip's father. Morning being come, they took 
up their march for Taunton. In the way they met Lieutenant Howland, according to 
appointment, at his no small surprise. They lodged at Taunton that night. The 
next day Capt. Church took old Annawon, and half a dozen Indian soldiers, and his 
own men, and went to Rhode Island ; the rest were sent to Plymouth, under Lieut. 
Howland. Not long after this, to the great grief of Capt. Church, Annawon was be- 
headed at Plymouth. It is true Church did not guarantee his life when he surrendered, 
but he had little doubt of his being able to save him, knowing how much the country 
was indebted to him in this war. 


IN 1812, the west part of Rehoboth was incorporated into a dis- 
tinct township by its ancient name of Seekonk. This word in 

S E E K N K . 137 

the Indian language is the name for the wild or black goose, and 
this place probably received its name from the circumstance that 
great numbers of wild geese used frequently to alight in Seekonk 
river and cove.^ This town is properly the ancient Rehoboth, it 
being the place where the first settlement was made. Some account 
of the first settlers, and the names of some of the first planters, 
will be found in the account given in this work of the town of 
Rehoboth. The town, or first settlement, was built in a semi- 
cjrcular form, around what is now Seekonk common, (the south 
extremity of the plain,) with the meeting-house and parsonage in 
the center; the semi-circle opening towards Seekonk or Paw- 
tucket river. This circle was afterwards called "The Ring of 
the Town." 

Seekonk is washed on the west by Providence river, separating 
it from the state of Rhode Island. There are three cotton facto- 
ries in the town, running nearly 6,000 spindles, and about 150 
looms. There are 2 houses of worship, 1 Congregational and 1 
Baptist. Population. 2,016. Distance from Providence 4 miles, 
14 S. W. of Taunton, and 41 miles southerly from Boston. The 
Boston and Providence railroad passes through this town. 

In the spring of 1676, during Philip's war, the Indians, dispers- 
ing themselves in small parties, committed dreadful ravages both 
in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The country being alarmed, 
Capt. Pierce, from Scituate, with sixty-three Englishmen and 
twenty friendly Indians from Cape Cod, was ordered to drive the 
Indians towards Rhode Island. He arrived at Seekonk on the 
25th of March. While in pursuit of the Indians, the next day, 
he was attacked and surrounded by an overwhelming force of 
savages; after a desperate resistance, Capt. Pierce, with nearly 
all his men, were killed, after having slain, it is supposed, nearly 
double the number of their enemies. " Two days after Pierce' s 
fight, a party of the Indians, crossing the river, laid the town in 
ashes, burning 40 houses and 30 barns." These houses were 
around the "Ring -of the Town;" only two houses were left 
standing, the garrison-house, which stood on the spot where the 
house of Phanuel Bishop now stands, and another house on the south 
end of the common, which was preserved by black sticks having 
been arranged around it, so as to give it at a distance the appearance 
of being strongly guarded. The houses were set on fire, as tradition 
informs us, early in the evening, and when the sun arose the 
next morning it beheld only a line of smoking ruins. It appears 
that only one person was killed ; he was an Irishman, a religious, 
but a singular and superstitious man. On the approach of the 
Indians, he refused to go into the garrison-house, but remained 
in his own house with his Bible in his hand, believing that while 
he continued reading it, nothing could harm him. He was, how- 
ever, shot through the window. 

* Bliss' History of Rehoboth. 


138 faEEKONK. 

There is a chair now in possession of Capt. Caleb Abell of See- 
konk, which has been in possession of that family since the burn- 
ing by the Indians, and is dignified with the appellation of " King 
Philip's Chair" According to the tradition preserved in the 
family, Philip was in the habit of frequently visiting the house of 
Preserved Abell, and whenever he came, this chair, being the 
'big armed-chair of the house," was brought forth as a mark of 
distinction for his seat. At the burning of the place in 1676, the 
Indians brought it out of the house for their chief (who is said to 
have been King Philip) to sit in, and enjoy the conflagration. 
When they left this house for another, an Indian threw a fire- 
brand into the chair, which consumed the bottom, but left the 
huge frame, with only scorching the parts to which the bottom 
was attached. 

Capt. Thomas Willet, who came over to this country in 1630, 
was buried in the limits of this town, at the head of Bullock's 
Cove. He was a very young man when he arrived, and was a 
merchant by profession. He first resided at Plymouth, and soon 
became a useful and distinguished man in the colony. When 
New York was surrendered by the Dutch, Capt. Willet was sent 
for by his majesty's commissioners to assist, them in organizing 
the new government. After a residence of a few years in New 
York, he returned to his seat at Swansea, where he died in 1674. 
" The English mayor of the first commercial metropolis in Ame- 
rica, (says Mr. Daggett in his History of Attleborough,) lies buried 
on a lonely and barren heath, in the humble town of Seekonk, 
at a place seldom visited by the footsteps of man, with nought 
but the rudest monument to mark the spot." The following is 
the rudely carved inscription, still legible. 


Here lyeth the body of the worthy Thomas Willet, Esq., who died August y e 4th, 
in the 64th year of his age, Anno . . . who was the first Mayor of New York, 
and twice did sustain the place. 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the 
burying-ground in this town. 

Here rests the body of Mr. George Allen, a native of Sherburn in Great Britain, 
who died Jan. 20th, A. D. 1774, aged 78 years. His ingenuity & application to 
study were such, that in early life he made uncommon advances in the principal 
branches of Literature, & at the age of 17 was employed as a writing master in his 
native town. At the age of 21 he arrived at Boston, where he opened a school for the 
instruction of youth, in which occupation (in that & other towns) he spent the Prime 
of his life ; his latter researches were better calculated for the promotion of Science, 
than for the advancement of his private interest. His friendly disposition and mode- 
ration were conspicuous to all who knew him. 

A tribute of respect to Hosea Humphrey, Esq., who died June 30th, 1816, aged 59. 
He was a native of Connecticut, was highly esteemed there as a Philosopher, Physi- 
cian & Statesman; was honored with a seat in the Convention for adopting the 
Federal Constitution, & also of the Legislature ; and ever defended the rights of man 
with a liberal independent spirit. Erected by the affect 1 onate regard of his afflicted 

S W A N S E Y . 139 


THIS town is pleasantly situated on the western side of Taun- 
ton river, opposite the town of Fall River. Previous to its incor- 
poration in 1790, it formed a part of Swansey, and was called the 
Shawamet Purchase. Taunton river to this place is navigable for 
vessels of considerable burthen. This place is 13 miles from 
Taunton, 16 from Providence, and 45 from Boston. Population, 
1,063. In five years preceding 1837, there were 12 vessels built; 
tonnage, 696. This town has about 1,200 tons of shipping, and 
7 potteries, where stone and earthen ware are manufactured. 
There are 4 churches : 2 Baptist, 1 Friends, and 1 Methodist 


A PART of this town was originally comprehended in the ancient 
limits of Rehoboth. It forms a part of the tract called by the In- 
dians Wannamoiset, situated in this town and Barrington, R. I. 
Swansey was incorporated as a town in 1667, and comprehended 
in its limits at that period the present town, Somerset, Barring- 
ton, and the greater part of Warren, R. I. The town derived its 
name from Swansea in Wales, and was so spelled in the earliest 
records. In 1649, Obadiah Holmes and several others in Reho- 
both, having embraced the Baptist sentiments, withdrew them- 
selves from Mr. Newman's church, and set up a separate meeting 
of their own. The attempt to break them up, and the persecution 
they received, increased the number of Baptists. In 1663, they 
were much strengthened by the arrival of Rev. Jtfhn Myles, with 
part of his church, which he had formed at Wales, whence he had 
been ejected for non-conformity. In the same year of his arrival 
Mr. Myles formed a Baptist church in Rehoboth, the fourth 
formed in America. It was organized in the house of John But- 
terworth, and commenced with seven members, viz. John Miles 
{or Myles), pastor, James Brown, Nicholas Tanner, Joseph Car- 
penter, John Butterworth, Eldad Kingsley, and Benjamin Alby. 
These and subsequent proceedings, were deemed such an evil by 
the rest of the inhabitants of the town and of the colony generally, 
that the court of Plymouth was called on to interfere. Each mem- 
ber of this new church was fined 5, prohibited from worship 
for the space of one month ; and they were advised to remove 
from Rehoboth to some place where they might not prejudice any 
existing church. They accordingly removed to Wannamoiset, 
and erected a house near Kelley's bridge, on a neck of land now in 
the limits of Barrington. They afterwards erected another about 
half a mile from " Myles's bridge," on the east side of Palmer's 
river, a short distance from where the present house of worship 
now stands. 

The central village of SiTansey contains about a dozen dwelling- 

140 S W ANSE Y. 

houses, and a Union church for various denominations. Some 
of the inhabitants of the town are engaged in navigation and ship- 
building ; there is also a cotton factory, 2 paper-mills, and a wool- 
len factory. There are 3 Baptist churches. Population, 1,627. 
Distance, 14 miles S. W. of Taunton, 20 from New Bedford, 14 
from Providence, 10 N. E. of Bristol, R. I., and 46 southerly of 

This town will be memorable on account of its being the place 
where the first English blood was shed in "King Philip's War." 
Philip having laid his plans for the extermination of the English, 
his warriors were so impatient that he was obliged to promise 
them that on the next Lord's day, when the English were gone to 
meeting, they should rifle their houses and kill their cattle. Ac- 
cordingly, on Sunday, June 20th, 1675, he permitted his men to 
march out into the neighborhood of Swansey, and to annoy the 
English by killing their cattle, thus hoping to provoke them to 
commence the attack ; for it is said a superstitious opinion pre- 
vailed among them, that the side which did the first execution 
would finally be conquered. The Indians were so insolent in 
their deportment and language, that an Englishman was so pro- 
voked that he fired upon one of them and wounded him. This, 
according to Mr. Hubbard, in his "Indian Wars," was the first 
gun fired. According to tradition, this Indian who was wounded, 
after killing a number of cattle in the field, went into the man's 
house and demanded liquor ; being refused, he attempted to take 
it by violence, and at the same time threatened revenge; this 
caused the Englishman to fire upon him. The Indians upon this 
commenced open war. 

The following is Mr. Hubbard' s account of the first shedding 
of English blood: "On the 24th of June, 1675, was the alarm 
of war first sounded in Plymouth colony, when eight or nine of 
the English were slain in and about Swansey ; they (the Indians) 
first making a shot at a company of English as they returned 
from the assembly, where they were met in a way of humiliation 
on that day, whereby they killed one and wounded others ; and 
then likewise at the same time they slew two men on the high- 
way, sent to call a surgeon ; and the same day barbarously mur- 
dered six men in and about a dwelling-house in another part of 
the town ; all of which outrages were committed so suddenly, that 
the English had no time to make resistance." 

At this period the house of Rev. John Miles was garrisoned. It 
stood a short distance west of Miles' bridge, probably near the 
site of the tavern of Mason Barney, Esq. Intelligence of the mur- 
der of the Swansey people having reached Boston, a foot company, 
under Capt. Henchman, and a troop, under Capt. Prentice, imme- 
diately marched for Mount Hope, and being joined by another 
company of 110 volunteers under Capt. Mosely, they all arrived 
at Swansey on the 28th of June, where they found the Plymouth 
forces under Capt. Cudworth. Mr. Miles' was made head-quar- 
ters. About a dozen of the troop went immediately over the 

TAUNT ON. 141 

bridge, where they were fired upon out of the bushes, one killed 
and one wounded. This action drew the body of the English 
forces after the enemy, whom they pursued a mile or two, until 
they took to a swamp, after having killed about half a dozen of 
their number. The next morning the troops commenced their 
pursuit of the Indians. Passing over Miles' bridge, and proceed- 
ing down the east bank of the river, till they came to the narrow 
of the neck, at a place called Keekamuit or Kickemuit, they 
found the heads of eight Englishmen that the Indians had mur- 
dered, set upon poles by the side of the way. These they took 
down and buried. On arriving at Mount Hope they found that 
Philip and his Indians had left the place. 


IT is believed that the first Englishmen who first traversed the 
soil of this ancient town, (called by the Indians Cohannet,) were 
Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, on their visit to Massa- 
soit, in July, 1621. They found it depopulated and desolate ; the 
ravages of the great plague were every where discernible. At 
Tetiquet and Namasket there were Indian villages. The territory 
of Taunton proper (which formerly included within its limits the 
towns of Berkley and Raynham,) was claimed by the sachem of 
Tetiquet. In this territory there were no Indian settlements except 
in a small part of Raynham. It appears, however, that the 
country bordering on the river had been thickly populated, and 
the land cleared on both sides for a considerable distance. When 
first visited many of the remains of the natives were discovered 
unburied. At the head of the list of purchasers of Taunton, stands 
the name of Henry Uxley : who he was, does not appear. His 
house and lot were sold to Richard Williams, who may in some 
measure be considered as the father of Taunton, as he was in the 
place before the purchase of Miss Pool. Mr. Williams was a 
Welshman, and it is not improbable that he was a relation of 
Roger Williams. A tradition has always existed amongst his 
descendants that he was related by blood to Oliver Cromwell, the 
original name of whose family was Williams, (which name was 
changed for an estate,) and one of Cromwell's ancestors bore the 
name of Richard Williams.^ 

The inland situation of Taunton prevented for some time much ac- 
cession to the number of settlers. The first settlers, with few excep- 
tions, were from Somersetshire and Devonshire, and many of them 
from Taunton, in England. The first purchase was made in 1637, 
and confirmed afterwards ; this was called the Tetiquet purchase, 
this being the Indian name for the great river of Taunton. About 
the period of its settlement, Miss Elizabeth Pool, a lady of family 
and fortune, from Taunton, in Somersetshire, Eng., conceived the 

* Baylies' Hist. Memoir of Plymouth Colony, vol. i. p. 288. 


bold design of occupying the territory of Cohannet. It appears that 
an ardent desire of planting another church in the American 
wilderness, induced this pious puritan lady to encounter all the 
dangers and hardships of forming a settlement in the midst of 
the Indians. She died in 1654, and her kinsman placed over her 
grave a stone with an inscription which commemorates her 

The first and ancient purchasers stand in the following order 

Henry Uxley, 

John Dean, 

William Hailstone, 

Francis Street, 

Richard Williams, 

John Strong, 

William Parker, 

Hugh Rossiter, 

Joseph Wilson, 

Henry Andrews, 

John Parker, 

John Gilbert, 

Benjamin Wilson, 

Thomas Cooke, 

John Richmond, 

Thomas Gilbert, 

William Coy, 

John Smith, 

William Holloway, 

Robert Hobell, 

George Hall, 

Mr. Thomas Farwell, 

The Wid. Randall, 

Richard Burt, 

David Corwithy, 

Edward Case, 

Francis Doty, 

John Grossman, 

Mr. William Pool, 

John Kingsley, 

William Dunn, 

John Luther, 

George Macy, 

Richard Paull, 

William Scadding, 

John Drake, 

William Harvey, 

Richard Smith, 

John Bryant, 

Mr. John Brown. 

Hezekiah Hoar, 

Mr. John Gilbert, 

Anthony Slocum, 

Walter Dean, 

William Phillips, 

John Gengille, 

In a pamphlet entitled " Plain Dealing or Newes from New 
England," written by Thomas Lechford of Clements Inn, Jan. 
17, 1641, and published in London, 1642, the writer, speaking of 
Taunton, says 

Cohannet, alias Taunton, is in Plymouth patent. There is a church gathered of 
late, and some ten or twenty of the church, the rest excluded ; Master Hooke, pastor ; 
Master Street, teacher. Master Hooke received ordination from the hands of one 
Master Bishop, a school-master, and one Parker, a husbandman, and then Master 
Hooke joyned in ordaining Master Street. One Master Doughty, a minister, opposed 
the gathering of the church there, alleging that according to the covenant of Abraham, 
all men's children that were of baptized parents, and so Abraham's children, ought to 
be baptized ; and spoke so in publique, or to that effect, which was held a disturbance, 
and the ministers spake to the magistrate to order him ; the magistrate commanded 
the constable, who dragged Master .Doughty out of the assembly. He was forced to 
go away from thence with his wife and children. 

Rev. William Hooke, who must be considered the first pastor of 
the Taunton church, was born about the year 1600. He married 
the sister of Edward Whalley, a major general in the Parliament's 
army, one of the regicides, so called, from being one of the judges 
who condemned Charles I. to death. Mr. Hooke left Taunton 
about 1640, and removed to New Haven, Con., from whence in 
1656 he returned to England. He was received in the family of 
the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, as domestic chaplain. After 
the restoration of Charles II., he was silenced for non-conformity, 
and died in London, in 1677. 

Taunton is a shire town; it is pleasantly situated at the head of 
sloop navigation on Taunton river. This place has great water 
power by the junction of Canoe and Rumford rivers with the 
Taunton, and is well improved for manufacturing purposes. 
There are about 30 sail of coasters of considerable burthen which 
ply between this place and the neighboring ports. A branch of 
the Boston and Providence railroad is extended to this place. 

T A U N T O N . 143 

There are 8 churches : 4 Congregational, 2 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 1 
Methodist, and 1 Catholic. The center of the main village is orna- 
mented with an enclosed green with shade-trees, on one side of 
which is situated the court-house and other handsome buildings. 
There are 3 banks, the "Taunton Bank," with a capital of $250,- 
000, the " Bristol County Bank," capital $100,000, and the 
" Cohannet Bank," capital $100,000. There are two insurance 
companies. This place is 32 miles from Boston, 20 from Provi- 
dence, and 32 from Newport, R. I. Population of the town, 7,647. 
In the Statistical Tables of the state, published in 1837, it is stated 
there were 8 cotton mills ; 3,043,887 yards of cotton goods were 
manufactured: males employed, 124; females, 468. One print 
works, which printed 5,869.860 yards of cloth ; males employed, 
250 ; females, 40 ; capital invested, $200,000. Seven millions and 
one hundred thousand of bricks were manufactured, valued at 
$28.000 ; ninety-five hands employed. Forty thousand straw 
bonnets were manufactured, valued at $62,000. Three nail fac- 
tories, which manufactured 256 tons, valued at $60,500. One air 
and cupola furnace, which made 2,000 tons of iron castings, valued 
at $200.000: one forge, which manufactured 400 tons of bar iron, 
valued at 35,000. Besides these, there are various other articles 
manufactured, such as boots, shoes, hats, &c. 

Monument of Miss Pool, Taunton Cemetery. 

A cemetery has been recently laid out in the immediate vici- 
nity of the main village of Taunton, (called Mount Pleasant Ceme- 
tery,) upon the plan of that at Mount Auburn, in the vicinity of 
Boston. The ground is well calculated for this object, being agree- 
ably diversified with elevations and depressions, and the soil is 
superior to that of Mount Auburn. The engraving shows the ap- 
pearance of the monument of Miss Pool, at the entrance of the 
cemetery. The following is the inscription on this monument. 

The Females of Taunton have erected this monument in honor of Er.r/ABvrn POOL, 



foundress of the town of Taunton, in 1637. Born before the settlement of America, 
in England, 1589, died at Taunton, May 21, 1654. 

The following account is taken from the pamphlet containing 
Mr. Conant's sermon at the execution of Bristol, an African boy, 
for the murder of Miss McKinstry. It is proper to state that 
some accounts say that this boy had been informed, that if he 
would kill some one, and run away, he would obtain his liberty. 

The bloody murder of Miss Elizabeth McKinstry, on June the 4th, 1763, which 
gave occasion for the preaching of the foregoing discourse, may Truly be placed 
among the astonishing Events of Providence and the alarming Frailties of human 
nature. One cannot call to mind the particular circumstances of this tragic scene 
without the deepest Emotions of Horror, Pity and Indignation. 

The Negro Boy who perpetrated this lamentable crime was born in Africa, and at 
the age of about eight years was brought to New England, where he lived about five 
years in the same family with Miss McKinstry, at Windsor. His master then dying, 
he was purchased by her brother, Dr. McKinstry, of Taunton, where he had lived 
three years when the murder was committed, the deceased having been also about 
two years in the same family ; so that from his childhood (excepting one year) he had 
lived in the same Family with her, and during this time he was treated with all the 
tenderness and Instruction that could be desired. He always appeared happy in his 
situation, and showed an uncommon Readiness to do his business and Faithfulness to 
perform what he undertook, without the least appearance of Sullenness or Malice. 
After he had the fact he rode to Newport, never showing the least concern till he was 
apprehended ; he then made some artful excuses, till he had been committed about 
twelve hours, when he confessed the whole fact ; the substance of which was, " that 
early in the morning. Miss McKinstry, a little Girl, and himself, being the only per- 
sons of the Family that were up, and the little girl being gone up stairs, as Miss 
McKinstry was stooping over the fire, he catched up a Flat Iron that stood on the 
hearth, struck her on the head, and knocked her into the fire, which burnt her face ; 
he then gave her another Blow, and Immediately dragged her down the cellar stairs, 
where, seeing an old ax, he struck her with it on the head, and made off as fast as he 

After his commitment he appeared very penitent, and expressed his sorrow for the 
crime, particularly for the grief he had brought on his master's Family, in speaking 
of which he always seemed the most affected. He declared constantly, during the 
whole of his imprisonment, to his last moments, that he never had any anger against 
the deceased, nor any of the Family, and that he had never received any Treatment 
that deserved it ; and though he always appeared free to answer any Questions that 
were asked him, yet he never gave any reason for committing the crime, but that he 
was prompted to it by a Negro Boy of his acquaintance, who Threatened to kill him 
if he did not do it. This he persisted in to his dying moment. 

At his trial he pleaded guilty, but showed no emotion at the pronouncing sentence 
of Death, nor at the public worship, where in his hearing several sermons besides this 
were preached on the occasion, nor even at the execution. This would naturally be 
construed to Stupidity or Sullenness, had not his discourse plainly shown that he had 
a true sense of his Crime and right notions of a future state. 

At the Gallows he made a long speech to the Spectators, particularly to those of his 
own color, which for Substance was pertinent and important. He expressed great 
concern for his master's Family, was very particular in thanking every Body that had 
taken notice of him while in Prison; he acknowledged his condemnation just ; he ex- 
pressed his sense of his guilt and the hopes he had of forgiveness and future happiness 
through the Mercy of God in Christ; and then, after repeating the Lord's Prayer dis- 
tinctly, he was turned off. The deceased, who was the unhappy object of this unac- 
countable Malice, was a Daughter of the Rev. Mr. John McKinstry, late of Windsor, 
a young Lady of cheerful disposition, an even, generous temper, and every way of a 
worthy character. After tarrying with her Brother, she was preparing to return to 
her Mother at Windsor, when, in a moment that she thought not of, she was hurried 
in this cruel manner to her long home. 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the 
ancient burying-ground. 

TAUNT ON. 145 

Here rest the remains of Mrs. Elizabeth Pool, a native of old England of good Fam- 
ily, Friends & prospects, all of which she left in the prime of her life to enjoy the 
Religion of her Conscience in this distant wilderness. A great proprietor of the town 
ship of Taunton, a chief promoter of its settlement and its incorporation, A. D. 1639, 
about which time she settled near this spot, and having em ployed the opportunytys oi 
her virgin state in Piety, Liberality of manners, died "May 2lst, A. D. 1654, aged 65, 
to whose memory this monument is gratefully erected by her next of kin lohn Borland, 
Esq. A. D. 1771. 

In memory of the Hon. Samuel White, Esq. Colonel of a foot Ptegiment of Militia, 
Barrister at Law and member of the Hon. his Majesty's Council, who often having 
been delegated to the offices of Government, faithfully served his God, his king and his 
country, and exhibiting through an unspotted course of life, the virtues of the Patriot, 
Friend and Christian, fell asleep in Jesus, March XX, MDCCLXIX, in the LIX year 
of his age. 

This humble stone, small tribute of their praise 
Lamented shade ! thy weeping offspring raise ! 
O while their footsteps haunt y e hallow'd shrine, 
May each fair branch shoot fertile as ye vine- 
Not with thy Dust be here thy virtue's tomb 
But bright'ning still each Grace transplanted bloom, 
Sire, Sons and Daughters shall a like renown ; 
Applauding angels ! a celestial crown ! 

Parentibus optimus bene merentibus.* 

Zephaniah Leonard, Esq. who died April the 23d, A. D. 1766, in the 63d year of his 
age, & Hannah, his wife, who died the same day, in the 62d year of her age. 
To dust and silence so much worth consigned, 
Sheds a sad gloom o'er vanities behind. 
Such our pursuits ? proud mortals vainly soar. 
See here, the wise, the virtuous are no more. 
How mean Ambition ! how completely hate ; 
How dim the tinsel glories of the Great ! 
& Death 6c hovering darkness hide us all. 

Inscribed to the memory of the Hon ble - Seth Padelford, Esq., who deceased January 
7th, 1810, aged 58 years and 1 month. For he was wise to know, and warm to praise, 
and strenuous to transcribe in human life THE MIND ALMIGHTY. 

Robert Treat Paine, a poet of some celebrity, was born in this 
town, December 9th, 1773. His father was the Hon. Robert Treat 
Paine, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. In 
his eighth year his father removed to Boston. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1792, with a high reputation for genius. He was 
soon after placed in the counting-room of a merchant, but left 
it for literary occupations, and published several poerns and ora- 
tions, which at the time were highly popular. In 1802, he 
began the practice of law, but failed of success for want of appli- 
cation ; and he spent the latter part of his life in poverty. He 
died Nov. 13th, 1811, aged 38. His national song, Adams and 
Liberty, is perhaps the most widely known ; of which the follow- 
ing is the first stanza. 

Ye sons of Columbia, who bravely have fought 

For those rights, which unstained from your sires had descended, 

May you long taste the blessings your valor has bought, 
And your sons reap the soil which their fathers defended. 

* A worthy son of worthy parents. 


'Mid the reign of mild peace 

May your nation increase, 

With the glory of Rome, and the wisdom of Greece ; 
And ne'er shall the sons of Columbia be slaves, 
While the earth bears a plant, or the sea rolls its waves. 


THIS town, previous to its incorporation in 1787, was a part of 
Dartmouth. There are two small villages in the town, one at the 
head of East river, the other at Westport Point. The people are 
much divided in religious sentiments. There are 5 meeting-houses : 
2 for Friends, 2 for Baptists, and 1 for Methodists. There is also 
a small society of Congregationalists. The village at the head of 
East or Nochacuck river is about 8 miles from New Bedford, 8 
from Fall River, and 21 from Newport. Formerly considerable 
quantities of timber were obtained in this town. The whale fish- 
ery is now an important branch of business ; , eight whaling ves- 
sels now go out from Westport Point. There is a cotton mill in 
this town, having 3,072 spindles, which in 1837 consumed 300,000 
Ibs. of cotton ; 270,000 Ibs. of cotton yarn were manufactured, the 
value of which was $67,500. 


THIS county is formed of the islands of Martha's Vineyard, 
Chappequiddick, Elizabeth Islands, and Neman's Land. The last- 
mentioned island is the southern extremity of Massachusetts. 
These islands lie off south of Barnstable county and Buzzard's 
Bay, and contain about 120 square miles. The principal island, 
Martha's Vineyard, is 19 miles in length from east to west, and its 
breadth in the widest part is 10 miles, and in the narrowest 2 miles : 
its mean breadth may be about 5 miles. Its usual Indian name 
was Capawock, though sometimes called Nope. (It is believed 
that Nope was more properly the name of Gay Head.) The 
greatest part of the island is low and level land ; though in the 
western part there is a range of hills, which begins a mile west of 
Lambert's Cove, where they are three quarters of a mile wide, and 
running in a chain parallel with the sound, rise to the height of 
250 feet, expand to the breadth of three miles, and terminate at 
Gay Head. These islands were discovered by Bartholomew Gos- 
nold, in 1602. He landed at Noman's Land, which he called 
Martha's Vineyard, passed round Gay Head, which he named 
Dover Cliff, anchored in Vineyard sound, and landed on Catta- 
hunk, which he named Elizabeth Island, in honor of Queen Eliz- 
abeth. Here he concluded to begin a plantation, and accordingly 
chose a site at the west end of the island. Here, on the north side, 
is a small pond of fresh water, two miles in circumference ; in the 


middle of its breadth, near the west end, is a small rocky islet. 
This they fortified, and upon it erected a storehouse.* While the 
men were occupied in this work, Gosnold crossed the bay in his 
vessel, went on shore, trafficked amicably with the natives, and, 
having discovered the mouths of two rivers, returned to the island. 
One of these rivers was that on the banks of which New Bedford 
is now built. This storehouse was the first house built by the 
English on the New England shores. When Gosnold was prepar- 
ing to leave, discontent arose among those who were to have 
remained, so that the design of a settlement was relinquished, and 
the whole company returned to England. The next year, in June, 
Martin Pring entered the harbor of Edgartown, which he called 
Whitson's Bay, and* anchored under the shelter of Chappequiddick 
neck, to which he gave the name of Mount Aldworth. Here he 
remained till the beginning of August, when he sailed for England. 
In 1619, Capt. Thomas Dermer landed at Martha's Vineyard, and 
was attacked by the natives. He and his companions gallantly 
defended themselves with their swords, and escaped. Several 
Indians were killed in the fray. 

Martha's Vineyard, Nan tucket, and the Elizabeth Islands were 
not included in any of the New England governments. William, 
Earl of Sterling, in consequence of a grant from the crown of Eng- 
land, laid claim to all the islands between Cape Cod and Hudson's 
river. James Forcett, agent for the earl, in Oct. 1641, granted to 
Thomas Mayhew, of Watertown, and Thomas Mayhew his son, 
Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and the Elizabeth Islands, with 
the same powers of government which the people of Massachusetts 
possessed by charter. The elder Thomas Mayhew had been a 
merchant at Southampton, in England, and when he first came to 
America he followed the same employment. The next year after 
he obtained the grant of Martha's Vineyard, he sent his son and 
several other persons to begin a plantation, who established them- 
selves at Edgartown. The father himself soon followed, and 
became the governor of the colony. In 1644, by an act of the 
commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, probably 
at the request of the inhabitants, Martha's Vineyard was annexed 
to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. In 1664, the Duke of York 
received from his brother, Charles II., a grant of New York, includ- 
ing Long Island, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and the islands 
adjacent, which had been previously purchased of Henry, grand- 
son and heir of William Earl of Sterling, who previously resigned 
and assigned them to the duke. In consequence, these islands 
became a part of New York, but were left mostly to manage their 
own affairs. It was while Martha's Vineyard and Elizabeth Islands 
were connected with NCAV York that, with Nantucket, they 
were made a county by the name of Dukes County. By the char- 

* The cellar of Gosnold's storehouse is yet to be seen, the stones of which were taken 
1'rom the neighboring beach ; the rocks of the islet being less movable and If ing in 
.edges. This place is what Josselyn and other old authors call "old Plymouth planta- 
tion, begun in 1602." 

148 C H I L M A R K . 

ter of William and Mary, which arrived in 1692, these islands 
were taken from New York and annexed to Massachusetts. In 
1695, Martha's Vineyard, the Elizabeth Islands, and Neman's Land, 
were separated by the legislature from Nantucket, and made a dis- 
tinct county. These islands suffered much in the revolutionary 
war. The vessels of the inhabitants were all taken and destroyed, 
the young men were captured, and many of them died on board 
prison ships. They lost most of their cattle and sheep, which 
were taken off by the enemy. In the last war with England, the 
inhabitants of these islands, from their exposed situation, were 
obliged to remain neutral. In this county there are 3 towns, viz. 
Chilmark, Edgartown, and Tisbury. 


THIS township comprehends the west end of Martha's Vineyard, 
the Elizabeth Islands, and Neman's Land. The territory on Mar- 
tha's Vineyard is 10 miles in length, and from 2 to 5 miles in 
breadth. The Indian name of this part of the island was Nash- 
ou-oh-ka-muck, and it was the last settled by the English. There 
was, however, a village here before the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Whilst it was under the government of New York, it was 
called the manor of Tisbury, but it was known by the name of 
Chilmark as long ago as 1698. The first town meeting was held 
in 1705, and in 1707 it first sent a representative to the general 
court. It was incorporated by the name which it now bears in 

The first minister in Chilmark was Rev. Ralph Thacher ; the 
time of his ordination is unknown. He was dismissed at his 
request in 1714. In 1715 William Holmes was ordained. He was 
a man of worth, and died in the ministry. In 1746, Andrew 
Boardman was ordained; and died of the small-pox in 1777. He 
was succeeded by Jonathan Smith, ordained in 1788, dismissed in 
1827. Here are 2 meeting-houses, 1 Congregational, 1 Methodist. 
Distance 12 miles S. W. by S. of Edgartown, and 92 southerly 
from Boston. 

The surface of this township is more varied than that of the 
other towns in the county. The northern and western part is 
uneven, having many hills, which afford an extensive prospect of 
the ocean, the sound, the Elizabeth Islands, the shore of Fal- 
mouth, and the country beyond the islands. The scene is enlivened 
by vessels which are continually passing. There are several 
pleasant and fertile valleys between the hills, about 2 miles from 
the sound, some of which afford iron ore. Considerable quantities 
of this ore have been exported to the forges on the main. Deli- 
vered at the sound it is worth about 2 dollars per ton. The stones 
and rocks which lie on these hills are granite ; many of them are 
large, and some of singular shapes. Several at a distance might 

U H I L M A R K 


be mistaken for houses. One has a roof like a barn, another is 
almost a perfect cone, and is called the Sugar Loaf; and others 
are hollowed out in the form of a bowl. The soil is clay, inter- 
mixed with sand, the clay predominating. There are several 
plains which are sandy. Both the clayey and sandy places are 
stony. The land, properly manured, produces good crops of Indian 
corn, rye, oats, and potatoes. There is more grass land in this 
town than in other parts of the island. There are but a few brooks, 
and those small. Swamps are more numerous, lying mostly in the 
western part of the township, but are not very extensive. Several 
of them have been cleared and converted into meadows. The best 
land in the island is at Gay Head, which is reserved to the Indians. 
There are a number of ponds in the town, the largest of which is 
Chilmark Great Pond, which consists of two parts connected by 
an artificial creek, the length of which is 2 miles, east and west. 
There is a small pond near the north-west corner of the township, 
covering about an acre of ground, and situated on land 70 feet 
above high water. It is so deep that its bottom has never yet 

Lighthouse at Gay Head, Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard. 

oeen found. Most of the shore bordering this township is formed 
of cliffs of clay, of blue and red colors, disposed in layers. At the 
west end of the town and island, is a peninsula of about three and 
a half miles in length and one and a half in breadth, containing 
2,400 acres, the north-west point of which is Gay Head, about 100 
feet in height. This cliff is composed of clay and other substances, 
red, yellow, blue, indigo, black, and white; and to those who -are 
on board a vessel sailing near the shore, especially after a rain, 
and Avhen the sun shines on it, it is a brilliant and beautiful object; 
hence it derived the name of Gay Head. A lighthouse which 
stands on it elevates a light 50 feet more above the level of the 

At Gay Head is the Devil's Den, which, notwithstanding the terror of its name, has 
nothing formidable in its appearance. li is a depression in the hill in the form of a 

150 C H I L M A R K . 

bowl, except that it is open on the side next the sea, through which it is not difficult to 
descend to the strand. It is about 400 yards around, and 100 feet deep. If it was on the 
top of a mountain it might be called a crater. In this cavity, according to an Indian 
traditionary fable, many years before the English came to Martha's Vineyard, a giant, 
or tutelar deity, named Maushope, resided. Here he broiled the whale on a fire made 
of the largest trees, which he pulled up by the roots. Though a malignant spirit has now 
taken possession of his den, yet the first occupier was a benevolent being, and he kindly 
supplied the Indians with whales and other fish. After separating Neman's Land from 
Gay Head, metamorphosing his children into fishes, and throwing his wife on Saconet 
Point, where she still remains a misshapen rock, he went away, nobody knew whither. 
Perhaps the report that volcanic flames have been seen to ascend from the Devil's Den 
is as fabulous as the story of Ma.ushope, as they have never been observed by any of 
the well-informed inhabitants. It has been suggested that the above story of the giant 
might have originated by the Indians finding fossil skeletons of large marine animals 
at that place, and from supposing the lignite which there abound to be the remains ot 
his fires. 

From Gay Head across to Cattahunk, a ledge of sunken rocks 
extends, known by the name of the Devil's Bridge, concerning the 
origin of which the Indians had the following tradition. The 
same famous giant Maushope undertook to build a bridge or cause- 
way there, and had thrown in the rocks and a shoefull of earth, 
which he scraped out from the Devil's Den, but, one day, while 
working in the water, a crab bit his toe, which so vexed him that 
he abandoned his project. 

Gay Head is inhabited by descendants of the native Indians, 
who own there 2,400 acres of land, most of which is under good 
improvement. Their dwelling-houses, up wards of 35, are mostly 
one story, and are comfortably built. The number of their popu- 
lation is 235. Their church, which at present is of the Baptist 
denomination, is 148 years old, since the organization, and now 
consists of 47 communicants. Their present minister is Rev. 
Joseph Amos, an Indian, of Marshpee, entirely blind, but a preach- 
er of considerable ingenuity. Within a few years the condition of 
these people has much improved in point of temperance and gene- 
ral moral reformation. In this good cause, Simon Johnson, and 
Zacheus Hauwassowee are actively engaged. 

THE ELIZABETH ISLANDS are separated from Martha's Vineyard by 
the sound, arid from Falmouth by a strait called Wood's Hole. 
Beginning north-east, the first island is Nannamesset, which is a 
mile arid a quarter long, and half a mile in breadth. It is inha- 
bited by 3 families, and has salt-works. In the S. W. part of the 
island is a high hill called Mount Sod. The next island, Onka- 
tomka, is three quarters of a mile in length, and half a mile in 
breadth. Between Nannamesset and Nasnawn, towards the sound, 
are two small islands, called the Ram Islands. South-west from 
Nannamesset, and divided from it by the Gut, is Nashawn. This 
island is seven miles and a half long, and a mile and a quarter broad. 
The soil in the eastern part is a sandy loam and good, in the 
western part light and inferior. Nearly one half of the island is 
in wood and swamps. At half a mile distance, north of Nashawn, 
in Buzzard's Bay, are 3 small islands, called Wepecket Islands, 
the largest of which is not a quarter of a mile in length. West 
of Nashawn, and separated from it by a strait called Robinson's* 


Hole, is Pasque Island, which is a mile and three quarters long. 
The soil is light, and more stony than the other Elizabeth Islands. 
South-west from Pasque, and separated from it by Quick's Hole, is 
Nashawenna, three miles and a quarter long, and a mile and a 
quarter broad. Cattahunk lies west of Nashawenna, from which it 
i? separated by a shoal, and is two miles and a half long, and 
three quarters of a mile broad. The soil is rich and good. North 
of Cattahunk is Penequese, which is three fourths of a mile long, 
arid half a mile broad. Three quarters of a mile east of Pene- 
quese is Gull Island, which is less than a fourth of a mile in length. 
The Elizabeth Islands are stony, but the soil is mostly good. 
Cattle are kept on all the islands, but they are the most noted for 
their sheep, which are larger and produce finer fleeces than those 
on Martha's Vineyard. Nomarfs Land belongs to Chilmark, and 
is situated 4 miles from Squibnocket Point, and six and a half from 
Gay Head. This island is a mile and three quarters long, and 
three quarters of a mile wide. The land is composed of hills of a 
moderate elevation, and of several small swamps. There are no 
trees, but there are bushes in the swamps, and in some of them 
there is peat. The soil of the upland is warm, and in general 
gravelly. The island is mostly used for the feeding of sheep. 
There are two dwelling-houses, and from 15 to 20 huts, which 
shelter the pilots, who go to the island, principally in the winter, 
to look out for vessels which are coming on the coast. 

The number of sheep in the town of Chilmark, in 1837, was 6,470, 
of which 1,600 were merinos; the average weight of each fleece 
2 Ibs.; value of wool produced, 5,180. Population of the town, 


THIS town lies on the eastern part of Martha's Vineyard, and is 
9 miles in length and 5 in breadth, exclusive of Chappequiddick 
island, which belongs to the town. This place is also known by 
the name of Oldtown. It is usually said to have been first settled 
by Thomas Mayhew and his company, in 1642; but it appears 
there were 10 or 12 English families settled at Edgartown before 
Mayhew went on to the island. These families first landed at 
Pease Point, which is a part of Starbuck Neck. The ship in 
which they came was bound to Virginia, but fell by accident into 
this port, and, being short of provisions, these families preferred 
remaining and taking their chance with the Indians, to proceeding 
on the voyage. Four of their names have been handed down to 
us : Pease, Vincent, Norton, and Trapp, the three former of which 
still remain on the island. They landed late in the autumn, and 
were supplied during the first winter with fish and com by the na- 
tives. Mayhew and his associates united with them, and laid out 
the land into 42 shares. There are circumstances which render it 
probable that Mayhew the younger had been on the island some 
time before the grant was obtained. The town was incorporated in 




1671, while under the government of New York, by Francis Love- 
lace, then governor of that colony. 

The first church was gathered in 1641, and Thomas Mayhew 
ordained pastor. He died in 1657. Thomas Mayhew the father 
preached to the Indians, and also to the English, after the death 
of his son. Jonathan Dunham was ordained in 1694. Samuel 
Wiswall was ordained in 1713. He died in 1746, and was suc- 
ceeded the next year by John Newman. He was dismissed in 
1758, and succeeded by Samuel Kmgsbury, (from Dedham,) 
ordained in 176 1. Mr. Kingsbury died of small-pox in 1778, and 
the next pastor, Joseph Thaxter, was ordained in 1780, and conti- 
nued in that office till his death, in 1827. 

Eastern view of Edgartorvn. 

The village of Edgartown is pleasantly situated on the west side 
of the harbor, 91 miles S. E. of Boston, 20 N. W. by W. of Nan- 
tucket, 28 S. E. by E. of New Bedford, 20 S. of Falmouth, 495 
from Washington. It is a county town and port of entry. Hero. 
is the court-house, and 3 churches : 1 Congregational, 1 Baptist, 
and 1 Methodist, 

The annexed engravings are different views of the village of 
Edgartown. The above cut shows the appearance of the central 
part of the place, as it is seen from the island of Chappequiddick, 
lying eastward of the town. The engraving on the next page 
shows the appearance of the village as it is seen from the water, 
in a northern direction from the place. Eight vessels are employed 
in the whale fishery from this town. Population, 1,625. 

Oldtown harbor is the strait between Martha's Vineyard and 
Chappequiddick Island. It is composed of two parts. The outer 
harbor extends from Cape Poge to Starbuck's Neck, and is 4 or 5 
fathoms deep. From this neck the harbor winds to the south, and 
against the town is half a mile wide. This harbor is safe and 
excellent, and is esteemed one of the best in the United States. It 

E D G A R T O W N . 


is so much better than that of Nantucket, that the whalemen of 
that island come to this place to take in their water and fit out 

Northern view of Edgartown. 

their ships. The excellent water of this town is conveyed to them 
by troughs which run over the wharves, at the end of which the 
ships lie, and by hose is conveyed into the casks in the holds. The 
head of Edgartown harbor is Matakeeset Bay, which communicates 
with the ocean by a strait called Washqua outlet, 50 rods wide, and 
from 4 to 10 feet deep at high water. The surface of this town is 
mostly level. A plain extends from Starbuck's Neck 8 miles west, 
and is from 5 to 6 miles wide, and elevated about eighteen feet above 
the level of the sea. Round Edgartown harbor there area few ele- 
vated spots, which rise from 60 to 75 feet above the sea. There is 
an elevation of land in this town, near the Tisbury line, of 120 feet, 
on which is situated a pond of fresh water, of about 20 rods 
in length, and 10 in breadth, and 5 or 6 feet deep. It has 
never been known to be dry ; and as there is no water, either salt 
or fresh, within 4 miles of it, it is of much utility. In this town 
there is no stream sufficiently large to carry a mill, and all the 
grinding of corn and grain is done by windmills. Salt is made 
here to a considerable extent. The water is raised by pumps 
worked by windmills, and is led along by troughs to the cisterns 
or vats, which are filled to the depth of 3 or 4 inches, in which it 
is dried down by the sun. The domestic manufacture of wool in 
this town is of considerable importance. Besides flannels and 
blankets, many thousand pairs of stockings, mittens, and caps or 
wigs, are annually made and sold. Fish of various kinds are 
taken in abundance in the harbor, coves, and ponds of triis town. 
The herring fishery has become very profitable. Edgartown has 
at present 7 whale ships, 2 schooners, and 8 or 10 sloops and 

CHAPPEQUIDDICK ISLAND lies on the east side of Edgartown harbor, 
and, including Cape Poge, is 6 miles long and 3 broad. The soil 
is sandy, but is thought to be more productive than the opposite 
land in Edgartown. There is some wood on the island, which is 
chiefly oak of various sorts. The east and north parts of the island 

154 T I S B U R Y . 

are level, but the west part rises into hills 60 feet high. Samp- 
son's hill in the center is 100 feet in height. On this island are 
about 50 families. The heads of several of these families, of the 
name of Fisher, living near Washqua Point, are celebrated as bold 
and skilful pilots. Ships in storms often get within the dangerous 
rips which lie off the island, and there appears to be no retreat. 
These men are constantly on the watch for them. The sea rolls 
like moving mountains on the shore, and the surf breaks in a ter- 
rible manner. As the waves retire, five or six of them lift a whale- 
boat till they reach the surf, and then jump into it with almost in- 
credible alacrity. The boat frequently fills with water, and they 
are obliged to return to the land to bail the water out, and to carry 
the boat down again. When at last they are so fortunate as to 
float on the surge, to a person standing on the shore, they seem to 
mount up to the sky, and then suddenly sink into the deep. With 
hard rowing they reach the ship, which oftentimes is at the dis- 
tance of 7 or 8 miles. They come the messengers of safety, for 
with perfect ease they carry the ship into the harbor of Edgar- 
town, where it is secure against every wind. 

At the time of the settlement, the Indians were very numerous in this town, perhaps 
more so than in other parts of the island. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard were 
hospitable, and more tractable than those on the main. Governor May hew and his 
son, as soon as they became settled, attempted to civilize them and introduce the gospel 
among them, and their success surprised and delighted the pious of that age. The 
younger Mr. May hew labored in this benevolent work with diligence and fervor till 
his death, in 1657, when it was assumed by his father, and in a few years by his son, 
and it was carried on by some member of the family till the beginning of the present 
.-*ntury. Nearly all the Indians on the island became professed Christians. At first 
they were called catechumens, but were formed into a church in 1659, and from this, 
another church arose in 1670. 

The English found most essential advantages from the ascendency which was gained 
over their minds ; they were disarmed of their rage, they were made friends and 
fellow-subjects. In King Philip's war, all the Indian nations on the main were con- 
federated again?*, the English. Alarm and terror were diffused on every side, but Gov. 
May hew was so well satisfied with the fidelity of these Indians that he employed them 
as a guard, furnished them with the necessary ammunition, and gave them instructions 
how to conduct themselves for the common safety in this time of imminent danger. 
So faithful were they that they not only rejected the strong and repeated solicitations 
of the natives on the main to engage in hostilities, but when any landed from it, in 
obedience to their orders which had been given them, they carried them, though some- 
times their near relations, to the governor, to attend his pleasure. The English, con- 
vinced by these proofs of the sincerity of their friendship, took no care of their own 
defence, but left it entirely to the Indians ; and the storm of war which raged on the 
continent was not suffered to approach, but these islands enjoyed the calm of peace. 
This was the genuine and happy effects of Mr. Mayhew's wisdom and of the introduc- 
tion of the Christian religion among the Indians. 


THIS town comprehends the central part of the island, and is 10 
miles long from north to south, and 5 miles in breadth. It was 
incorporated a township in 1671, at the same time with Edgartown, 
while under the government of New York. As an acknowledg- 
ment, the proprietors were to pay each and every year two barrels 



of good merchantable codfish, to be delivered at Fort James, in 
New York. Before its incorporation it was known by the name of 

The precise time when the Congregational church was organ- 
ized is not known. John May hew began to preach at Tisbury in 
1673, but was not ordained. Josiah Torrey was ordained in 1701 ; 
Nathaniel Hancock in 1727 , George Damon in 1760, and was dis- 
missed about 1779. Asa Morse was installed in 1784, and dis- 
missed at his request in 1799. He was succeeded in 1801 by 
Nymphas Hatch. 

There are two churches. 1 Congregationalist and 1 Methodist, 
situated in West Tisbury, 8 miles and a half from the court-house 

Northern view at Holmes' Hole, East Tisbury. 

in Edgartown, and 85 S. S. E. of Boston. At Holmes' Hole, on 
the north side of the island, is a village, consisting of about 100 
dwelling-houses. There are a Methodist and a Baptist church ; 
the last-mentioned was built in 1837. A few houses on the east 
chop of the harbor fall within the limits of Edgartown. Holmes' 
Hole is a good harbor. The depth of water is from 8 fathoms to 
3 ; the bottom good holding ground, bluish clay. Several excel- 
lent pilots reside near the harbor. Wickataquay Pond communi- 
cates with Holmes' Hole by an opening which is only 4 rods wide 
and 7 feet deep at high water. It is supposed formerly to have 
been wider and deeper, and to have been a part of the harbor. 
The pond is 3 miles in length and 1 mile in width, and in several 
places 40 feet in depth. It is situated on the Edgartown side of 
the harbor. Newtown Pond, in the south part of Tisbury, is a 
mile and a half long, and has a natural communication with the 
sea, through which "the tide rises and falls. The largest brooks in 
the island empty into the head of this pond, not more than 100 
rods apart, one running from the west arid one from the north- 
west. A small brook in this town discharges itself into Lam- 


bert's Cove. The wells in this town, and in other parts of the 
island, are not deep, the water in them being on a level with the 
sea. The common depth is from 15 to 20 feet. The water in 
them is soft and of a good quality, and will wash as well as rain 
water. The sandy beaches in every part of the island abound 
with fresh water, which can be obtained by digging a few feet. 
The surface of this town is mostly level plains. Around Holmes' 
Hole, however, are hills of moderate elevation, and a range of 
highland runs on the north side of the town parallel with the 
sound. Most of the improved land in this township is good and 


ESSEX COUNTY, the north-eastern section of Massachusetts, was 
incorporated as a county in 1643. It is thirty-eight miles long, 
and twenty-five miles wide ; and is more densely populated than 
any other county of its size in the United States. It has an exten- 
sive sea-coast, the line of which is very uneven, being indented 
with numerous bays, inlets, and harbors. Much of the shore is 
rough and rocky, but it has here and -there a sandy beach. There 
are also great tracts of salt marsh, which produce large quantities 
of grass. There are many hills in the county, but no mountains. 
The soil in many places is hard to cultivate, but is made produc- 
tive by the industry of the farmers. The principal river in the 
county is the Merrimac, which rises in New Hampshire; it passes 
through the northern section, three miles south of the New Hamp- 
shire line, and, owing to falls and rapids, is navigable only to 
Haverhill, about eighteen miles from its mouth. There is in this 
county a large amount of wealth, and its commerce and fisheries 
are very extensive. The manufacture of shoes, cloth, and other 
articles, is carried on to a considerable extent. Courts for the 
county are held at Salem, Newburyport, and Ipswich. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the towns, which are 27 in number. 

Amesbury ? 

Lynn field, 

Middle ton, 

West Newbury. 

In 1800 the population of the county was 61,196 ; in 1810 it 
was 71,888; in 1820 it was 74 ; 655; in 1830 it was 82,887; and 
in 1837 it was 93,689. 



AMESBURY was formerly a parish in the town of Salisbury, under 
the name of Salisbury New- Town. It took its name from a town 
in Wiltshire, England, and in the first records of the town it is writ- 
ten Alnisbury. The town was incorporated in 1668. It is six 
miles in length and three in breadth, and is divided into three sec- 
tions : West Parish, or Jamaica, the Ferry, and Mills. The Ferry 
lies at the south-east extremity of the town, at the junction of 
Powow river with the Merrimac. Its name is derived from the 
ancient ferry which was established between this part of the town 
and Newbury. The river alters its course at this point from a 
north-east to a south-west direction. This was formerly the seat 
of considerable trade, and many large ships were owned in the place. 
Ship-building was also carried on extensively on the banks of the 
river, and some are still yearly launched. Shad and salmon were 
taken at this place ; some are still caught, but they are becoming 
scarce. The Mills are situated at the north-eastern border of the 
town, around the lower falls of the Powow, forming a continuous 
settlement with the north-western village of Salisbury, on the oppo- 
site side of the Powow. The width of the river is about 2 rods, 
and is crossed by a number of bridges. There are 5 dams at the 
Mills within a space of 50 rods ; the aggregate fall of water is 
70 feet. The stream is rapid, especially in freshet times, when its 
descent over the falls presents a beautiful scene. The stream is 
seldom exhausted; when so, Kimball's Pond has been dammed 
up, and converted into a reservoir. The canal which forms a 
communication between the pond and river is nearly an eighth of 
a mile in length. It has been made more than a century. A part 
of it forms a tunnel under a high hill, which is considered quite a 
curiosity. Water power in this place was applied to machinery at 
an early date. As far back as half a century there was a smelting- 
furnace, and much business carried on in the making of various 
kinds of tools and agricultural implements. Jacob Perkins' machine 
for cutting and heading nails, which was invented about 1796, was 
first used in this village. The town is hilly, and much of the 
natural scenery is of a picturesque character. Whittier, Bear, 
and the Pond hills, are the most elevated, and the prospect from 
them is very extensive and romantic. The soil of the town is of 
an average quality of the other soil in the county. The Amesbnry 
bUniDid Manufacturing Company, which was incorporated in 
1822, with a capital of $200,000, have two large factories in ope- 
ration, one of which is for the manufactory of flannels, the other 
for satinets. The flannel mills have made annually 15,000 pieces 
of flannels. 46 yards each ; the satinet mill, 5,000 pieces of sati- 
net, 25 yards each. 

The following is a south-eastern view of what is called the Mills 
Village, lying in the towns of Salisbury and Amesbury. For many 
purposes, the people on both sides of the Powow (the dividing line) 


act together as one town. The village, in both towns, is supposed 
to contain about 2,500 inhabitants. There are five churches : 2 
Baptist, 1 Congregational, 1 for Friends, and 1 Episcopal. This 
place is 5 miles from Newburyport, 12 from Haverhill, 20 from 
Portsmouth, and 40 from Boston. Population of the town, 2,567. 

South-east view of Mills Village, in Salisbury and Amesbury. 

One of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, Josiah 
Bartlett, was a native of this town, and many of his kindred still 
live in the place. He studied medicine in his native place, and 
removed to New Hampshire, of which state he held the office of 
governor for a number of years. He died in 1795. 

The first church organized was located at the Ferry. The first 
pastor, settled in 1672, was Thomas Wells, who died 1734, aged 
87. The second pastor was the Rev. Edmund March, of New- 
bury, who was settled here in 1728. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Elisha Odin, of Exeter, N. H.. who was settled in 1744, and died 
in 1752. His successor was Thomas Hibbert, of Rowley, who 
was settled in 1754, and died in 1793. The fifth pastor was Ben- 
jamin Bell, settled in 1784, and resigned in 1790; was succeeded 
by Stephen Hull in 1799, who resigned in 1811. The second Con- 
gregational church, located in the west parish, was organized in 
1726. The Congregational society of Amesbury and Salisbury 
was organized in 1831. The Friends have a meeting-house at the 
Mills village. In Mr. NewhalPs Essex Memorial, it is stated, 
" Most of the people of Amesbury belong to the productive class; 
very few are raised above the necessity for personal exertion. 
All are active and industrious, readily find employment, and com- 
mand good wages. They have been distinguished for their zeal 
in the cause of temperance. There has not been, for several years, 
and is not now, a single licensed grocer in town." According to 
the Statistical Tables published by the state in 1837, there were in 
the limits of this town 3 woollen mills, having 27 sets of machi- 


uery; 1,100,000 yards of flannel were manufactured, and 150,000 
yards of satinet ; value of woollen goods, $425,000 ; males em- 
ployed, 118; females, 125; capital invested, $250,000. In the 
manufacture of chaises, &c., 128 hands were employed, and in the 
manufacture of shoes and boots, 84 persons. 


THE exact time of the first settlement of Cochichewick, now Ando- 
ver, or when the town was first purchased of the Indians, does not 
distinctly appear. The land was bought of Cutshamache, the 
sagamore of Massachusetts, by Mr. Woodbridge, in behalf of the 
inhabitants of Cochichewick. The amount paid was 6 and a 
coat. Mr. Edmund Faulkner might have assisted Mr. Wood- 
bridge, as there is a tradition that he purchased the town for the 
settlers. In 1646, the court confirmed this purchase and grant, 
and the town was incorporated by the name of Andover , from the 
fact that some of the planters came from Andover, in Hampshire, 
England. The settlers bought the land of the town, and they 
were received as commoners or proprietors ; and, according to a 
vote of the town, all householders were considered as proprietors 
and voters. The first divisions were small lots, few exceeding ten 
acres. The farms were rendered inconvenient, from the fact that 
plough land was granted at a distance, in small parcels, on the 
plains; the same also with swamps and meadow-land, wood- 
land, &c. Much of this inconvenience is felt to this day. There 
is much obscurity about certain transactions, in consequence of 
the early records having been destroyed by the Indians. The land 
was first settled near Cochichewick brook, and upon the Shawshin. 
Various parts of the town were soon occupied by settlers. The 
chief settlement was for many years in the neighborhood of the 
meeting-house and Cochichewick brook, and was called the town. 

Most of the first settlers were from England ; the names of the 
following were taken from the town records. They were written 
in an ancient hand, without date, but probably most of the first 
settlers were living when they were written. " The names of all 
the householders in order as they came to town : Mr. Bradstreet, 
John Osgood, Joseph Parker, Richard Barker, John Stevens, 
Nicholas Holt, Benjamin Woodbridge, John Frye, Edmund Faulk- 
ner, Robert Barnard, Daniel Poor, Nathan Parker, Henry Jaques, 
John Aslett, Richard Blake, William Ballard, John Lovejoy, Tho- 
mas Poor, George Abbot, John Russ, Andrew Allen, Andrew Fos- 
ter, Thomas Chandler." Part of these brought families with them. 
The rest were young unmarried men. It is probable that all of 
these and others were in Andover before 1644. Many followed 
them in the course of a few years. 

The first violence done by the Indians took place April, 19, 1676. 
They were first discovered by Mr. Ephraim Stevens, not far from 


Bodwell's Ferry. He escaped upon his horse and gave the alarm. 
The Indians pursued their way along the main road, without doing 
any mischief, till they arrived at the south part of the town; there 
they killed Joseph Abbot, and took Timothy Abbot, both sons of 
George Abbot, sen. Joseph was strong and bold, and the tradition 
is that he killed one or more of them before he was slain : he was in 
his 24th year. Timothy was in his 13th year : after being kept seve- 
ral months, he was brought back by a squaw who was friendly to 
the family. At the same time, they burnt Mr. Faulkner's house, 
wounded Roger Marks, and killed his horse. They killed some 
cattle, but only had time to cut out their tongues, as they were 
fired upon by the people in the garrison. A few months after, a 
party of the enemy surprised and captured Mr. Haggett and two 
of his sons. The 10th of July, 1671, John Parker, James Parker, 
John Phelps, and Daniel Blackhead, were surprised and slain at 
Black Point, in Scarborough. Another war with the Indians com- 
menced in 1688. Andover suffered more in this than in the pre- 
ceding war. In August, 1689, John and Andrew Peters were 
killed by the Indians. The same year, Lieut. John Stevens, Ben- 
jamin Lovejoy, Eleazer Streaton, and Robert Russell, died in the 
war at the eastward. In August, 1696, two others were slain. 

The greatest distress which the Andover people ever suffered from 
the Indians was on the fifth of March, 1698. A company of 30 
or 40 Indians surprised the town, slew 5 persons, burnt 2 houses 
and 2 barns, with the cattle in them, with other damage. The 
names of the persons killed were Simon Wade, Nathaniel Brown, 
Penelope Johnson, Capt. Pascoe Chubb, and Hannah his wife, 
daughter of Edmund Faulkner. Two years before, Chubb had 
been captain at Pemaquid fort, when he treacherously murdered 
two chiefs of the Indians, which had greatly enraged them. His 
death caused them as much joy as the taking of the whole town. 
Col. Dudley Bradstreet and his family they took, and carried them 
about 50 rods from his house ; they then halted and dismissed their 
prisoners, without offering them the least injury. The tradition is, 
that one Waternummon, an Indian who lived at Newbury, having a 
particular regard for Col. Bradstreet, offered to conduct the Indians 
to his house, on condition that they should not kill nor capture any 
of the family. They took Abiel Stevens, a lad, who pretended to be 
lame, and kept behind. The Indians hurried, expecting to be pur- 
sued. He turned back, and made his escape, though fired upon 
by the Indian who took him. In consequence of the snow being 
deep, the inhabitants having no snow-shoes, the Indians were not 
pursued. Assacumbuit, their principal chief, had distinguished 
himself in this war by his cruelties, which rendered their conduct 
in releasing the captives the more extraordinary. No assault after 
this has been made upon Andover, but the towns near suffered 
much many years afterward. 

Andover is the largest township in Essex county ; it contains 
35,738 acres. The soil is excellent, and it is well cultivated. 
The river Merrimac runs along the north-west side; Cochictie- 



wick Brook issues from Great Pond, in the north-east, and empties 
into the Merrimac. The river Shawshin rises in Lexington, and, 
passing through BiUerica, Wilmington, Tewksbury, and Andover, 
empties into the Merrimac. Great Pond, in the north-east part 
of the town, is a fine place for fish and feathered game. It covers 
about 450 acres. Haggetfs Pond is in the west parish, and is a 
place of frequent resort in the summer for parties of pleasure. It 
covers about 220 acres. 

Western view of the Theological Seminary at Andover. 

The south parish, in which the Theological Institution is situated, 
nas a considerable village, extending northward of the institution, 
easterly to some extent, and westerly near the factories. The 
houses generally are well built, and present a fine appearance. A 
large portion of them has been erected within thirty years. There 
are in the village a printing-office; the "Andover Bank," incorpo- 
rated in 1826, capital $200,000; the Merrimac Mutual Fire Insu- 
rance Company, incorporated in 1828, and a savings bank, recently 
instituted. There are 5 churches in the village: 1 Congregational, 
1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist. 1 Universalist, and 1 Methodist. This 
place is 10 miles E. of Lowell, 16 from Salem, and 20 from Bos- 
ton. The Andover and Wilmington railroad passes through the 
village. Population of the town, 4,878. In 1837, there were 8 
woollen mills, 26 sets of machinery ; wool consumed, 524,000 Ibs. ; 
cioth manufactured. 1.294,000 yards; value of woollen goods, 
$520,000; males employed, 140; females, 192; capital' invested, 
$270,000; value of boots and shoes manufactured, $46,500. 
There were two manufactories of machinery, employing 50 hands. 

The above is a western view of the three principal buildings 
of the Theological Institution. They stand on elevated ground, 
having a commanding, variegated, and beautiful prospect. Tire 
buildings of the institution consist of a dwelling-house for each of 
the professors: Phillips Hall, of brick, 90 feet by 40, four stories, <;on- 


taining 32 rooms for students, built in 1808 ; Bartlet Chapel, an ele- 
gant brick building, 94 feet by 40, containing a chapel, library, and 
three lecture rooms, built in 1818 ; and Bartlet Hall, an elegant 
brick building, 104 feet by 40, containing 32 suits of rooms, fur- 
nished, presented by Mr. Bartlet in 1821. 

This institution was founded in 1807, and richly endowed by 
the donations of William Bartlet, Esq., and Moses Brown, Esq., 
of Newburyport ; Widow Phoebe Phillips, John Phillips, Esq., and 
Samuel Abbot, Esq., of Andover, and John Norris, Esq., and his 
widow, of Salem. The library of the seminary contains between 
twelve and thirteen thousand volumes. Besides this, there are 
two other libraries : one, of the Porter Rhetorical Society, contain- 
ing from two to three thousand volumes ; the other, belonging to 
the Society of Enquiry respecting Missions, containing from one to 
two thousand volumes. There is an Athenaeum and news-room, 
supported by the students. Annexed to the institution is a com- 
modious mechanic's shop, where the students can exercise them- 
selves in carpentering or cabinet work. There is a musical society, 
the president of which is paid by the trustees for his services as 
teacher of sacred music. The term is three years. The principal 
study for the first year is the Bible in its original tongues. The 
second year is occupied in the study of systematic theology. The 
third year is chiefly devoted to the study of ecclesiastical history, 
and the composition of sermons. There is also a Teachers' Semi- 
nary near the Institution, which will accommodate 200 students. 

Western view of Phillips Academy at Andover. 

The above is a western view of Phillips Academy, which is 
situated a few rods south of the Theological Seminary. It is built 
of brick, and is 80 feet in length and 40 in width, and was erected 
in 1819. This academy was founded April 21, 1778, by the Hon. 
Samuel Phillips, Andover, and Hon. John Phillips, Exeter, sons of 
the Rev. Samuel Phillips. It was incorporated Oct. 4, 1780, and 
is one of the first institutions of the kind in the country. Its funds 
are about .$50,000. The first object of the institution is declared 

A N D O V E R . 163 

to be the promotion of true piety and virtue. The principal studies 
are the English, Latin, and Greek languages, together with 
writing, arithmetic, music, and the art of speaking : also, practi- 
cal geometry, logic, and geography, with such other liberal arts 
and sciences or languages as opportunity and ability may admit, 
or as the trustees shall direct. Other schools, of a high class, exist 
in this town, for the reception of male and female pupils. The 
average number of those attending private schools and academies 
is about five hundred. 

The first church, located in the north parish, was founded Octo- 
ber, 1645. The first pastor was Rev. John Woodbridge, who was 
settled when the church was formed. He resigned in 1647, and 
went to England, where he preached until ejected under Charles 
II. He returned and lived at Newbury, where he died, March, 
1695. The second pastor was Rev. Francis Dane, who was set- 
tled 1648. The third, the Rev. Thomas Barnard, was settled 
1682. He was succeeded by Rev. John Barnard, in 1719. The 
fifth was the Rev. William Symmes, who was settled 1758. The 
sixth pastor, Rev. Bailey Loring, was settled here in 1810. The 
second Congregational church is situated in the south parish, and 
was organized 1711. The west parish Congregational church was 
gathered Dec. 5, 1826, and Rev. Samuel C. Jackson settled here in 
1827. The Baptist church, located in south parish, was organ- 
ized 1832. 

During the excitement in 1692, on the subject of witchcraft, the 
people of Andover suffered their share of the alarm and distress 
which it occasioned. More than fifty in this town were complained 
of, for afflicting their neighbors and others. Dudley Bradstreet, 
Esq., having granted thirty or forty warrants for commitments, at 
length refused to grant any more. He and his wife were imme- 
diately accused ; he was said to have killed nine persons by witch- 
craft. He found it necessary for his safety to make his escape. 
Three persons who belonged to Andover were hung for witchcraft, 
viz. Martha Carryer, Samuel Wardell, and Mary Parker. The 
following is from Abbot's History of Andover, published at Ando- 
ver, by Flagg and Gould, in 1829. It is inserted here as a matter 
of curiosity, and also as a document which will serve to illustrato 
the history of the times. 

The Indictment of Martha Carryer, 
Essex S3. Anno Regni Regu et Reginae Wilielm et Mariae, nunc Anglise, etc. quarto. 

The Jurors for our sovereign lord and lady the king and queen, present, that Martha 
Carryer, wife of Thomas Carryer, of Andover, in the county of Essex, husbandman, 
the thirty-first day of May, in the fourth year of the reign of our sovereign lord and 
lady, William and Mary, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ire- 
land, king and queen, defenders of the faith, &c. And divers other days and times, 
as well before as after, certain detestable arts, called witchcrafts, and sorceries, wick- 
edly and feloniously hath used, practised and exercised, at and within the township of 
Salem, in the county of Essex aforesaid, in, upon, and against one Mary Wolcott, of 
Salem Village, single woman, in the county of Essex aforesaid; by which said wicked 
arts the said Mary Wolcott, the thirty-first day of May, in the fourth year aforesaid, 
and at divers other days and times, as well before as after, was, and is tortured, 
afflicted, pined, consumed, wasted and tormented; against the peace of our sovereign 

164 A N D O V E R . 

lord and lady, William and Mary, king and queen of England; their crown and dig- 
nity, and against the form of the statute, in that case made and provided. 


There was also a second indictment for afflicting Elizabeth Hubbard by witchcraft. 
The trial of Martha Carryer, August 2, 1692, as stated by Dr. Cotton Mather. 

Martha Carryer was indicted for the bewitching of certain persons, according to the 
form usual in such cases : Pleading not guilty to her indictment, there were first 
brought in a considerable number of the bewitched persons; who not only made the 
court sensible of an horrid witchcraft committed upon them, but also deposed, that it 
was Martha Carryer, or her shape, that grievously tormented them by biting, pricking, 
pinching and choking them. It was further deposed that while this Carryer was on 
her examination before the magistrates, the poor people were so tortured that every 
one expected their death on the very spot ; but that upon the binding of Carryer they 
were eased. Moreover, the looks of Carryer, then laid the afflicted people for dead, 
and her touch, if her eyes were at the same time off them, raised them again. Which 
things were also now seen upon her trial. And it was testified, that upon the mention 
of some having their necks twisted almost round by the shape of this Carryer, she 
replied, It's no matter, though their necks had been twisted quite off. 

2. Before the trial of this prisoner, several of her own children had frankly and fully 
confessed, not only that they were witches themselves, bat that their mother had made 
them so. This confession they made with great shows of repentance, and with much 
demonstration of truth. They related place, time, occasion; they gave an account of 
journeys, meetings, and mischiefs by them performed; and were very' credible in what 
they said. Nevertheless, this evidence was not produced against the prisoner at the 
bar, inasmuch as there was other evidence, enough to proceed upon. 

3. Benjamin Abbot gave in his testimony, that last March was a twelvemonth, this 
Carryer was very angry with him, upon laying out some land near her husband's. 
Her expressions in this anger were, that she would stick as close to Abbot, as the bark 
stuck to the tree ; and that he should repent of it before seven years came to an end, 
so as Dr. Prescot should never cure him. These words were heard by others besides 
Abbot himself, who also heard her say, she would hold his nose as close to the grind- 
stone as ever it was held since his name was Abbot. Presently after this he was taken 
with a swelling in his foot, and then with a pain in his side, and exceedingly tor- 
mented. It bred a sore, which was lanced by Dr. Prescot, and several gallons of cor- 
ruption ran out of it. For six weeks it continued very bad; and then another sore 
bred in his groin, which was also lanced by Dr. Prescot. Another sore bred in his 
groin, which was likewise cut, and put him, to very great misery. He was brought to 
death's door, and so remained until Carryer was taken, and carried away by the con- 
stable. From which very day he began to mend, and so grew better every day, and 
is well ever since. 

Sarah Abbot, his wife, also testified that her husband was not only all this while 
afflicted in his body; but also that strange, extraordinary and unaccountable calami- 
ties befel his cattle; their death being such as they could guess no natural reason for. 

4. Allin Toothaker testified that Richard, the son of Martha Carryer, having some 
difference with him, pulled him down by the hair of the head; when he rose again, he 
was going to strike at Richard Carryer, but fell down flat on his back to the ground, 
and had not power to stir hand or foot, until he told Carryer he yielded; and then he 
saw the shape of Martha Carryer go off his breast. 

This Toothaker had received a wound in the wars, and he now testified, that Martha 
Carryer told him, he should never be cured. Just before the apprehending of Carryer, 
he could thrust a knitting needle into his wound four inches deep, but presently after 
her being seized, he was thoroughly healed. 

He further testified that when Carryer and he sometimes were at variance, she would 
clap her hands at him, and say, he should get nothing by it. Whereupon he several 
times lost his cattle by strange deaths, whereof no natural causes could be given. 

5. John Roger also testified that upon the threatening words of this malicious Carryer 
his cattle would be strangely bewitched ; as was more particularly then described. 

6. Samuel Preston testified that about two years ago, having some difference with 
Martha Carryer, he lost a cow in a strange, preternatural, unusual manner; and about 
a month after this, the said Carryer, having again some difference with him, she told 
him he had lately lost a cow, and it should not be long before he lost another! which 
accordingly came to pass ; for he had a thriving and well-kept cow, which, without 
any known cause, quickly fell down and died. 

7. Phebe Chandler testified that about a fortnight before the apprehension of Martha 


Carry er, on a Lord's day, while the psalm was singing in the church, this Carry er then 
took her by the shoulder, and, shaking her, asked her where she lived. She made her 
no answer, although as Carryer, who lived next door to her father's house, could not 
in reason but know who she was. Quickly after this, as she was at several times 
crossing the fields, she heard a voice that she took to be Martha Carryer's, and it 
seemed as if it were over her head. The voice told her, she should within two or three 
days be poisoned. Accordingly, within such a little time, one half of her right hand 
became greatly swollen and very painful ; as also part of her face ; whereof she can 
give no account how it came. It continued very bad for some days ; and several times 
since she has had a great pain in her breast ; and been so seized on her legs that she 
has hardly been able to go. She added, that lately going well to the house of God, 
Richard, the son of Martha Carryer, looked very earnestly upon her, and immediately 
her hand which had formerly been poisoned, as is above said, began to pain her 
greatly, and she had a strange burning at her stomach; but was then struck deaf, so 
that she could not hear any of the prayer, or singing, till the two or three last words 
of the psalm. 

8. One Foster, who confessed her own share in the witchcraft, for which the prisoner 
stood indicted, affirmed, that she had seen the prisoner at some of their witch-meetings, 
and that it was this Carryer, who persuaded her to be a witch She confessed that the 
devil carried them on a pole to a witch-meeting, but the pole broke, and she hanging 
about Carryer's neck, they both fell down, and she then received an hurt by the fall, 
whereof she was not at this very time recovered. 

9. One Lacy, who likewise confessed her share in this witchcraft, now testified that 
she and the prisoner were once bodily present, at a witch-meeting in Salem Village, 
and that she knew the prisoner to be a witch, and to have been at a diabolical sacra- 
ment, and that the prisoner was the undoing of her and her children, by enticing them 
into the snare of the devil. 

10. Another Lacy, who also confessed her share in this witchcraft, now testified that 
the prisoner was at the witch-meeting in Salem Village, where they had bread and wine 
administered to them. 

11. In the lime of this prisoner's trial, one Susanna Shelden, in open court, had her 
hands unaccountably tied together with a wheel-band, so fast, that without cutting, it 
could not be loosened. It was done by a spectre ; and the sufferer affirmed it was the 


BEVERLY was formerly a part of Salem, and was first settled 
about the year 1630, by the removal of John and William Wood- 
bury, with others of the companions of Roger Conant, from the 
south to the north side of Bass river. John Balch and Conant, 
with others, soon came after. In 1649 the settlers became numer- 
ous enough to desire of the church of Salem that " some course be 
taken for the means of grace amongst themselves, because of the 
tediousness and difficulties over the water, and other inconve- 
niences." A meeting-house was built in 1656, and a branch of the 
church of Salem established. The town was incorporated by the 
name of Beverly on the 14th Oct., J668. The act of incorpora- 
tion ran thus : " The court, on perusal of this return, (ori notice to 
Salem,) judge it meet to grant that Bass River be henceforth a 
township of themselves, referring it to Salem to accommodate them 
with lands and bounds suitable for them, and that it be called 
Beverly." The first town meeting was held on the 23d of 
November, 1668. Conant was not satisfied with the name given 
by the court; in 1671 he petitioned to have it changed to Budleigh, 
the name of the town in England from which he came. The fol- 


lowing, from NewhalVs Essex Memorial* 1836, is an extract from 
the petition : 

" Now my umble suit and request is unto this honorable Court onlie that the name 
of our town or plantation may be altered or changed from Beverly, and be called Bud- 
leigh. I have two reasons that have moved me unto this request: the first is, the 
great dislike and discontent of many of our people for this name of Beverly, because 
(wee being but a small place) it hath caused on us the constant nick -name of beggarly, 
being in the mouths of many, and no order was given, or consent by the people, to 
their agent, for any name untill they were shure of being a towne granted in the first 
place. Secondly; I being the first that had house in Salem, (and neither had any hand 
in nameing either that or any other towne,) and myself, with those that were with me, 
being all from the western part of England, desire this western name of Budleigh, a 
market towne in Devonshire, and neere unto the sea, as wee are heere in this place, and 
where myself was borne. Now, in regard of our firstnesse and antiquity in this soe 
famous a collony, we should umblie request this small prevaledg, with your favour and 
consent, to give this name abovesaid unto our towne. I never yet made sute or request 
unto the Generall Court for the least matter, tho I think I might as well have done, as 
many others have, who have obtained much without hazard of life, or preferring the 
public good before their own interest, which I praise G-od I have done. If this my 
sute may find acceptation with your worships, I shall rest umbly thankful 1, and my 
praiers shall not cease unto the throne of grace for God's guidance and his blessing 
to be on all your waigh tie proceedings, and that iustice and righteousness may be eve- 
rie where administered, and sound doctrine, truth, and holiness everie where taught 
and practised throughout this wilderness to all posterity, which God grant. Amen." 
This petition was signed by thirty-three or four other names But it appears that the 
petition was not granted. 

Beverly is 11 miles from Ipswich, 17 north-east of Boston, and 
14 south-west of Gloucester. Its greatest length is six and two 
thirds and width three and a half miles. It is divided into two 
territoral parishes ; the westerly called the Precinct of Salem and 
Beverly, and the easterly called the First Parish. " This last 
contains two thirds of the territory, and five sixths of the popula- 
tion." Part of Wenham Pond lies within the limits of this town. 
There are several conspicuous hills in the town ; that called 
Brown's Folly is the highest. From the hill the observer has a 
view of a large portion of the bay, the towns of Salem, Danvers, 
and Marblehead, with the surrounding country. 

There is raised in this town about 1,550 tons of hay, 14,000 bush- 
els of grain, and 1.100 head of cattle are pastured. The orchards 
yield an abundant supply of apples. Considerable quantities of 
butter and cheese are made, but of the last, not enough for home 
consumption. There are about 12,000 bushels of Indian corn pro- 
duced annually. The whole quantity of grain raised is about 
equal to half of the consumption of bread stuffs ; of other vega- 
table food the quantity produced exceeds the consumption. The 
great extent of sea-coast furnishes an abundant supply of sea 
manure for improving the soil. The amount of capital employed 
in the cod fishery is greater than that of any other business. There 
are fifty vessels, making an aggregate of 3,500 tons ; valued, includ- 
ing the stores and outfits, at $100,000 ; manned by 400 men and 
boys. The income of this fishery may be estimated at $150,000. 

* The author would here mention that he is deeply indebted to this valuable and 
interesting work for much historical information respecting the various towns in 
Essex county. The work is entitled " The Essex Memorial for 1836, embracing a Regis 
terfor the County, by James R. Nemhall." 



There viv en \ployed in the manufacture of shoes about 300 males 
and 200 females. The value of boots and shoes manufactured in 
1837 was $60,000. Population of the town, 4,609. 

Southwest view of Beverly. 

The above is a view of the southern part of Beverly village, as 
it is seen from near the bridge connecting it with Salem. The act 
for incorporating the proprietors of this bridge passed in 1787. It 
is 1,484 feet long and 34 wide. It is built on 93 wooden piers of 
oak timber, driven into the mud. It has a draw for vessels. The 
first pier was driven in May, 1788. The proprietors are authorized 
to receive toll seventy years from this date, after which the bridge 
reverts to the commonwealth. This is a large village, mostly built 
on a single street. There are 4 churches, 3 Congregational, 1 of 
which is Unitarian, and 1 Baptist. There is an academy, and a 
bank, " The Beverly Bank." There are two Cpngregational 
churches in the upper parish, and a Baptist at the Farms. The 
lamented Capt. Lathrop, and a number of his men, who fell in an 
ambuscade of the Indians at Bloody Brook, at Deerfield, were from 
this place. 

The first church was organized in 1667. and the Rev. John Hale, 
the first pastor, was ordained at the formation of the church. The 
duties of the sexton of the church, about this period, as they appear 
on the town book, were " to ring the bell at nine o'clock every 
night a sufficient space of time as is usual in other places," and 
" keep and turn the glass." An hourglass was kept near the pulpit, 
in view of the minister. He was expected to close his sermon in 
the course of an hour, and if he went over or fell short of the time 
it was a sufficient cause for complaint. Mr. Hale died in 1700. 
His successor was the Rev. Thomas Blowers, who was ordained 
in 1701, and died 1729. Rev. Joseph Champney succeeded Mr. 
Blowers, was ordained 1729, and died in 1773. His successor 
was Rev. Joseph Willard, who was ordained 1772, and dismissed 
in 1781, he having been elected president of Harvard University. 


He was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph McKeen, who was ordained 
in 1785, and dismissed by mutual consent in 1802. In 1803 Rev. 
Ab'>I Abbot was installed, and died 1828. The second Congre- 
gational chur<?h was organized, and the first minister, the Rev. 
John Chipman, ordained, in 1715. The first Baptist church was 
organized in 1801. The third Congregational church was organ- 
ized in 1802. The society was incorporated in 1803. The second 
Baptist was of the Christian denomination, and was formed in 
1828. The Rev. Benjamin Knight was ordained in 1829. He 
has been dismissed, and the church have changed to the Calvinistic 


BOXFORD was taken from Rowley in 1685, and incorporated 
separate town. For the last thirty years, the population has re- 
mained nearly stationary: in 1800 it was 852, in 1830 957, and in 
1837 it was 964. The fertility of the soil is not very great; but 
the inhabitants by their industry have overcome many natural 
deficiencies. The main business of the inhabitants is agriculture. 
There is a cotton factory in the place, which does some business 
in the preparation of batting. Shoemaking is also carried on to a 
considerable extent. The value of shoes manufactured in 1837 
was $52,975. This place is 10 miles from Ipswich, 13 from 
Newburyport, and 24 from Boston. It contains 2 postofficeSj one 
in the east, the other in the west parish. 

At the commencement of the Revolution, the inhabitants dis- 
played much ardor in the cause of freedom. At the battle of Bunkei 
Hill, eight persons from the town were killed. The Hon. Aaron 
Wood, a native resident of this town, at his death, which took place 
in 1791, left a legacy of 2,061 dollars for the support of Latin and 
Greek grammar-schools. 

The town enjoys some useful water privileges, derived from seve- 
ral ponds, which form the head waters of Rowley and Parker 
rivers, and the source of a branch of Ipswich river. In 1680 the 
manufacture of iron was commenced here, but the business was 
soon discontinued. 

The first Congregational church was organized in 1702. The 
Rev. Thomas Symmes was the first pastor ; he was settled in 1702, 
and resigned 1708. The Rev. John Rogers was second pastor; he 
was settled in 1709, and left about 1743, and resided with his son at 
Leominster till his death, which took place 1775. His successor 
was the Rev. Elizur Hoi yoke, who was settled in 1759, preached 
until 1793, and died 1806. He was succeeded by the Rev. Isaac 
Briggs, who was installed in 1808, resigned Dec. 3, 1833. The 
second Congregational church was organized in 1736. The Rev. 
John Gushing was the first pastor. He was settled in 1736, and 
died 1772. His successor was Rev. Moses Hale, who was settled 
in 1774, and died 1786. The next pastor was Dr. Eaton, settled 
here in 1789. 



THIS town was taken from Rowley. Its first name was called 
Merrimac. After that it was known by the name of Rowley Vil- 
lage. In 1^73 it was incorporated by its present name The 
lands of this town were granted by the general court to Rev. Ezekiel 
Rogers, first minister of Rowley, and others. In 1658, a commit- 
tee of Rowley laid out tracts of land for the Rev. Samuel Phillips, 
John and Robert Haseltine, widow Mighill. widow Hobson, 
Thomas Kimball. Joseph Jewett, Joseph Chaplin, John Simmons, 
Abraham Foster, Jonathan Hopkinson, John Eastman, James 
Dickinson, and Maximilian Jewett, had lands granted them. 
These divided the lands in various proportions in 1671, and Avere 
most of them the first settlers of the town. Bradford is very plea- 
santly located on the south bank of the Merrimac. The length 
of the town is about six miles, and from one to two and a half 
miles in breadth. It contains about 10,000 acres of land. The 
surface is uneven and the soil varied. Much of it is of the first 
quality, especially the upland, which is verdant amidst the droughts 
of summer. Many of the hills are considerably elevated, from 
which are fine views of rural scenery. There are extensive forests 
of oak, walnut, pine and maple, with beds of peat, that afford a 
supply of fuel for the inhabitants. The ponds in the town arc well 
stocked with pickerel and perch. Salmon in small quantities are 
yet taken. Shad and alewivcs are taken in great abundance from 
the river. A handsome bridge of three arches connects this town 
with Haverhill. The width of the river is about 800 feet at the 
lower part of the town, but narrower at the upper part. The depth 
of water at low tide is from four to five feet. There are serious 
impediments to navigation, resulting from the short turn in the 
river and the shoals between the chain ferry and Haverhill ; but 
hulls of vessels built at Bradford and Haverhill, of the burthen of 
400 tons, have passed down, while those of 90 or 100 tons have 
come up loaded. The scenery on the banks of the Merrimac, be- 
tween this town and Haverhill, is exceedingly beautiful. Ship- 
building is now almost totally abandoned, as easier labor and more 
profit is derived from the manufacturing of boots and shoes, of 
which it is estimated that about 360,000 pairs arc made annuaily. 
The village in Bradford, on the opposite side the Merrimac from 
Maverhill, contains about 30 dwelling-houses and a church. Brad- 
ford is 30 miles N. of Boston. Population, 2,275. 

Bradford Academy, in the west parish, Avas established i*i 1803. 
Its location is on an elevated site, and commands a delightful view 
of the surrounding country, comprising the entire villages of Brad- 
ford and Haverhill. The names of Mrs. Judson and tfarriet New- 
ell, who were pupils in this school, will not soon be forgotten by 
the Christian world. This academy is extensively known, and 
has been generally attended by a large number of pupils. Merri- 
mac Academy is located in the east parish, and was established 
in 1821, and is in successful operation. 


At the time of the Indian wars the people were much alarmed 
for their safety, and fortified three houses ; but they were not much 
molested by the savages. The following is from a discourse de- 
livered by Gardner B. Perry in 1820. He says : 

" I have found but one record of any violence experienced from them. This is con- 
tained in a note attached to one of the town books, by Shnbal Walker, who was the town- 
clerk. He observes in this note that Thomas Kimball was shot by an Indian, the third 
of May, 1676, and his wife and five children, Joannah Thomas, Joseph, Prescilla and 
John, were carried captives. These, however, he observes in another note, re- 
turned home again the 13th of June, the same year. The house in which Mr. Kim- 
ball lived, stood on the road leading to Boxford, the cellar of which may still be seen. 
"It is traditionally reported," continues Mr. Perry, " that the Indians who committed 
this violence set out from their homes near Dracut with the intention of killing some 
one in Rowley who they supposed had injured them, but finding the night too far spent, 
they did not dare to proceed farther, and so revenged themselves on Mr. Kimball. 
There was also a Mr. Nehemiah Carlton shot from across the river, at the time of the 
attack upon Haverhill ; and it is said, further, that one of the workmen employed in 
felling timber on the Haverhill side of the river was also shot. Besides these I have 
heard of no particular injury received from them.' 

The first burial in the east parish burying-place was in 1723, 
Mrs. Martha Hale. The following is taken from the foot-stone : 

" If you will look it will appear 
She was the first buried here." 

The most remarkable occurrence ever witnessed here was a great 
freshet in 1818. The snow had been melted by a violent rain, which 
rushed down the valley of the Merrimac with great fury, tearing 
up the ice, which was nearly two feet thick, with the noise and 
convulsions of an earthquake ; driven into immense dams, it rolled 
and flew about in every possible direction on its way to the ocean. 
The river was raised 21 feet above common high- water mark. 
The country around was inundated, and in many houses the water 
was from two inches to five feet in depth. The ice was driven far 
upon the land, and pyramids of fragments were thrown up above 
the level of the flood. Buildings were removed and destroyed, 
cattle and sheep were drowned, and ruin spread on all sides. 

Mr. Penny says, in his historical discourse, " that the eels go up 
the river the beginning of May in a ribband or stream of about a 
foot wide upon the average, and three or four inches in depth, and 
every year in the same course. They are from two to six inches 
in length, move with considerable velocity, and continue to pass 
along without interruption for about four days. Almost an incon- 
ceivable number must pass during this time." They are said to 
be from the ocean, and are said to pass into the ponds and brooks 
connected with the river. 

The first Congregational church, located in the west parish, was 
organized in 1682. The first pastor was Rev. Zachariah Symmes, 
who was settled in 1682, died 1707. He was succeeded by his 
son, the Rev. Thomas Symmes, in 1708, who died in 1725. The 
Rev. Joseph Parsons succeeded Mr. Symmes, and was settled in 
1726, and died in 1765. The next was the Rev. Samuel Williams, 
who was settled in 1765, and resigned in 1780. His successor was 

D A N V E R S. 171 

Rev. Jonathan Allen, who was settled in 1781. The sixth pastor 
was the Rev. Ira Ingraham, who settled here in 1824, resigned in 
1830. The seventh pastor was the Rev. Loammi J. Hoadly. who 
was settled in 1830, resigned January, 1833. His successor was 
the Rev. Moses C. Searle, who was settled in 1833, and resigned 
in 1834. 

The second Congregational church, in the east parish, was formed 
in 1728. The Methodist society was established in 1832. 


DANVERS was formerly a part of Salem, known by the name of 
Salem village. It was settled by Gov. Endicott and his associates 
in 1628. The settlement was incorporated as a district in 1752, 
and as a town June 16, 1757. Tradition says it received its name 
from Earl D' Anvers, a nobleman in the north of England, but why 
his name was adopted does not appear.* The population of the 
town in 1837 was 4,804. There are seven houses of public wor- 
ship, viz., 2 Congregational, 2 Universalist, 1 Unitarian, 1 Baptist, 
and 1 Methodist. The principal village in Danvers is large and 
thickly settled ; its principal street joins the main street in Salem, 
forming but one continuous settlement. The New Mills village, 
situated at the head of navigation on Porter river, in the north- 
eastern part of the township, was settled in 1754. During the 
revolutionary war, four 20 gun ships, and eight or ten privateers, 
were built here. In 1837, there were manufactured in this town 
14,000 pairs of boots, 615.000 pairs of shoes; the value of boots 
and shoes was 435.900; males employed, 666; females, 411. 
There were 28 tanneries : hides tanned, 66.200 ; value of the lea- 
ther tanned and curried. $264,400; hands employed, 110; capital 
invested, 203,700. There were 3 manufactories of morocco; skins 
manufactured, 98,000, valued at $39.400; hands employed, 35; 
capital invested, $30,000. Nails, chocolate, bricks and various 
other articles are manufactured here. The center of the princi- 
pal village is about two miles distant from the central part of 
Salem, and about 15 from Boston. There are two banks, the 
Danvers Bank, incorporated in 1825, capital $150,000 ; the War- 
ren Bank, incorporated in 1832, capital $120,000; and an insu- 
rance company, incorporated in 1829. 

The inhabitants of Danvers have always been distinguished for 
their patriotism, and its citizens bore their full share in the great 
contest of the Revolution. Gen. Israel Putnam, so celebrated for 
his courage and his important services in the French, Indian, and 
Revolutionary wars, was a native of Danvers. Col. Hutchinson, 
another commander in the revolutionary army from this town, re- 
ceived the marked approbation of Washington for his services at 
the crossing of the Delaware. He also commanded a company at 

* The author is indebted to Mr. Poole for a number of particulars respecting the his 
tory of this town. 


the siege and capture of Quebec by Gen. Wolfe, and was at Lake 
George, and at the defeat of Ticonderoga, with Gen. Abercrombie. 
At the battle of Lexington he commanded a company of minute 
men. Jeremiah Page, another hero from this town, commanded 
a company at Lexington, and afterwards became a colonel in the 
army. Capt. Samuel Page also fought at Lexington, and com- 
manded a company in the revolutionary army. Gen. Gideon Fos- 
ter, another commander at the battle of Lexington, still survives, at 
the age of 90 years. 

Southern werv of the Collins House, Danvers. 

As early as June 5th, 1774; General Gage, the royal governor, 
came here from Boston with two companies of the king's troops, 
from Castle William, belonging to the 64th regiment, and had his 
head-quarters at the mansion of Hon. R. Hooper, since the pro- 
perty of the late Judge Collins, of which the above cut is a repre- 
sentation. The troops were encamped about the house; but they 
had been there scarcely three months before the rebellious spirit 
of the people became so manifest that a large part of this force was 
kept under arms every night, to prevent a surprise, and on the 
10th of September Gov. Gage marched back to Boston. 

It was in the vicinity of this house that the witchcraft excitement 
of 1692 first manifested itself. In Felt's Annals of Salem, it is 
thus noticed: [Feb.] "25th. Tituba, an Indian servant of Rev. 
S. Parris, is complained of for witchcraft. Before this, John, her 
husband, another Indian servant of Mr. P., had been persuaded by 
Mary Sibley to make a superstitious experiment for discovering 
persons, who, they supposed, secretly afflicted Mr. P.'s daughter, 
Elizabeth, M. 9, and his niece Abigail Williams, M. 11, and Ann 
Putnam, a girl of the neighborhood. March 1st. Sarah Osborn, 
Sarah and Dorothy Good, Tituba, servant of Mr. Parris, Martha 
Cory, Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Cloyce, John Proctor and his wife 
Elizabeth, all of Salem village, are committed to Boston jail, on 
charge of witchcraft, llth. Mr. Parris and other ministers observe 
a Fast at Salem village because witchcraft had appeared there. 

DAN VERB. 173 

Mary Sibley, having confessed that she innocently councilled John, 
the Indian, to attempt a discovery of witches, is permitted to com- 
mune with Mr. P.'s church. She had been previously disciplined 
for such council and appeared well." 

The following statement is from the records of the first church, 
where it appears in Mr. Parris' own hand-writing. 

"27th March, Sab. 1692. Sacrament Pay. 

"After the common auditory were dismissed, and before the church communion of 
the Lord's table, the following Testimony against the Error of our sister Mary Sibley 
who had given direction to my Indian man in an unwarrantable way to find out 
witches, was read by the Pastor. It is altogether undenyable that our great and 
blessed God hath suffered many persons, in several Families of this little village, to 
be grievously vexed and tortured in body, and to be deeply tempted, to the endanger- 
ing of the destruction of their souls, and all these amazing facts (well known to many 
of us) to be done by Witchcraft and Diabolical Operations. It is also well known 
that when these calamities first began, which was in my own family, the affliction 
xvas several weeks before such hellish operations as Witchcraft was suspected. Nay 
it never brake forth to any considerable light until diabolical means was used by the 
making of a cake by my Indian man, who had his directions, from this our sister 
Mary Sibley, since which apparitions have been plenty, and exceeding much mischief 
hath followed. But by this means it seems the Devil hath been raized amongst us, 
and his rage is vehement and terrible, and when he shall be silenced the Lord only 

The First Congregational church was located in the north 
parish, and organized 1671. Rev. James Bailey was the first 
pastor; he was settled in 1671, and resigned 1680. His successor 
\vas the Rev. George Burroughs, who was settled 1680, and re- 
signed 1683, and on the 19th August, 1692, was executed for 
witchcraft on "Gallows Hill," Salem. He was succeeded by 
the Rev. Deodab Lawson in 1683, who resigned in 1688. The 
next in order was Rev. Samuel Parris, who was settled in 1689, 
and resigned in 1696. It was in Mr. Parris' family that witch- 
craft excitement first made its appearance. His successor was 
the Rev. Joseph Green, who was settled in 1698, and died 1715. 
The Rev. Peter Clark succeeded him in 1717, and died in 1768. 
His successor, Rev. Benjamin Wadsworth, was settled 1772, and 
died 1826. 

The Second Congregational church, located in the south parish, 
was organized in 1713. The Baptist society was organized 1793, 
located at New Mills. The Unitarian society was incorporated in 
1825. The Rev. Mr. Sewall was settled in 1827. This church is 
located at south parish. The First Universalist church, located 
at New Mills, organized in 1829. Pastor, Rev. William Henry 
Knapp, installed 1834. Second Universalist, located in south 
parish. The Methodist society was recently organized. 

The public acts of the inhabitants of Danvers in those fearful 
times immediately preceding the open rupture with the mother 
country, as shown by their town records, display an ardor and de- 
termination in view of the great struggle before them, unsurpassed 
in any other part of the country. These acts were followed by 
prompt personal effort and the sacrifice of the best blood of her 
.sons. Of those who fell at the battle of Lexington one sixth part 


were inhabitants of this town. A monument to their memory was 
laid in 1835, on the 60th anniversary of the battle, by Gen. Gideon 
Foster, one of the survivors, and captain of a company of minute 
men from this town, which fought on that day. Gen. Foster then 
addressed the multitude assembled to witness the ceremony, among 
which were nineteen survivors of the revolutionary army ; after 
which religious services were performed, and an address delivered 
by Danl. P. King, Esq., in that ancient church where sixty years 
before religious services were had over the remains of the slain. 

" The occasion will long be remembered, as calculated to 
deepen our feelings of veneration for the events commemorated 
for the exercise of generous feelings in the discharge of an honor 
due to the glorious dead, and the ceremonies of the day will re- 
mind us of our obligations to those who spilled their blood in the 
first offering at the shrine of liber ty." 

Monument and Bell Tavern, Danvers. 

The above is a view of the monument, which is built of hewn 
sienite, is 22 feet in height and 7 feet broad at the base. It was 
completed in 1837, at an expense somewhat exceeding $1,000. 
The following inscriptions, carved in Italian marble, appear on two 
sides of the monument. 

[On the east.] 

Battle of Lexington, April 19th, 1775. Samuel Cook, aged 33 years ; Benj. Daland. 
25 ; George Southwick, 25 ; Jotham Webb, 22 ; Henry Jacobs, 22 Ebenr. Gold- 
thwait, 22 ; Perley Putnam, 21 ; Citizens of Delivers, fell on that day. 
Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori. 

[On the reverse.] 
Erected by Citizens of Danvers on the 60th Anniversary, 1835. 

In the back-ground is a view of an ancient building which was 
formerly much celebrated as the Old Bell Tavern, for many years 
kept, by a Mr. Francis Symonds, who, besides being the landlord, 
claimed the honor of being the poet laureate of the village. A 

E S S E 3 . 175 

wooden representation of a bell hung from his sign-post, on which 
he caused to be inscribed, 

" I'll toll you in if you have need 
And feed you well and bid you speed." 

To the business of publican he united that of chocolate dealer, 
and on a sign projecting from the post below the bell, was the fol- 
lowing couplet : 

" Francis Symonds makes and sells 
The best of Chocolate, also Shells." 

This house was formerly a place of much resort, it being on the 
great thoroughfare from the east and north to Boston. It was 
here that the Salem regiment, under the late Col. Timo. Pickering, 
halted for refreshment on their march to Bunker Hill on the 17th 
of June, 1775. 

It may not be uninteresting to state that this ancient building 
was once the temporary residence of Elizabeth Whitman, whose 
singular history in fictitious narrative, and under the fictitious 
name of Eliza Wharton, has excited so much interest with read- 
ers of romance. It was here she lived a transient visiter, a mys- 
tery to all, and here, among strangers, she died. She is described 
by those who saw her as a lady of agreeable manners and con- 
versation, of strong mind, intelligent and accomplished. In form 
she was above the common height, and had considerable personal 
beauty. Her fate appears to have excited much sympathy in the 
village, and her remains were followed by -a large number of the 
inhabitants to the village burial-ground, where the mutilated head- 
stone of her grave still remains. The foot-stone has long since 
been entirely demolished by the depredations of visiters, who make 
their pilgrimages to the spot and carry away some portion as a 
relic, and, unless some measures are taken to prevent it, the re- 
maining stone will also soon disappear. These monuments to her 
memory are made from a reddish freestone, and were placed at her 
grave by some unknown friends of the deceased. The head-stone 
bears the following inscription, which differs from that recorded 
in the book purporting to be her history, only in the name. 

" This humble stone in memory of ELIZABETH WHITMAN, is inscribed by her weep- 
ing friends to whom she endeared herself by uncommon tenderness and affection. 
Endowed with superior genius and acquirements, she was still more endeared by 
humility and benevolence. Let candor throw a veil over her frailties, for great was 
her charity to others. She sustained the last painful scene far from every friend, and 
exhibited an example of calm resignation. Her departure was on the 25th of July, 
A. D. 1788, in the 37th year of her age, and the tears of strangers watered her grave." 


ESSEX was for 121 years a parish of the ancient town of Ipswich, 
and was called Chebacco. It became a separate town in 3819. 
The fishing business was formerly extensively carried on in this 



town. It is well situated for ship-building. During five years 
preceding 1837, there were 220 vessels built, the tonnage of which 
was 12,500 tons ; valued at $337,500 ; hands employed in ship- 
building, 120. There were 14 vessels employed in the cod and 
mackerel fishery. The timber for ship-building is rafted from the 
Merrimac into Plum Island Sound, and thence through a canal 
which has been cut across the marshes from Ipswich bay. The 
farms in Essex are good. Much fruit is raised, and many tons of 
hay annually sold in the Boston and Salem markets. Another 
source of profit, to some of the inhabitants, are the clam-banks of 
Essex. Upwards of a thousand barrels of clams are dug here 
annually, and sold (exclusive of barrels and salt) for $2,50 to $3 
per barrel. There is one fact which is indicative of the attach- 
ment of the people to the place : that of 196 families, of which the 
town consisted in 1820, fifty- two were of the name of Burnham, 
and a large proportion of the residue were of the names of Cogs- 
well and Choate. The village in the central part of the town 
consists of about 50 dwelling-houses and two churches, about 5 
miles from Ipswich, and 25 from Boston. Population of the town, 

A Congregational church was formed here in 1681. The next 
year the Rev. John Wise was ordained pastor. His successor was 
Rev. Theophilus Pickering, who was settled in 1725. In 1745, 
the second society was formed, and in 1747 the Rev. John Cleave- 
land was ordained pastor. In 1774, the two churches united under 
Mr. Cleaveland. Rev. Josiah Webster succeeded Mr. Cleaveland 
in 1799. His successor was Rev. Thomas Holt, who was installed 
1809. The Rev. Robert Crowell was settled 1814. 

The Christian society was organized in 1808, and their house 
erected 1809. 

A Universalist society was formed 1829. 


THIS town Avas incorporated in 1838, previous to which it was 
the western part of Rowley, and called New Rowley. It appears 
that the first Congregational church in this town was organized in 
1731, and the first pastor was James Chandler, a native of Ando- 
ver, who settled here in 1732, and died in 1788. The highest land 
in the county is " Bald Pate" From this elevation an extensive 
and delightful view may be obtained, comprehending a portion of 
the valley of the Merrimac, and the adjacent settlements, ' toge- 
ther with the beautiful town of Haverhill. 


GLOUCESTER is a maritime town, comprising Cape Ann, and 
an inland parish. This promontory was named Cape Ann, by 
Prince Charles, out of respect to his mother. It is joined to the 


main land by a narrow isthmus of about fifty yards wide, called the 
Cut, over which the road passes into the harbor. The name Cut 
was derived from an early grant, in these words : " Upon the 26th 
of the 5th month, 1643, it is ordered that Mr. Richard Blynman, 
Pastor, is to cut the beach through and to maintaine it, and hath 
given him three ackers of upland, and hee is to have the benefit to 
himself and his forever, giveing the Inhabitantes of the town free 
passage." This afforded an easier and shorter passage to vessels 
bound to or from the eastward. 

In 1624, the Dorchester (Eng.) company commenced a fishing 
and planting station here. Thomas Gardner was appointed over- 
seer of the planting, and John Tilley of the fishing, that year. Ro- 
ger Conant, who had been appointed overseer of both departments, 
removed here the year after, bringing Lyford as minister, with 
others. But this settlement was broken up in 1626, and Conant, 
with most of the company, removed to Salem. A few years after, 
a permanent settlement was formed here by the Rev. Mr. Blynman, 
an ejected minister of Wales, with about fifty others. In 1639, the 
place was incorporated as a fishing plantation. In 1642, Glouces- 
ter was created a town by the general court. It was named after 
Gloucester, England, the native place of some of the first settlers. 

First Parish, or Harbor. The first church was formed in 1642, and for many years its location waa 
in the Town parish. It was the 19th church gathered in Massachusetts Bay. 

In 1738, a new meeting-house was erected by the society at the Harbor. Its pastors have been, Rev. 
Richard Blyman, settled in 1642; Rev. John Emerson, in 1658; Rev. John White, in 1703; Rev. Samuel 
Chandler, in 1751 ; Rev. Eli Forbes, in 1776 ; Rev. Perez Lincoln, in 1805 ; Rev. Levi Hartshorn, in 1815 ; 
Rev. Hosea Hildreth, in 1825; Rev. Luther Hamilton, in 1834; Rev. Josiah K. Waite, in 1836. This 
church is now Unitarian. The Universalist Society was formed in 1774, under the preaching of Rev. 
John Murray, the first teacher of that denomination. In 1792 it was incorporated as the Independent 
Christian Society. Rev. Thomas Jones, first pastor, was settled 1804 ; Rev. Daniel D. Smith as colleague 
pastor in 1838. since dismissed. The Baptist Church was organized in 1830. Rev. Samuel Adlam settled 
in 1831: Rev. William Lamson in 1837; Rev. J. A. B. Stone in 1839. The Methodist Society was or* 
ganized in 1826 ; church built in 1827. The Evangelical Congregational Church was organized in 1829. 
Rev. Charles Porter was settled in 1831 ; Rev. Christopher M. Nickels in 1835. 

Second, or West Parish. The Congregational Society was organized in 1716. Pastors : Rev. Samuel 
Thompson was settled in 1716; Rev. Richard Jacques in 1725; Rev. Daniel Fuller in 1770. A large 
majority of the society having become Universalists, the meeting-house and other property of the society 
have since belonged to that, denomination. 

The church has been revived by the addition of members to the few persons that remained of the old 
church, and a new meeting-house was built in 1834, and Rev. Isaac Brown was ordained In 1340. This 
is called the Trinitarian Congregational Church and Society. 

Third, or Squam Parish. It was incorporated in 1728. Pastors : Rev. Benjamin Bradstreet was set- 
tled in 1728; Rev. John Wyeth in 1766; Rev. Obadiah Parsons in 1772; Rev. Ezra Leonard in 1804. 
Mr. Leonard was ordained as a Congregational minister, but in 1815 he embraced the Universalist doc- 
trine, and the society is now of that order. The Christian Society was organized in 1810. It has since 
become a Baptist Society. Rev. Epes Davis was settled in 1813. This society is now almost extinct. 
The Congregational Society at Lane's Cove, Squam Parish, was formed in 1828. Chutch organized in 
1830. Pastors : Rev. Moses Sawyer was settled in 1831 ; Rev. David Tilton in 1840. 

Fourth,, or Town Parish. The oldest in the town, being the location of the first settlers, and the 
place of worship and seat of business for about a century. In 1742 the parish was divided, and the 
northern part was incorporated and set off as a separate parish, (the fourth.) Rev. John Rogers was 
ordained in 1744, died in 1782. Since that period there has been no regular ordained minister, and the 
society is now extinct. A Methodist church was set off from the Harbor church in 1838, and a meeting- 
house was erected the same year. 

The town of Gloucester comprises two villages. The Harbor, 



so called, is the principal village, and is finely located on the south 
side of the cape. The engraving shows the appearance of the vil- 

South-western view of Gloucester. 

lage as it is approached from the south-west. The settlement is 
compact ; many of the houses are built of brick. The sea views 
from this place are very extensive, and rarely equalled in grandeur 
and sublimity by any on the coast, and the inhabitants truly dwell at 

" the noise of the sounding surge ! when the dark rolling wave is near, with its back 
of foam ! " 

The village of Sandy Bay is on the eastern side of the cape, 
about five miles from the Harbor. A pier and breakwater have been 
constructed here for the security of shipping. The village of Squam 
is on the north side of the cape, about five miles from the Harbor. 
Opposite this place is the sand beach, which once supplied with 
sand all the towns from Portsmouth to Boston, at the time when it 
\vas used on floors instead of paint or carpets. 

The mackerel fishery is carried on to a great extent in this town. 
The following is an account of the business that has been done in 
this branch in the years 1832, '33 and '34. The year 1835 was an 
unfortunate year to the mackerel catchers. There were inspected 
in 1832, 8,138 barrels of No. 1, and 6,202 half barrels; of No. 2, 
15,421 barrels and 7,163 half barrels; of No. 3, 15,010 barrels and 
547 half barrels. In 1834, there were inspected of No. 1, 18.835 
barrels, and 9,432 half barrels; of No. 2, 20,638 barrels, and 6^591 
half barrels; of No. 3, 13,763 barrels, and 143 half barrels. 

The following is from the state Statistical Tables in 1837. Ves- 
sels employed in the cod and mackerel fishery, 221 ; tonnage of the 
same, 9,824; cod-fish caught, 55,181 quintals; value of the same, 
$186,516; mackerel caught, 43,934 barrels; value of the same, 
$335,566; salt used in the cod and mackerel fishery, 113,760 
bushels; hands employed, 1,580; capital invested, $349,000. 


Immense quarries of light and gray granite are found in this 
town ; this is split into regularly formed blocks. It is of a fine 
grain, easily dressed, and can be loaded into vessels at little expense. 
There is an increasing demand for it. The quarries employ about 
three hundred men, who get out about 100,000 tons yearlv, and 
this is sold at an average price of $2 per ton. Gloucester Bank 
commenced operation in 1796, with a capital of $40,000, and it 
was incorporated Jan. 27, 1800. Subsequent acts of the legisla- 
ture increased the capital to $200,000, its present amount. Here is 
an insurance company, with a capital of $100,000, and an institu- 
tion for savings. There is a newspaper printed in this place, 
called the Gloucester Telegraph. There are 14 churches in this 
town, of which 5 are Universalist, 4 Orthodox, 3 Baptist, 1 Unita- 
rian, and 1 Methodist. Five are located in the Harbor parish, 2 
in the West parish, 3 in Squam, 1 in Town parish, and 3 in Sandy 

It has been stated in some ancient publications that lions have 
been seen in this section of country. William Wood, the author 
of "New England's Prospect," says, concerning lions, "I will not 
say that I ever saw any myself, but some affirm that they have 
seen a lion at Cape Ann, which is not above ten leagues from Bos- 
ton. Some likewise being lost in the woods, have heard such ter- 
rible roarings, as have made them much aghast ; which must be 
either devils or lions, there being no other creatures which use to 
roar, saving bears, which have not such a terrible kind of roaring." 

This place was visited by a severe storm in August, 1635, in 
which a melancholy shipwreck took place. There had been a 
strong wind blowing from the south and south-east for a week; at 
midnight it changed to the north-east, when a tremendous storm 
set in. Trees were torn up by their roots, vessels were driven from 
their anchorage, and houses were blown down. The tide rose 
twenty feet in height. During the storm, Mr. Allerton's bark was 
cast away upon the cape, twenty-one persons were drowned, of 
which number was the Rev. Mr. A very, of Wiltshire, (Eng.) with 
his wife and six small children. All were lost except Mr. Thacher 
and his wife, who were cast upon the shore of an island and saved. 
The island where the two were saved was afterward called Thach- 
er's Island. The rock on which the vessel struck is still called 
Avery's rock. In 1671, a whirlwind of about forty feet in breadth 
passed through the neck that makes one side of the harbor, bearing 
all before it with such power that a large rock in the harbor came 
near being overturned. 

In 1692, memorable in the annals of mystery, many strange oc- 
currences took place at Gloucester. 

The people thought they saw armed Frenchmen and Indians running about their 
houses and fields ; these they often shot at when within a short distance ; the shot ap- 
peared to take effect, so much so as to cause them to fall, but on coming up they rose 
and ran away. The " unaccountable troublers" in return shot at the inhabitants of 
the town, who said that they heard the shot whiz by their ears. One man heard the 
report of a gun, the bullet of which whizzed by him and cut off a pine bush near at 


hand, and lodged in a hemlock tree. Turning round, he saw four men advancing to- 
ward him with guns on their shoulders. There were others who saw where the bullet 
had lodged and cut off the pine bush. For three weeks the alarm was so great that 
two regiments were raised, and a company of sixty men from Ipswich, under the com- 
mand of Major Appleton, was sent to their succor. The Rev. John Emerson, the cler- 
gyman of the town, says " all rational persons will be satisfied that Gloucester was not 
alarmed for a fortnight together by real Frenchmen and Indians, but that the devil and 
his agents were the cause of all that befel the town." Another writer asks " whether 
Satan did not set ambushments against the good people of Gloucester, with demons, in 
the shape of armed Indians and Frenchmen, appearing to a considerable number of the 
inhabitants, and mutually firing upon them for the best part of a month together." 

The following is taken from a pamphlet, entitled " Report of a 
Committee of the Linnsean Society of New England, relative to a 
large Marine Animal, supposed to be a Serpent, seen near Cape 
Ann, Massachusetts, August, 1817." The letter is from the Hon. 
Lonson Nash, of Gloucester. 

Gloucester, Sept. 9, 1817. 

SIR : Your favor of the second inst. has been received. The vote of thanks of the 
Linnsean Society for my services was highly gratifying to me, not simply on account 
of the high consideration I entertain for the members of that laudable institution, 
but likewise for the agreeable manner and respectable channel through which their vote 
of thanks was communicated to me. 

I have seen and conversed with the woman who was said to have seen the serpent 
dormant on the rocks, near the water, to whom you refer in yours ; but she can give 
no material evidence. She says that she saw something resembling a large log of wood 
on the rocks, on the extreme eastern point of Ten Pound Island, (a small island in our 
harbor,) resting partly on the rocks and partly in the water. The distance was about 
half a mile. She took a glass, looked at the object, and saw it move. Her attention 
was for a short time arrested by some domestic avocation, and when she looked for the 
object again it had disappeared. 

You request a detailed account of my observations relative to the serpent. I saw 
him on the fourteenth ultimo, and when nearest I judged him to be about two hundred 
and fifty yards from me. At that distance I judged him in the larger part about the 
size of a half barrel, gradually tapering towards the two extremes. Twice I saw him 
with a glass, only for a short time, and at other times with the naked eye for nearly 
half an hour. His color appeared nearly black his motion nearly vertical. When 
he moved on the surface of the water, the track in his rear was visible for at least half 
a mile. 

His velocity, when moving on the surface of the water, I judged was at the rate of a 
mile in about four minutes. When immersed in the water, his speed was greater, 
moving, I should say, at the rate of a mile in two, or at most in three minutes. When 
moving under water, you could often trace him by the motion of the water on the sur- 
face, and from this circumstance I conclude he did not swim deep. He apparently 
went as straight through the water as you could draw a line. When he changed his 
course, it diminished his velocity but little the two extremes that were visible appear- 
ed rapidly moving in opposite directions, and when they came parallel they appeared not 
more than a yard apart. With a glass I could not take in at one view the two extremes 
of the animal that were visible. I have looked at a vessel at about the same distance, 
and could distinctly see forty-five feet. If he should be taken, I have no doubt that 
his length would "be found seventy feet, at least, and I should not be surprised if he 
should be found one hundred feet long. When I saw him I was standing on an emi- 
nence on the sea-shore, elevated about thirty feet above the surface of the water, and the 
sea was smooth. If I saw his head I could not distinguish it from his body, though 
there were sea-faring men near me who said they could distinctly see his head. I 
believe they spoke truth, but, not having been much accustomed to look through a 
glass, I was not so fortunate. 

I never saw more than seven or eight distinct portions of him above the water 
at any one time, and he appeared rough, though I suppose this appearance was pro- 
duced by his motion. When he disappeared he apparently sunk directly down like a 
rock. Capt. Beach has been in Boston for a week past, and I am informed that he is 


stillthere. An engraving from his drawing of the serpent has been or is now making 
in Boston, but I have not been able to ascertain how far his drawing is thought a 
correct representation. 

Respectfully, Sir, your most ob't. 


HAMILTON was formerly a part of Ipswich, and was called Ips- 
wich Hamlet until 1793, when it was incorporated as a separate 
town. Agriculture is the principal employment of the inhabitants, 
though shoes are made to a considerable extent annually. In 
1837, boots and shoes were manufactured to the value of $14,702. 
Population, 827. Distance from Boston, 26 miles. 

The town is pleasantly located, and the soil good ; but the in- 
habitants are so much scattered that there is no compact village. 
Chebacco river takes its rise here, from Chebacco pond, and seve- 
ral other smaller ponds near the south-east boundary of the town. 
Wenharn swamp extends into the southern parts of the town. Ips- 
wich river runs along the western border. 

Hamilton has only one religious society ; this is Congregational, 
and was organized in 1714, as the third of Ipswich. The Rev. 
Samuel Wigglesworth, the first pastor, was settled in 1714, died in 
1768. He was succeeded by the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, in 1771, 
who died in 1823. His successor was the Rev. Joseph B. Felt, 
who was installed in 1824, resigned in 1833. 

Mr. Felt is author of Annals of Salem, History of Ipswich, Ham- 
ilton and Essex. The following is an extract from his history of 
this place. " There are four families in this town called bleeders ; 
three of them are immediately and the other mediately related. 
The number of individuals so denominated are five. They are 
thus named from an unusual propensity in their arteries and veins 
to bleed profusely, even from slight wounds. A cut or other hurt 
upon them assumes at first the common appearance ; but after 
a week or fortnight the injured part begins and continues, for seve- 
ral days, to send forth almost a steady stream of blood, until this 
disappears, and it becomes nearly as colorless as water. A por- 
tion of the coagulated blood forms a cone, large or small according 
to the wound. The bleeding ceases when the cone, which has a 
minute aperture and is very fostid, falls off. The persons thus 
constituted dare not submit to the operation of the lancet. 
They often bleed abundantly at the nose, and are subject to se- 
vere and premature rheumatism. Some of their predecessors have 
come to their end by wounds which are not considered by any 
means dangerous for people in general. This hemorrhage first 
appeared in the Appleton family, who brought it with them from 
England. None but males are bleeders, whose immediate children 
are not so, and whose daughters only have sons thus disposed. 
As to the precise proportion of these who may resemble their grand- 
fathers in bleeding of this kind, past observation furnishes no data ; 
it has been found altogether uncertain." 



THE precise time of the settlement of Haverhill is not known. 
Gov. Winthrop, in his journal, says, " Mo. 3, 1643. About this 
time two plantations began to be settled upon Merrimack river : 
Pentuckett, called Haverhill, and Cochichewick, called Andover." 
The settlement, it is believed, was begun in 1640 or 41. The town 
is said to have been called Haverhill in compliment to Mr. Ward, 
the first minister, who was born in Haverhill, in Essex county, in 
England. " The town at first extended six miles north of the 
Merrimack, and was fourteen miles upon the river. It was inte- 
rested in the long dispute about the boundaries between the pro- 
vinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, which was at length 
settled by commissioners in 1737. Col. Richard Saltonstall, Rich- 
ard Hazzen, and Dea. James Ayer, represented the town before 
these commissioners." The township formerly embraced within 
its limits a part of the towns of Methuen, Salem, Atkinson, and 
the town of Plaistow, in New Hampshire. The following is a 
copy of the Indian deed of the town. 

" Know all Men by these Presents, that wee Passaquo and Saggahew, with the concent 
of Passaconnaway, have sold unto the inhabitants of Pentuckett all the land wee have 
in Pentuckett ; that is, eight miles in length from the little river in Pentuckett west- 
ward, six miles in length from the aforesaid river northward, and six miles in length 
from the aforesaid river eastward, with the islands and the river that the islands stand 
in, as far in length as the land lyes, as formerly expressed, that is, fourteene myles in 
length; and wee the said Passaquo and Saggahew, with the consent of Passaconnaway, 
have sold unto the said inhabbittants all the right that wee or any of us have in the 
said, ground, and islands and river; and do warrant it against all or any other Indians 
whatsoever, unto the said inhabbittants of Pentuckett, and to their heirs and assigns 
forever. Dated fifteenth day of November: Anno Dom: 1642. Witness our hands 
and seals to this bargayne of sale, the day and yeare above written, (in the presents of 
us.) Wee the said Passaquo and Saggahew have received in hand, for and in consi- 
deration of the same, three pounds and ten shillings." 

The two Indians above named signed the above by making their 
marks, each a bow and arrow, and is witnessed by John Ward, 
Robert Clements, Tristam Coffin, Hugh Sherrit, William White, 
and Thomas Davis. 

The following are the names of those persons who accompanied 
Mr. Ward, the minister, and began the first settlement of Haverhill. 
Those in italics were from Newbury. William White, Samuel 
Crile, James Davis, Henry Palmer, John Robinson, Abraham Tyler, 
Daniel Ladd, Joseph Merrie, Christopher Hursey, Job Clement, 
John Williams, Richard Littlehale. Before the town was settled, 
it was covered with a dense forest, except the lowlands or meadows. 
These were cleared by the Indians, perhaps centuries before the 
arrival of the English settlers, and they were covered with a heavy 
growth of grass, so thick and high, it is said, that it was impossi- 
ble to discover man or beast at a distance of five rods. On account 
of the grass, these lands were prized above all others by the settlers, 
on account of procuring hay for their cattle. The first house was 

H A V E R H I L L 


erected near the old burying-ground, about one fourth of a mile 
past of the Haverhill bridge. 

Eastern mem of Haverhill. 

The above shows the appearance of Haverhill from the road on 
the northern bank of the Merrimac, as the village is entered from 
the eastward. Haverhill bridge, the one seen in the view, is hardly 
excelled by any structure of the kind in New England for strength 
and durability. The location of the village is uncommonly beau- 
tiful. It is built on the south side of a gentle acclivity, which rises 
gradually from the river, which winds before it in the form of a 
crescent. Water and Main streets, the principal streets in the 
village, are somewhat irregular. Water street is a mile or more 
in length; it runs parallel with the river, and is thickly built on 
both sides with buildings of various kinds. Main street intersects 
with Water street opposite the bridge, and runs north. On it are 
a number of elegant buildings. Summer street, which was opened 
a few years since, on the brow of the hill, intersecting Main street, 
is the pleasantest in the village, and is adorned with elegant 
dwelling-houses. The " Merrimac Bank," in this place, was 
incorporated in 1814, with a capital of $270,000. There is an 
institution for savings, an academy, and two printing-offices, each 
of which issues a weekly paper. There are 8 houses of worship 
in the town, viz. 4 Congregational, 2 Baptist, 1 Universalist, arid 
1 Christian. Population, 4,726. Distance, 14 miles from New- 
buryport, 15 from Ipswich, 30 from Portsmouth, and 29 from Bos- 
ton. In 1837, there were manufactured in this town 12,003 pairs 
of boots; 1,387,118 pairs of shoes; the value of boots and shoes, 
$1,005,424 55; males employed, 1,715; females, 1,170. There 
were 4 tanneries; hides tanned, 8,050; value of leather tanned 
and curried, $115,630, (part of the leather tanned in other towns) ; 
hands employed, 47. Six hat manufactories ; hats manufactured, 
125,593 ; value of hats, $75,365 ; males employed, 83 ; females, 



39. One woollen mill, which manufactured $78,000's worth nf 
woollen goods. 

For more than seventy years, Haverhill was a frontier town, 
and often suffered the horrors of savage warfare. The following 
accounts are taken from Mirictfs History of Haverhill, published 
in Haverhill, in 1832. The accounts are evidently drawn up with 
a good deal of care and accuracy. 

On the 15th of March, 1697, a body of Indians made a descent on the westerly part 
of the town, and approached the house of Mr. Thomas Dustin. They came, as they 
were wont, arrayed with all the terrors of a savage war dress, with their muskets 
charged for the contest, their tomahawks drawn for the slaughter, and their scalpine: 
knives unsheathed and glittering in the sunbeams. Mr. Dustin at this time was 
engaged abroad in his daily labor. When the terrific shouts of the blood-hounds first 
fell on his ear, he seized his gun, mounted his horse, and hastened to his house, with 
the hope of escorting to a place of safety his family, which consisted of his wife, whom 
he tenderly and passionately loved, and who had been confined only seven days in 
childbed, her nurse, Mrs. Mary Neff, and eight young children. Immediately 
upon his arrival, he rushed into his house, and found it a scene of confusion 
the women trembling for their safety, and the children weeping and calling on their 
mother for protection. He instantly ordered seven of his children to fly in an oppo- 
site direction from that in which the danger was approaching, and went himself to 
assist his wife. But he was too late before she could arise from her bed, the enemy 
were upon them. 

Mr. Dustin, seeing there was no hope of saving his wife from the clutches of the 
foe, flew from the house, mounted his horse, and rode full speed after his flying chil- 
dren. The agonized father supposed it impossible to save them all, and he determined 
to snatch from death the child which shared the most of his affections. He soon came 
up with the infant brood ; he heard their glad voices and saw the cheerful looks that 
overspread their countenances, for they felt themselves safe while under his protection. 
He looked for the child of his love where was it ? He scanned the little group from 
the oldest to the youngest, but he could not find it. They all fondly loved him they 
called him by the endearing title of father, were flesh of his flesh, and stretched out 
their little arms toward him for protection. He gazed upon them, and faltered in his 
resolution, for there was none whom he could leave behind ; and, indeed, what parent 
could, in such a situation, select the child which shared the most of his affections ? 
He could not do it, and therefore resolved to defend them from the murderers, or die 
at their side. 

A small party of the Indians pursued Mr. Dustin as he fled from the house, and 
soon overtook him and his flying children. They did not, however, approach very 
near, for they saw his determination, and feared the vengeance of a father, but skulked 
behind the trees and fences, and fired upon him and his little company. Mr. Dustin 
dismounted from his horse, placed himself in the rear of his children, and returned the 
fire of the enemy often and with good success. In this manner he retreated for more 
than a mile, alternately encouraging his terrified charge, and loading and firing his 
gun, until he lodged them safely in a forsaken house. The Indians, finding that they 
could not conquer him, returned to their companions, expecting, no doubt, that they 
should there find victims, on which they might exercise their savage cruelty. 

The party which entered the house when Mr. Dustin left it, found Mrs. Dustin in 
bed, and the nurse attempting to fly with the infant in her arms. They ordered Mrs. 
Dustin to rise instantly, while one of them took the infant from the arms of the nurse, 
carried it out, and dashed out its brains against an apple-tree. After plundering the 
house they set it on fire, and commenced their retreat, though Mrs. Dustin had but 
partly dressed herself, and was without a shoe on one of her feet. Mercy was a stran- 
ger to the breasts of the conquerors, and the unhappy women expected to receive no 
kindnesses from their hands. The weather at the time was exceedingly cold, the 
March-wind blew keen and piercing, and the earth was alternately covered with snow 
and deep mud. 

They travelled twelve miles the first day, and continued their retreat, day by day, 
following a circuitous route, until they reached the home of the Indian who claimed 
them as his property, which was on a small island, now called Dustin's Island, at the 
mouth of the Contoocook river, about six miles above the state-house in Concord, 
New Hampshire. Notwithstanding their intense suffering for the death of the child 
their anxiety for those whom they had left behind, and who they expected had been 


cruelly butchered their sufferings from cold and hunger, and from sleeping on the 
damp earth, with nothing but an inclement sky for a covering and their terror for 
themselves, lest the arm that, as they supposed, had slaughtered those whom they 
dearly loved, would soon be made red with their blood, notwithstanding all this they 
performed the journey without yielding, and arrived at their destinatioa ia compara 
tive health. 

The family of their Indian master consisted of two men, three women, and seven 
children ; besides an English boy, named Samuel Lennardson, who was taken pri- 
soner about a year previous, at Worcester. Their master, some years before, had 
lived in the family of Rev. Mr, Rowlandson, of Lancaster, and he told Mrs. Dustin 
that " when he prayed the English way he thought it was good, but now he found the 
French way better." 

These unfortunate women had been but a few days with the Indians, when they 
were informed that they must soon start for a distant Indian settlement, and that, upon 
their arrival, they would be obliged to conform to the regulations always required of 
prisoners, whenever they entered the village, which was, to be stripped, scourged, and 
run the gauntlet in a state of nudity. The gauntlet consisted of two files of Indians, 
of both sexes and of all ages, containing all that could be mustered in the village ; 
and the unhappy prisoners were obliged to run between them, when they were 
scoffed at and beaten by each one as they passed, and were sometimes marks at 
which the younger Indians threw their hatchets. This cruel custom was often prac- 
tised by many of the tribes, and not unfrequently the poor prisoner sunk beneath it. 
Soon as the two women were informed of this, they determined to escape as speedily 
as possible. They could not bear to be exposed to the scoffs and unrestrained gaze 
of their savage conquerors death would be preferable. Mrs. Dustin soon planned a 
mode of escape, appointed the 31st inst. for its accomplishment, and prevailed upon 
her nurse and the boy to join her. The Indians kept no watch, for the boy had lived 
with them so long they considered him as one of their children, and they did not 
expect that the women, unadvised and unaided, would attempt to escape, when suc- 
cess, at the best, appeared so desperate. 

On the day previous to the 31st, Mrs. Dustin wished to learn on what part of the 
body the Indians struck their victims when they would despatch them suddenly, and 
how they took off a scalp. With this view she instructed the boy to make inquiries 
of one of the men. Accordingly, at a convenient opportunity, he asked one of them 
where he would strike a man if he would kill him instantly, and how to take off a 
scalp. The man laid his finger on his temple " Strike 'em there," said he ; and then 
instructed him how to scalp. The boy then communicated his information to Mrs. 

The night at length arrived, and the whole family retired to rest, little suspecting 
that the most of them would never behold another sun. Long before the break of day, 
Mrs. Dustin arose, and, having ascertained that they were all in a deep sleep, awoke 
her nurse and the boy, when they armed themselves with tomahawks, and despatched 
ten of the twelve. A favorite boy they designedly left ; and one of the squaws, whom 
they left for dead, jumped up, and ran with him into the woods. Mrs. Dustin killed 
her master, and Samuel Lennardson despatched the very Indian who told him where 
to strike, and how to take off a scalp. The deed was accomplished before the day 
began to break, and, after securing what little provision the wigwam of their dead 
master afforded, they scuttled all the boats but one, to prevent pursuit, and with that 
started for their homes. Mrs. Dustin took with her a gun that belonged to her master, 
and the tomahawk with which she committed the tragical deed. They had not pro- 
ceeded far, however, when Mrs. Dustin perceived that they had neglected to 
take their scalps, and feared that her neighbors, if they ever arrived at their homes, 
would not credit their story, and would ask them for some token or proof. She told 
her fears to her companions, and they immediately returned to the silent wigwam, took 
off the scalps of the fallen, and put them into a bag. They then started on their jour 
ney anew, with the gun, tomahawk, and the bleeding trophies, palpable witnesses 
of their heroic and unparalleled deed. 

A long and weary journey was before them, but they commenced it with cheerful 
hearts, each alternately rowing and steering their little bark. Though they had 
escaped from the clutches of their unfeeling master, still they were surrounded with 
dangers. They were thinly clad, the sky was still inclement, and they were liable to 
be re-captured by strolling bands of Indians, or by those who would undoubtedly pur- 
sue them so soon as the squaw and the boy had reported their departure, and the ter- 
rible vengeance they had taken ; and were they again made prisoners, they well knew 
that a speedy death would follow. This array of danger, however, -did not appall them 



for home was their beacon-light, and the thoughts of their firesides nerved their hearts. 
They continued to drop silently down the river, keeping a good lookout for strolling 
Indians ; and in the night two of them only slept, while the third managed the boat. 
In this manner they pursued their journey, until they arrived safely, with their trophies, 
at their homes, totally unexpected by their mourning friends, who supposed that they 
had been butchered by their ruthless conquerors. It must truly have been an affect- 
ing meeting for Mrs. Dustin, who likewise supposed that all she loved all she held 
dear on earth was laid in the silent tomb. 

After recovering from the fatigue of the journey, they started for Boston, where they 
arrived on the 21st of April. They carried with them the gun and tomahawk, and 
their ten scalps those witnesses that would not lie ; and while there, the general 
court gave them fifty pounds, as a reward for their heroism. The report of their 
daring deed soon spread into every part of the country, and when Colonel Nicholson, 
governor of Maryland, heard of it, he sent them a very valuable present, and many 
presents were also made to them by their neighbors. 

The following lines, descriptive of the foregoing, were written by 
Mrs. Sarah J. Hale, editor of the Ladies' Magazine, recently pub- 
lished in Boston. They contain much of the " soul of poetry.' 7 


Now fly, as flies the rushing wind 

Urge, urge thy lagging steed ! 
The savage yell is fierce'behind, 

And life, is on thy spaed. 

And from those dear ones make thy choice ; 

The group he wildly eyed, 
When "father!" burst from every voice, 

And "child !" his heart replied. 

There's one that now can share his toil, 

And one he meant for fame, 
And one that wears her mother's smile, 

And one that bears her name ; 

And one will prattle on his knee, 

Or slumber on his breast ; 
And one whose joys of infancy 

Are still by smiles expressed. 

They feel no fear while he is near ; 

He'll'shield them from the foe ; 
But oh ! his ear must thrill to hear 

Their shriekings, should he go. 

In vain his quivering lips would speak ; 

No words his thoughts allow ; 
There's burning tears upon his cheek 

Death's marble on his brow. 

And twice he smote his clenched hand 

Then bade his children fly ! 
And turned, and e'en that savage band 

Cowered at his wrathful eye. 

Swift as the lightning, winged with death, 
Flashed forth the quivering flame! 

Their fiercest warrior bows beneath 
The father's deadly aim. 

Not the wild cries, that rend the skies, 

His heart of purpose move ; 
He saves his children, or he dies 

The sacrifice of love. 

Ambition goads the conqueror on, 
Hate points the murderer's brand 

But love and duty, these alone 
Can nerve the good man's hand. 

The hero may resign the field, 

The coward murd'rer flee ; 
He cannot fear, he will not yield, 

That strikes, sweet love, for thee. 

They come, they Cv*ne he heeds no cry, 

Save the soft child-J- " wail, 
" O, father, save !" " My v 'IdiM, fly I" 

Were mingled on the gale. 

And firmer still he drew his bi^atn, 

And sterner flash'd his eye, 
As fast he hurls the leaden death, 

Still shouting, " Children, fly !" 

No shadow on his brow appeared, 

Nor tremor shook his frame, 
Save when at intervals he heard 

Some trembler lisp his name. 

In vain the foe, those fiends unchained, 

Like famished tigers chafe, 
The sheltering roof is near'd, is gain'd, 

All, all the dear ones safe ! 

The 29th of August, 1708, a party of French and Indians, from 
Canada, fell upon Haverhill, and killed and captured about forty 
inhabitants. The following is from Mirick's History of Haverhill. 

It is said that their first design was to attack Portsmouth, and then, marching rap'dly 
onward to other settlements, spread terror and desolation along the whole frontier. 
But being unable to accomplish this on account of the unexpected desertions, they 
were obliged to compress their views. Their whole force was now about 250, a small 
number when compared with that which started from Canada. Probably the French 
officers felt ashamed to return without effecting something, after they had been at so 
much trouble and expense ; accordingly, Haverhill, a compact village, consisting of 
about thirty houses, was selected for the slaughter. 

At the break of day, on the 29th of August, they passed the frontier garrisons undis- 
covered, and were first seen near the pound, marching two and two, by John Keezar, 
wno was returning from Amesbury. He immediately ran into the village and alarmed 

H A V E R H I L L . 187 

the inhabitants, who seem to have slept totally unguarded, by firing his gun near the 
meeting-house. The enemy soon appeared, making the air ring with terrific yells, 
with a sort of whistle, which, says tradition, could be heard as far as a horn, and 
clothed in all the terrors of a savage war-dress. They scattered in every direction 
over the village, so that they might accomplish their bloody work with more despatch. 
The first person they saw was Mrs. Smith, whom they shot as she was flying from 
her house to a garrison. The foremost party attacked the house of Rev. Benjamin 
Eolfe, which was then garrisoned with three soldiers, and he, and a part of his 
beloved and accomplished family, were suddenly awakened from their slumbers, only 
to hear the horrid knell for their departure. Mr. Rolfe instantly leaped from his bed, 
placed himself against the door, which they were endeavoring to beat in, and called 
on the soldiers for assistance ; but these craven-hearted men refused to give it, for 
they were palsied with fear, and walked to and fro through the chambers, crying and 
swinging their arms. Had they displayed but half the ordinary courage of men, no 
doubt they would have successfully defended the house. But, instead of that, they did 
not fire a gun, or even lift a finger towards its defence. The enemy, finding their 
entrance strenuously opposed, fired two balls through the door, one of which took 
effect, and wounded Mr. Rolfe in the elbow. They then pressed against it with their 
united strength, and Mr. Rolfe, finding it impossible to resist them any longer, fled 
precipitately through the house, and out at the back door. The Indians followed, 
overtook him at the well, and despatched him with their tomahawks. They then 
searched every part of the house for plunder, and also for other victims, on whom they 
might inflict their savage cruelties. They soon found Mrs. Rolfe and her youngest 
child, Mehitable, and while one of them sunk his hatchet deep in her head, another 
took the infant from her dying grasp, and dashed its head against a stone near the 

Two of Mr. Rolfe's children, about six and eight years of age, were providentially 
saved by the sagacity and courage of Hagar, a negro slave, who was an inmate of the 
family. Upon the first alarm, she leaped from her bed, carried them into the cellar, 
covered them with two tubs, and then concealed herself. The enemy entered the 
cellar and plundered it of every thing valuable. They repeatedly passed the tubs that 
covered the two children, and even trod on the foot of one, without discovering them. 
They drank milk from the pans, then dashed them on the cellar bottom, and took meat 
from the barrel, behind which Hagar was concealed. 

Anna Whittaker, who was then living in the family of Mr. Rolfe, concealed herself 
in an apple-chest under the stairs, and escaped unharmed. But it fared differently 
with the cowardly soldiers. They earnestly begged for mercy of their inhuman con- 
querors, but their cries were unheeded, and, when the massacre was over, their bodies 
were numbered with the slain. 

The family of Thomas Hartshorne suffered as severely as that of Mr. Rolfe. He 
saw a party approaching to assault his house, which stood a few rods west of the 
meeting-house, and escaped out of it, followed by two of his sons, to call assistance ; 
but all three were shot dead immediately after leaving it. A third son was toma- 
hawked as he was coming out at the door. Mrs. Hartshorne, with that presence of 
mind which is a characteristic of her sex when surrounded with danger, instantly took 
the rest of her children except an infant which she left on a bed in the garret, and 
which she was afraid would, by its cries, betray their place of concealment, if she took 
it with her through a trap-door into the cellar. The, enemy entered the house, and 
began to plunder it, but happily did not discover them. They went into the garret, 
took the infant from its bed, and threw it out at the window. It fell on a pile of clap- 
boards, and when the action was over it was found completely stunned. It lived, 
however, and became a man of uncommon stature, and of remarkable strength. His 
neighbors would frequently joke him, and say that the Indians stunted him when they 
threw him from the. garret-window. 

One of the parties proceeded towards the river, and attacked the of Lieut. 
John Johnson. Mr. Johnson and his wife, with an infant a year old in her arms, 
were standing at the door when the enemy made their appearance. Mr. Johnson 
was shot, and his wife fled through the house into the garden, carrying her babe, 
where she was overtaken by the foe, and immediately despatched. But when she fell, 
she was careful not to injure her child, and it seemed as if her last thoughts were for 
its safety. The enemy, it appears, did not murder it, and it is somewhat remarkable 
that they did not, for they always took great delight in torturing and dashing out the 
brains of innocent babes. Perhaps it was because the mother was not alive to witness 
its agonies. After the massacre was over, it was found at the breast of its dead 


Another party rifled and burnt the house of Mr. Silver, which stood within ten rods 
of the meeting-house, and others attacked the watch-house, which was, however, suc- 
cessfully defended. Another party went to the house of Capt. Simon Wainwright, 
whom they killed at the first fire. The soldiers stationed in the chambers were pre- 
paring to defend the house till the last, when Mrs. Wainwright fearlessly unbarred the 
door and let them in. She spoke to them kindly, waited upon them with seeming 
alacrity, and promised to procure them whatever they desired. The enemy knew not 
what to make of this; the apparent cheerfulness with which they were received, and 
the kindness with which they were treated, was so different from what they expected 
to meet with, that it seemed to paralyze their energies. They, however, demanded 
money of Mrs. Wainwright, and upon her retiring "to bring it," as she said, she fled 
with all of her children, except one daughter, who was taken captive, and were not 
afterwards discovered. The enemy, so soon as they found out how completely they 
had been deceived, were greatly enraged, and attacked the chambers with great vio- 
lence ; but the soldiers courageously defended them, and, after attempting to fire the 
house, they retreated, taking with them three prisoners. In the mean time, two 
Indians skulked behind a large stone, which stood in the field a few rods east of the 
house, where they could fire upon its inmates at their leisure. The soldiers in the 
chambers fired upon them, and killed them both. They were afterwards buried in the 
same field, a few rods south, and but a few years since the water washed their skele- 
tons from their places of repose. 

Two Indians attacked the house of Mr. Swan, wmch stood m the field now called 
White's lot, nearly opposite to the house of Capt. Emerson. Swan and his wife saw 
them approaching, and determined, if possible, to save their own lives, and the lives of 
their children, from the knives of the ruthless butchers. They immediately placed 
themselves against the door, which was so narrow that two could scarcely enter 
abreast. The Indians rushed against it, but finding that it. could not be easily opened, 
they commenced their operations more systematically. One of them placed his back 
to the door, so that he could make his whole strength bear upon it, while the other 
pushed against him. The strength of the besiegers was greater than that of the 
besieged, and Mr. Swan, being rather a timid man, said our venerable narrator, almost 
despaired of saving himself and family, and told his wife that he thought it would be 
better to let them in. But this resolute and courageous woman had no such idea. 
The Indians had now succeeded in partly opening the door, and one of them was 
crowding himself in, while the other was pushing lustily after. The heroic wife saw 
there was no time for parleying she seized her spit, which was nearly three feet in 
length, and a deadly weapon in the hands of woman, as it proved, and, collecting all 
the strength she possessed, drove it through the body of the foremost. This was too 
warm a reception for the besiegers it was resistance from a source and with a 
weapon they little expected ; and, surely, who else would ever think of spitting a man ? 
The two Indians, thus repulsed, immediately retreated, and did not molest them 
again. Thus, by the fortitude and heroic courage of a wife and mother, this family 
was probably saved from a bloody grave. 

One of the parties set fire to the back side of the meeting-house, a new and, for that 
period, an elegant building. These transactions were all performed about the same 
time ; but they were not permitted to continue their work of murder and conflagration 
long, before they became panic-struck. Mr. Davis, an intrepid man, went behind 
Mr. Rolfe's barn, which stood near the house, struck it violently with a large club, 
called on men by name, gave the word of command, as though he were ordering an 
attack, and shouted with a loud voice, " Come on ! come on ! we will have them ! " 
The party in Mr. Rolfe's house, supposing that a large body of the English had come 
upon them, began the cry of The English are come ! " and, after attempting to fire 
the house, precipitately left it. About this time Major Turner arrived with a company 
of soldiers, and the whole body of the enemy then commenced a rapid retreat, taking 
with them a number of prisoners. The retreat commenced about the rising of the 
sun. Meantime Mr. Davis ran to the meeting-house, and with the aid of a few others 
succeeded in extinguishing the devouring element ; but it was mostly owing to his 
exertions that the house was saved. 

The town, by this time, was generally alarmed. Joseph Bradley collected a small 
party, in the northerly part of it, and secured the medicine-box and packs of the 
enemy, which they had left about three miles from the village. Capt. Samuel Ayer, 
a fearless man, and of great strength, collected a body of about twenty men, and pur- 
sued the retreating foe. He came up with them just as they were entering the woods. 
when they faced about, and though they numbered thirteen or more to one, still Capl. 
Ayer did not hesitate to give them battle. These gallant men were soon reinforced 


by another party, under the command of his son ; and after a severe skirmish, which 
lasted about an hour, they re-took some of the prisoners, and the enemy precipitately 
retreated, leaving nine of their number dead. 

The first minister of Haverhill, Rev. John Ward, is represented 
as a person of quick apprehension, facetious conversation, "an 
exact grammarian, an expert physician, and, which was the top 
of all, a thorough divine ; but, which rarely happens, these endow- 
ments of his mind were accompanied with a most healthy, hardy, 
and agile constitution of body, which enabled him to make nothing 
of walking, on foot, a journey as long as thirty miles together." He 
preached (says Dr. Mather) an excellent sermon in the eighty- 
eighth year of his age. He died in 1693, and was succeeded by 
Rev. Benjamin Rolfe, who was killed in the descent of the Indians 
upon Haverhill, in 1708. The next minister was Rev. Joshua 
Gardner, who was ordained in 1711, and died in 1715. Rev. John 
Brown, the next, was ordained in 1719, and died in 1742. His suc- 
cessor was Rev. Edward Barnard, was ordained in 1743, and died 
in 1774. The next minister was Rev. John Shaw, settled in 1777, 
and died suddenly 1794, and was succeeded in 1795 by Rev. Abiel 
Abbot, D. D., who was dismissed at his own request in 1803, on 
account of an unhappy controversy having arisen on account of 
the insufficiency of his salary. Rev. Josiah Dodge, his successor, 
was ordained in 1808. Mr. Dodge was succeeded by Rev. Dud- 
ley Phelps, in 1828. . The Central church was organized in 1833, 
and Rev. Joseph Whittlesey settled as pastor the same year. The 
North church was gathered in 1728 ; the Third church was formed 
in 1735, and the fast church in 1743. The first Baptist church in 
the county of Essex was gathered in this town, by Rev. Hezekiah 
Smith, in 1765. Mr. Smith conducted himself with great prudence, 
and gradually obtained general esteem and respect. He was an 
eminent clergyman, and in 1797 received a degree of D. D. from 
Providence college, of which institution he was a faithful friend 
and trustee. He died in 1805, and was succeeded by the Rev. 
William Bachelder. 

The following historical items were principally obtained from 
the records of the town : 

The first bell was purchased in 1748. Before that time there was a singular sub- 
stitute, as appears by a vote passed in 1650 : " That Abraham Tyler blow his horn 
half an hour before meeting, on the Lord's day, and on lecture days, and receive one 
pound of p<jrk annually for his services from each family." 

In 1650, a vote was passed " that the freeholders attend town meeting within half 
an hour after the time notified, and continue in town meeting till sunset, unless the 
same is sooner closed, on penalty of paying half a bushel of corn." 

Johnson, in his account of this town, says, "The people are wholly bent to improve 
their labour by tilling the earth and keeping of cattel, whose yearly increase incou- 
rages them to spend their days in those remote parts." So wholly bent were they upon 
husbandry, as to suffer for the want of mechanics. There is in the town records a 
contract signed by Mr. "Ward, the minister, and nineteen others, dated February 6 7 
1058, in which they agree to pay their proportion of 20 pounds for the purchase of a 
house and land for Mr. Jewett, provided he live here seven years, following the trade of a 
blacksmith in doing the town's work ; " also the said Jewett doth promise to refuse to work 
fur any that refuse to pay towards this purchase, until they bring under the selectmen's 
hands that they will pay." 

The first meeting-house for the first church stood in front of the grave-yard, halt a 


mile below the bridge. In this vicinity the settlement began. In 1666, John Hatch- 
ings had " liberty to build a gallarie at the west end of the meeting-house, provided he 
give notice to the town at the next training day whether he will or noe, so that any 
inhabitant of the town that has a mind to join with him may give in his name." In 
1681, it was voted "to enlarge the room in the east end of it by making a gallerie 
therein for the women." The second house was built in 1699, and, after a great con- 
tention whether it should be built where the first stood, a majority voted to erect it about 
fifty feet in front of where the third church was built in 1766. 

Col. Nath. Saltonstall, one of the assistants of the colony, was the clerk or recorder 
of the town from 1668 to 1700, and his records are in a very superior style, although 
he took the liberty occasionally of adding his own comments. In 1689, the town passed 
a vote " to pay Mr. Ward his full salary for the next year, provided that he, upon his 
own cost, do for the next ensuing year board Mr. Rolfe." The record begins, " The 
town then (Mr. Ward and his son Salstonstall being absent) voted, &c. The mar- 
ginal reference is 20 taken from Mr. Ward for Mr. Rolfe's diet, in '90, without his 
consent." Three lines, which probably contained some severe remark are blotted out, 
and the marginal note says it was " blotted out by order of the town." 

Mr. Rolfe, the second minister, began to preach in Haverhill in 
1689, and was ordained in January, 1693-4. Mr. Ward, the first 
minister, who died in 1693, agreed to abate all his salary except 
20, half in merchantable wheat, Indian, (fee, and half in money, 
and fifty cords of wood annually, upon condition that the town 
should pay all arrearages of his salary, and appoint a committee 
" to attend at his house upon a sett day to receive and take account 
of what shall be brought in, and sett the price thereof if it be not 
merchantable, that so it come not in by pitiful driblets as former- 
ly." Mr. Rolfe's salary was 60, half in corn and other articles. 
He was graduated at Cambridge in 1684. This worthy minis- 
ter was killed in what since has been called the " great descent" 
of the Indians upon Haverhill. The following is the inscription 
on his monument : 


(Inclosed in this tomb is the body of the reverend, pious, and learned Benjamin 
Rolfe, the faithful pastor of the Church of Christ in Haverhill ; who was barbarously 
slain in his own house by the enemy. He rested from his labors early on the day of 
sacred rest, Aug. 29, 1708, in the 46th year of his age.) 

The following is the inscription on the monument of Dr. Smith, 
the first Baptist minister in this place. 

In memory of the Rev. HEZEKIAH SMITH, D. D., who was born at Long Island, state 
of New York, 21 April, A. D. 1737, graduated at Princeton College, A. D.J758. He 
was ordained as an evangelist, in Charleston, South Carolina, and was the first pastor 
of the Baptist church in Haverhill, and took charge of the flock 12 November, A. D. 
1766. He departed this life 24 January, A. D. 1805, after forty years faithfully per- 
forming the pastoral duties. He was laborious and successful in his preaching, and 
an able defender of the Christian faith. His discourses were delivered with fervency 
and a becoming solemnity. He was a vigilant watchman in the various stations of 
his office. In his social circle he shone conspicuously. His deportment through life 
exhibited the humble Christian and faithful minister of Jesus Christ. 

There's a hast'ning hour, it comes, it comes, 
To rouse the sleeping dead, to burst the tombs, 
And place the saints in view. 



THE Indian name of Ipswich was Agawam, a word, it is said, 
which denoted a place where fish of passage resorted : it was ap- 
plied to several places in Massachusetts. This is said to have 
been the first place in Essex county known to have been visited 
by Europeans. In 1611, Capt. Edward Hardie and Nicholas 
Hobson sailed for North Virginia ; they touched at this place and 
were kindly received. In 1614, Capt. John Smith, in his descrip- 
tion of North Virginia, or New England, thus speaks of Agawam : 
" Here are many rising hills, and on their tops and descents are 
many corne fields and delightfull groues. On the east is an isle of 
two or three leagues in length, the one halfe plaine marish ground, 
fit for pasture, or salt ponds, with many faire high groues of mul- 
berry trees. There are also okes, pines, walnuts, and other wood, 
to make this place an excellent habitation." The first permanent 
settlement was commenced in March, 1633, by Mr. John Winthrop 
jr. and twelve others, among whom were Mr. William Clerk, Ro- 
bert Coles, Thomas Howlet, John Biggs, John Gage, Thomas 
Hardy, William Perkins, Mr. John Thorndike, and William Ser- 
jeant. The next year (1634) Agawam was incorporated by the 
name of Ipswich. 

Johnson remarks of Ipswich dwellings about 1646, " their 
houses are many of them very faire built, with pleasant gardens." 
In 1638, Masconnoment, the sagamore of Agawam, sold his right 
to Ipswich for 20. This chief appears to have died about 1658. 
He lived to see his people become almost extinct. He was buried 
on Sagamore Hill, now within the bounds of Hamilton. As late 
as 1726, there were three families, each having a wigwam back 
of Wigwam Hill, at the Hamlet. It is probable that not long after 
this year the tribe became entirely extinct. 

Ipswich is one of the three shire towns in Essex county. The 
principal village is compactly built on both sides of Ipswich 
river, a large mill stream. A substantial stone bridge was built 
over this stream in 1764, having two arches. It was built at an 
expense of 1000, and named Choate Bridge, from the Hon. John 
Choate, one of the committee intrusted with its erection. There are 
three Congregational churches, one of which is Unitarian, and one 
Methodist. There is in the village a court-house, jail, a bank, 
incorporated in 1833, with a capital of $100,000, and the Ipswich 
Female Seminary, incorporated in 1828. 

The central part of the village is uneven and rocky. The 
engraving shows the appearance of the Congregational church, 
court-house, and part of the Female Seminary, as seen from a 
building on the western side of open ground, or common, in the 
central part of the place. 

The manufacture of thread and silk lace was formerly carried on 
here to a great extent. As early as 1790, about 42,000 yards were 
made annually. The Boston and Ipswich Lace Factory was in- 
corporated in 1824, and the " New England Lace Factory" in 



South-west view in Ipswich, (central part.) 

1833 ; both have ceased operation, and the business has declined. 
There is a cotton factory in the village, with 3000 spindles. Value 
of cotton goods manufactured in 1837, $50,000. The value of 
boots and shoes manufactured in 1837 was $46,000. Population 
of the town, 2,855. Distance, 12 miles from Salem, 10 from New- 
buryport, and 27 from Boston. 

The following, extracted from the town records of Ipswich, and 
other sources, is taken from Mr. Felt's History of Ipswich, published 
in 1834. 

1642. " Whosoever kills a wolf is to have and the skin, if he nail the head up 

at the meeting-house, and give notice to the constables. Also for the better destroying 
or fraying away wolves from the town, it is ordered, that 1st day of 7th mo., every 
householder whose estate is rated 500, and upward, shall keep a sufficient mastive 
dog; or 100 to 500, shall provide a sufficient hound or beagle, to the intent that 
they be in readiness to hunt and be employed for the ends aforesaid." 

1648. " The heads of wolves, in order to receive the premiums, must be brought 
to the constable and buried." Josselyn informs us, 1663, how such animals are taken. 
" Four mackerel hooks are bound with a brown thread, and then some wool is wrapped 
round them and they are dipped into melted tallow, till they be big and round as an 
egg. This thing, thus prepared, is laid by some dead carcass which toles the wolves. 
It is swallowed by them, and is the means of their being taken." Down to 1757, it 
was a common thing to hear them commence their howl soon after sunset j when it wa 
very dangerous to go near the woods. 

1642. The " Seven men" are to see that children, neglected by their parents, arc 
employed, learned to read and " understand the principles of religion and the capital 
laws of this country," and, if necessary, be bound out to service. 

1661. As an inhabitant of Ipswich, living at a distance, absented himself with his 
wife from public worship, the General Court empower the seven men to sell his farm, 
so that they may live nearer the sanctuary and be able more conveniently to attend on 
its religious services. Individuals are appointed to keep order in the meeting-house. 

1670. Constables are instructed to prevent young persons from being out late in the 
evening, especially Sabbath, lecture, and training-day evenings. 1672. Laborers are 
forbidden to have intoxicating liquors. 1678. All persons in town are required to 
have some employment. 1681. Single persons, who are under no gpvernment, are 
ordered to put themselves under the care of some head of a family. Daniel Weldron 
is required to return to his wife according to law. An inhabitant is complained of by 
a tything man because he had a servant many years and had not taught him to read. 

1667. A man of this place is prosecuted for digging up the bones of the Sagamore, 
and for carrying his scull on a pole. 

LYNN. 193 

The first Congregational church was organized in 1834, the same 
year the town was incorporated. The first regular pastor was 
Rev. Nathaniel Ward, who was born at Ipswich, England, and 
was a preacher near London. Having expressed himself against 
the " Book of Sports," and against some of the ceremonies of the 
church of England, he was suspended and required to make a 
public recantation. Rather than comply, he forsook his country 
and came to this. He arrived in 1634, and soon took charge of 
the Ipswich church. He appears to have possessed much legal 
knowledge, and aided the legislature of Massachusetts colony in 
forming their laws. He returned to England, where he died, 1653, 
aged 83. In 1647 he published the " Simple Cobbler of Agawam" 
a satirical and witty performance. Besides this he published a 
number of other works. Nathaniel Rogers and John Norton were 
the next ministers. Mr. Rogers was a descendant of the mar- 
tyr ; he came to New England in 1636, and died in 1655. Mr. 
Norton and Mr. Rogers were settled in 1638. Mr. Norton was an 
able writer and a man of great influence in the colony. He died 
in 1663, aged about fifty-seven. Rev. William Hubbard was 
settled here in 1656 ; he was born in England. In 1677 his first 
historical work received the approbation of the colonial licensers, 
and was soon published in Boston. It contained " Narrative of 
the Troubles with the Indians in New England in 1676 and 1677, 
with a Supplement concerning the War with the Pequods in 1637, 
and a Table and Postscript ; also, a Narrative of the Troubles with 
the Indians from Piscataqua to Pemaquid. ' The same book was 
licensed in London, and was printed there under the title, " Present 
State of New England." What he thus gave to the public was after- 
wards thrown into the present form of his " Indian Wars. 11 This 
history was long under the supervision of an intelligent com- 
mittee appointed by the general court. In 1682 the legislature 
voted him 50 for his History of New England, and the next year 
they order half this sum to be paid him now if "he procure a 
fayre coppie to be written, that it be fitted for the presse." Such a 
copy was obtained, and was amended by his own hand. The 
Massachusetts Historical Society, aided by a liberal donation from 
the general court, had it printed in a volume distinct from those of 
their Collections, which contain it, in 1815. Mr. Hubbard died in 
1704, aged 83. 


THE town of Lynn, formerly Saugust, received its present name 
in 1637. The name was given in respect to Mr. Whiting, who 
came from the town of Lynn Regis, or King's Lynn, in Norfolk, 
England. The record of the court on this occasion consists of only 
four words, " Saugust is called Lin." " The Indian name of the 
river which forms part of the western boundary of the town is 
Saugus. The eastern extremity was called Swampscot, -vhich 

194 LYNN. 

name it still retains. Nahant, an Indian word signifying an 
island, is the original name of the peninsula which has become so 
celebrated. Lynn is the oldest town excepting Salem in Essex 
county, and since its settlement, in 1629, nine other towns have 
been settled from it, viz. Saugus, Lynnfield, Reading, South Read- 
ing, Sandwich, and Yarmouth ; Hampton and Amherst in New 
Hampshire ; and Southampton on Long Island. The first white 
inhabitants of the town were Edmund Ingalls and his brother, 
Francis Ingalls. Edmund Ingalls came from Lincolnshire, in Eng- 
land, to Lynn in 1629. He was a farmer, and settled in the east- 
ern part of the town, near a small pond, in Payette street. The 
spot where he resided is still pointed out by his descendants. The 
brother of Edmund was a tanner, and lived at Swampscot. He 
built his tannery on Humfrey's brook, where it is crossed by 
a stone bridge. The vats were filled up in 1825. This was the 
first tannery in New England. The emigrants found the place 
inhabited by a tribe of Indians of a great nation, called A berginians. 
Their settlements extended from Charles river to the Merrimac. 
The name of the sachem who formerly governed them was Nane- 
pashemet, or the New Moon, who was killed about 1619. The 
government was continued by his queen, called " Squaw Sachem." 
Most of the tribes in Massachusetts were subject to her. She had 
a second husband in 1635, whose name was Wappacowet. Mon- 
towampate, son of Nanepashemet, sachem of the Saugus Indians, 
lived near the eastern end of the beach on Sagamore Hill, and had 
the government of Lynn and Marblehead. The proprietor of Na- 
hant was an Indian chief called by the English " Duke William," 
more commonly ." Black Will." He was killed by some of the 
whites in 1633. The following is taken from Mr. Lewis' History 
of Lynn, published in L829 ; a well- written work, full of interest- 
ing details respecting the history of this town. 

The first settlers of Lynn were principally farmers, and possessed a large stock of 
horned cattle, sheep, and goats. For several years, before the land was divided and 
the fields fenced, the cattle were fed in one drove, and guarded by a man, who, from 
his employment, was called a hay ward. The sheep, goats, and swine were kept on 
Nahant, where they were tended by a shepherd. Nahant seems to have been sold 
several times, to different individuals, by Black William, who also gave it to the plan- 
tation for a sheep pasture. A fence of rails, put near together, was made across the 
reach near Nahant, to keep out the wolves, as it is said those animals do not climb. 
When the people were about building this fence, Captain Turner said, " Let us make 
haste, lest the country should take it from us." In autumn the swine were let loose in 
the woods, that they might fatten themselves on nuts and acorns. The people of 
Lynn, for some years, seem to have lived in the most perfect democracy. They had 
town meetings every three months, for the regulation of their public affairs. They 
cut their wood in common, and drew lots for the grass in the meadows and marshes. 
These proved very serviceable to the farmers, in furnishing them with sustenance for 
heir cattle, which was probably the reason why there were more farmers at Lynn 
than in any other of the early settlements. Mr. Johnson says, "The chiefest corn 
they planted, before they had Plowes, was Indian grain. And let no man make a 
jest at Pumpkins, for with this food the Lord was pleased to feed his people to their 
good content, till Corne and Cattell were increased." Their corn at the first was 
pounded with a wooden or stone pestle, in a mortar made of a large log, hollowed out 
at one end. They also cultivated large fields of barley and wheat. Much of the for- 
mer was made into malt for beer, which they drank instead of ardent spirit. They 
raised considerable quantities of flax, which was rotted in one of the ponds thence 



called the Flax Pond. Their first houses were rude structures, with steep roofs, covered 
with thatch, or small bundles of sedge or straw, laid one over another. The fire- 
places were made of rough stones, and the chimneys of boards, or short sticks, cross- 
ing each other, and plastered inside with clay. Beside the haste and necessity which 
prevented the construction of more elegant habitations, the people who had wealth 
were advised to abstain from all superfluous expense, and to reserve their money for 
the public use. Even the deputy governor, Mr. Dudley, was censured for wainscot- 
ting his house. In a few years, houses of a better order began to appear. They 
were built with two stories in front, and sloped down to one in the rear. The windows 
were small, and opened outward on hinges. They consisted of very small diamond 
panes, set in sashes of lead. The fire-places were large enough to admit a four-foot 
log, and the children might sit in the corners and look up at the stars. On whichevei 
side of the road the houses were placed, they uniformly faced the south, that the sun 
at noon might "shine square." Thus each house formed a domestic sun-dial, by 
which the good matron, in the absence of the clock, could tell, in fair weather, when 
to call her husband and sons from the field for the industrious people of Lynn, then 
as well as now, always dined exactly at twelve. It was the custom of the first settlers 
to wear long beards, and it is said that " some had their overgrown beards so frozen 
together, that they could not get their strong water bottells into their mouths." In 
very hot weather, " servants were priviledged to rest from their labours, from ten of 
the clocke till two." The common address of men and women was Goodman and 
Goodwife ; none but those who sustained some office of dignity, or belonged to some 
respectable family, were complimented with the title of Master. In writing they seem 
to have had no capital F, and thus in the early records we find two small ones used 
instead ; and one m with a dash over it stood for two. The following song, which 
appears to have been written about this time, exhibits some of the peculiar customs 
and modes of thinking among the early settlers. 

The place where we live is a wilderness wood, 
Where gra--s is much wanting that's fruitful and good ; 
Our mountains and hills, and our valleys below, 
Being commonly covered with ice and with snow. 

And when the north-west wind with violence blows, 
Then every man pulls his cap over his nose ; 
But if any is hardy and will it withstand, 
He forfeits a finger, a foot, or a hand. 

But when the spring opens we then take the hoe, 
And make the ground ready to plant and to sow ; 
Our corn being planted, and seed being sown, 
The worms destroy much before it is grown. 

And while it is growing some spoil there is made 
By birds, and by squirrels, that pluck up the blade; 
And when it is come to full corn in the ear, 
It is often destroyed by raccoon and by deer. 

And now our old garments begin to grow thin, 
And wool is much wanted to card and to spin ; 
If we can get a garment to cover without, 
Our other in-garments are clout upon clout. 

Our clothes we brought with us are apt to be torn, 
They need to be clouted soon after they're worn ; 
But clouting our garments, they hinder us nothing, 
Clouts double are warmer than single whole clothing. 

If fresh meat be wanting to fill up our dish, 

We have carrots, and pumpkins, and turnips, and 


And if there's a mind for a delicate dish, 
We haste to the clam banks, and there we catch 


'Stead of pottage, and puddings, and custards, and 


Our turnips and parsnips are cpmmon supplies; 
We have pumpkins at morning, and pumpkins at 

If it was nut for pumpkins we should be undone. 

If barley be wanting to make into malt, 

We must then be contented, and think it no fault ; 

For we can make liquor, to sweeten our lips, 

Of pumpkins, and parsnips, and walnut tree chips. 

Now while some are going, let others be coming, 
For while liquor's boiling it must have a scumming ; 
But I will not blame them, for birds of a feather, 
By seeking their fellows, are nocking together. 

Then you whom the Ixird intends hither to bring, 
Forsake not the honey for fear of the sting ; 
But bring both a quiet and contented mind, 
And all needful blessings you surely will find. 

The following are the names of some of the persons who appear 
to have been inhabitants of Lynn in 1630. 

Joseph Armitage, 
Allen Breed, 
Wm. Ballard, 
Nicholas Brown, 
Edward Baker, 
Samuel Bennet, 
Nicholas Brown, 
Thomas Cold am, 
Clement Coldam, 
Thomas Chadwell, 

"William Cowdrey, 
Henry Collins, 
Thomas Dexter, 
William Dixey, 
Robert Driver, 
George Farr, 
Jeremy Fitch, 
Edmund Farrington, 
Adam Hawkes, 
Edward Holyoke, 

Edward Howe, 
Lieut. Danl. Howe ; 
Ephraim Howe, 
William Hathorne, 
Thomas Hudson, 
Christopher Hussey, 
Christopher Lyndsey, 
Thomas Newhall, 
Robert Potter, 
John Ramsdell, 

John Taylor, 
Capt. Ed. Tomlins, 
Timothy Tomlins, 
Capt. Nath. Turner, 
Capt. Rich. Walker 
Thomas Willis, 
John White, 
William Witter, 
John Wood, 
William Wood. 



The following persons were also at Lynn as early as 1637. 

Abraham Belknap, 
Edmund Bridges, 
Jenkin Davis, 
Joseph Floyd, 
Christopher Foster, 
George Fraile, 
Nathaniel Handforth, 
Thomas Ivory, 
Richard Johnson, 
Thomas Keysar, 
Thomas Laighton, 
.Richard Longley, 
John Pierson, 
Richard Roolton, 

Richard Sadler, 
"William Andrews, 
Richard Brooks, 
Goodman Cox, 
Goodman Crosse, 
John Deacon, 
John Elderkin, 
William George, 
Francis Godson, 
Henry Gaines, 
John Gillow, 
Thomas Halsye, 
James Hewes, 
Robert Hewes, 

William Hewes, 
Jeremy Howe, 
John Hudson, 
Samuel Hutchinson, 
Thomas Hutphinson, 
Philip Kneeland, 
Thomas Paine, 
Robert Parsons, 
Thomas Parker, 
Joseph Pell, 
Nicholas Poor, 
Wm. Partridge, 
Thomas Read, 
Isaac Robinson, 

Jarett Spenser, 
Michael Spenser, 
Josias Stanbury, 
George Taylor, 
William Thorn, 
Mr. Wathin, 
George Welbye, 
Richard Wells, 
Edward West, 
Thomas Wheeler, 
Nathanl. Whiteridge, 
John Humfrey, 
Edward Howe. 

Lynn in its present limits extends nearly six miles on the sea- 
coast, on the northern shore of Massachusetts Bay, and extends 

Western entrance of the central part of Lynn. 

about four miles into the woods. From the center of the southern 
side a beach of sand projects into the sea nearly two miles, and 
terminates in a peninsula, called Nahant. The whole town con- 
tains 9,360 acres. The south-eastern part is a tract of excellent 
salt marsh ; and the northern part is a range of wood-land and 
pasture. The inhabited part of the town is an extensive plain, 
gently undulating toward the extremities into graceful elevations, 
skirted on the south by the sea, and defended on the north by a 
range of rocky hills. A considerable degree of attention is given 
to agriculture. The farmers have much improved their lands by 
cultivation, and by procuring sea weed and rock weed from the 
beaches for manure. These substances have been freely mingled 
with the soil, and since their use the crops of English grass have 
been increased in nearly a tenfold proportion. The other princi- 
pal products are Indian corn, barley, and the common vegetable 
productions. The cold and damp sea breezes, which frequently 
prevail, have an unfavorable effect, and the soil appears to b<* 
uncongenial to the finer sorts of grain. 

LYNN. 197 

The foregoing view was taken at the western entrance of Lynn. 
The entrance to the common is seen on the right. This is a level 
tract of about twenty acres. A handsome circular pond has been 
recently dug near the center, and other improvements have been 
made. The village is principally built on a plain, back of which 
are hills composed of rough rocks, partially covered with bushes 
and trees. On the side next the ocean and on Saugus river are salt 
marshes. To the south-west of the village the turnpike from Bos- 
ton to Salem passes over an extensive tract of marsh land. There 
are 8 churches in this place, 3 Methodist, 2 Congregational, 1 for 
Friends, 1 Baptist, and 1 Universalist. There are two banks, the 
Lynn Mechanics Bank, incorporated in 1814, and the Nahant 
Bank, incorporated in 1832, each with a capital of $150,000. 
There is a savings bank, incorporated in 1826, and three insu- 
rance companies. The Lynn Academy, an incorporated institution, 
was first opened in 1805. A newspaper is published here. Lynn 
is 5 miles from Salem, and 9 from Boston. Population, 9,323. In 
1837 there were manufactured in this town 2,220 pairs of boots, 
2,543,929 pairs of shoes; value of boots and shoes, $1,689,793; 
males> employed, 2,631 ; females, 2,554. There were 6 morocco 
leather manufactories ; value of leather manufactured, $153,000 ; 
males employed, 90 ; females, 16. There were 5 vessels employed 
in the whale fishery, and 14 in the cod and mackerel fishery. A 
manufactory of India rubber cloth has been recently established. 

" Nahant is a peninsula on the south of Lynn. In the beauty and sublimity of its 
scenery, combined with its peculiar advantages of health and pleasure, it is not sur- 
passed by any place on the coast of America. It consists of two, elevated, rock-engir- 
dled islands," called Great and Little Nahants, united together by a beach, half a 
mile in length, and connected to the main land by another beach, one mile and a 
half in length. From the center of the town, the Long beach projects directly into the 
sea, and is washed by the waves of the great ocean on the eastern side< and on the 
western by the waters of the harbor. It is a gently curving bar, of fine, silvery, gray 
sand, rising so high in the center as generally to prevent the waves from passing over 
it, and almost imperceptibly sloping to the water on each side. It is unbroken by land, 
or rock, or shrub, for its whole extent, and the broad ridge of dry sand, which passes 
through its center, is interspersed with shells, and pebbles, and fragments of coral and 
other substances, which the storms have cast upon it, among which the white gull lays 
her spotted eggs, in little cavities scooped in the sand, and, soaring overhead, startles 
the traveller by her shrilling shriek. The portion of the beach which is left by the 
tide, is broad enough for fifty carriages to pass abreast, and presents a perfectly 
smooth surface of pure, fine sand, beaten hard and polished by the constant breaking 
of the waves, on which the horse's hoof leaves no print, and the wheel passes, with- 
out sound or trace, like a velvet roller on marble. The hard sand frequently retains 
sufficient water, for an hour after the tide has left it, to give it the appearance of glass, 
in which objects are reflected as in a mirror. 


" Little Nahant is a hill, consisting of two graceful elevations, rising eighty feet above 
the sea, and defended by battlements of rock, from twenty to sixty feet in height. 
It is about half a mile in length, and contains forty-two acres, seventeen of which are 

in good cultivation The outer portion of the peninsula, called Great 

Nahant, is about two miles in length, and in some parts half a mile broad, containing 
four hundred and sixty-three acres. The surface is uneven, rising into elevations, 
from forty to one hundred feet above the level of the sea. The shores are extremely 
irregular, being composed, in many places, of huge precipitous rocks, in some places 
resembling iron, rising from twenty to sixty feet above the tide, with a great depth of 
water below ; and in others, stretching out into beautiful beaches, or curving into 
drlightful recesses and coves, filled with pebbles, of every variety of form and color, 



from burning red to stainless white. The whole outline presents the most agreeable 
interchange of scenery, from the low beach, that glistens beneath the thin edge of the 
wave, to lofty precipices, and majestic cliffs that rise 

Like moonlight battlements, and towers decayed by time. 

Naitant Hotel, Long Beach, Lynn. 

" Nahant is much visited by persons for the improvement of health, and by parties of 
pleasure, from the neighboring towns, for whom it furnishes every accommodation. 
Two steamboats are constantly running from Boston during the pleasant season, but 
a ride by land, over the beaches, is much more delightful. A spacious and elegant 
hotel has been erected, of stone, near the eastern extremity. It contains nearly a 
hundred rooms, and is rurrounded by a double piazza, commanding the most delight- 
ful prospects. Several other hotels and boarding-houses are situated in the village, 
and about twenty beautiful cottages, the summer residence of gentlemen of fortune, are 
scattered over the peninsula. There is also a neat stone building erected for a chapel, 
which serves for a library and school-room." Lewis' Hist, of Lynn. 

The church at Lynn was gathered in June, 1632, and was the 
fifth in Massachusetts. The first meeting-house was a plain small 
building, without bell or cupola, and stood on the eastern side of 
Shepard street. It was placed in a small hollow, that it might be 
the better sheltered from the winds, and was approached by descend- 
ing several steps. Before this, part of the people of Lynn attended 
public worship at Salem. Rev. Stephen Batchelor, the first min- 
ister, on his arrival in Lynn in 1632, immediately commenced the 
exercise of his ministerial duties, without installation. About four 
months afterwards a complaint was made of some irregularities in 
his conduct. He was arraigned before the court at Boston, Oct. 
3d, when the following order was passed : " Mr. Bachel r - is re- 
quired to forbeare excerciseing his giftes as past r - or teacher pub- 
liquely in o r - Patent, unlesse it be to those he brought with him, for 
his contempt of authority, and till some scandals be removed." 
This was the commencement of a series of difficulties which agi- 
tated the unhappy church for several years. 

The Rev. Samuel Whiting arrived from England in June, ana 
was installed pastor of the church in November, 1636. The next 
year Rev. Thomas Gobbet who also came from England, was 


installed a colleague pastor with Mr. Whiting. Mr. W. was styled 
the pastor, as being the principal, and Mr. Gobbet was called 
teacher, an office in some degree subordinate, though his talents 
were superior. Rev. Jeremiah Shepard was the first minister of 
Lynn who was born and educated in America. He was ordained 
in 1680, and died in 1720, having preached at Lynn forty years. 
He was distinguished for his unaffected piety and his untiring 
exertions for the spiritual welfare of his people. The following 
epitaph was transcribed from his grave-stone with difficulty ; hav- 
ing become greatly obliterated by the hand of time, for a period 
of more than one hundred years. 

Elijah's mantle drops, the prophet dies, 

His earthly mansion quits, and mounts the skies. 

So Shepard's gone. 

His precious dust, death's prey, indeed is here, 
But's nobler breath 'mong Seraphs does appear ; 
He joins adoring crowds about the throne, 
He's conquered all, and now he wears the crown. 


THIS town was originally called Lynn End, having been 
granted to Lynn soon after the settlement of the town. A meeting- 
house was built in 1715. It was incorporated into a district in 
1782. In 1814 it became a separate town. The town abounds 
with wild and romantic scenery, its surface being broken and 
uneven, and its hills clothed with dense forests. Farming is the 
principal employment of the inhabitants. In 1837 there were 100 
pairs of boots and 54.000 shoes manufactured, valued at $40,250 ; 
males employed, 93 ; females, 80. Population, 674. Distance, 
12 miles from Boston. 

The Congregational church in this place was the second of 
Lynn, was formed 1720. The first pastor, Rev. Nathaniel Spar- 
hawk, settled here at the formation of the church ; he resigned 
1731. He was succeeded by the Rev. Stephen Chase in 1731, 
and resigned 1755. His successor was the Rev. Benjamin Adams, 
who was settled in 1755, died 1777. He was succeeded by the 
Rev. Joseph Motley in 1782, who died in 1821. The next was the 
Rev. Joseph Searl, who was settled here in 1824, resigned in 1827. 
There is also a society of Methodists in the town. 

The following is from the inscription on the monument of Mr. 
Daniel Townsend in this place, who was killed in Lexington, 
April 19th, 1775. He was bom in 1738. 

Lie, valiant Townsend, in the peaceful shades, we trust 

Immortal honors mingle with thy dust. 

What though thy body struggle in its gore-? 

So did thy Savior's body long before ; 

And as he raised his own by power divine, 

So the same power shall also quicken thine, 

And in eternal glory mayst thou shine ! 



M A ?f c a 


MANCHESTER was once known by the name of Jeffrey's Creek 
and formed a part of Salem. Upon the petition of several of the 
inhabitants it was incorporated, in 1645, by its present name. 
The surface of the township is rocky and uneven, and in many 
places is covered with extensive forests. Here is found the Mag- 
nolia, a low tree, bearing many beautiful and sweet-scented flowers. 
Here is a'variety of soil, which is in a good state of culture. The 
fishing business was commenced at this place at a very early pe- 
riod, but of late years this business has somewhat declined. Some 
of the most enterprising ship-masters of Boston and vicinity are 
natives of this town. There is about 1000 tons of shipping em- 
ployed. The vessels are of small size. The depth of water will 
not allow vessels exceeding 120 tons to come up to the town. The 
harbor is good, and affords anchorage for vessels of any size. 

South-western vieiv of Manchester. 

There is a Congregational society here, which was gathered in 
1716, under the ministry of the Rev. Amos Cheever. Before this 
year no church records of Manchester are found. The Universal- 
ists have a small society, which was organized in 1820. The busi- 
ness of making cabinet furniture is carried on here with great 
activity, employing 150 men or more. In 1837 there were 12 manu- 
factories of chairs and cabinet ware : value of articles manufac- 
tured, $84,500 ; hands employed, 120. There were 14 vessels 
employed in the cod and mackerel fishery, employing 65 hands. 
Population, 1,346. 

The above shows the appearance of Manchester village as it is 
entered from the south-west upon the Beverly road. Coasters from 
60 to 70 tons burthen can come up to this village, which consists of 
upwards of eighty dwelling-houses, built compactly together. Dis- 
tance, 7 miles from Gloucester, 9 from Salem, and 23 from Boston. 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the 
grave-yard in this place : 



In memory of Benjamin Tappan, late pastor of the church in Manchester, who ex- 
pired May 6, 1790, in the 70th year of his age, and 45th year of his ministry. He was 
a sincere and exemplary Christian, a tender husband and parent, a judicious and sound 
divine, a prudent and faithful minister. 

Oh ever honor'd, ever dear, adieu, 
How many tender names are lost in you. 
Keep safe, O tomb, thy precious sacred trust, 
Till life divine awake his sleeping dust, 

Colo 1 - Benj*- Marston lies here, who died May 22, 1754, being 57 years & 3 mo. 
old. Art thou curious, reader, to know wh^t sort of man he was? Wait till the final 
day of Retribution, and then thou mayest be satisfied. 

Sacred to the memory of Capt. John Allen, who died Aug. 27, 1834, aged 59 years. 

Though Boreas' blasts and Neptune's waves 

Have toss'd me to and fro, 

In spite of both, by God's decree, 

I harbor here below. 

Now here at anchor I do lie, 
With many of our fleet, 
In hope again for to set sail 
My Savior Christ to meet 

James Smith, 
Rowland Smith, 
Samuel Doliber, 
Edmund Nicholson, 
Francis Nicholson, 
John Gatchell, 
William Barber, 
David Thomas, 
John Legg, 
Peter Pitford, 
Erasmus James, 

Thomas Bowinge, 
John Stacie, 
George Chine, 
John Northy, 
Nicholas Merrett, 
Thomas Pitman, 
Timothy Allen, 
Thomas Sams, 
Arthur Sanden, 
Isaac Allerton, 
Moses Maverick, 

Mr. Walton, 
John Lyon, 
Henry Stacie, 
William Chichester, 
Samuel Corwithen, 
Thomas Gray, 
Richard Norman, 
John Peachy, 
Richard Curtice, 
John Hart, 
William Charles, 


MARBLEHEAD was originally a part of Salem, from which it was 
detached and incorporated as a distinct town in 1649. At this 
time it contained 44 families, the heads of which were of the fol- 
lowing names : 

John Deveroe, 
Abrm. Whitcure, 
John Bartoll, 
Joseph Doliber 
Robert Knight, 
John Bennett, 
F. J. Walsingham, 
John Norman, 
William Luckis, 
Christoph. Lattimore, 
John Goyt. 

The township is a rough and very rocky* peninsula, extending 
between three and four miles into the sea, and it is inhabited prin- 
cipally on account of its convenience as a fishing port. The first 
settlers made their pitch on the eastern side of the town, taking 
advantage of a very good harbor, running' north-east and south- 
west, and towards half a mile on an average. " At the south-west 
end of the harbor the town is connected with the Great Neck, so 
called, by a very narrow isthmus, separating the waters of Lynn 
bay from those of the harbor. About the year 1728, it was found 
that the sea was fast encroaching on the south-west side of this 
isthmus, so as to endanger the preservation and security of the har- 
bor. The government of the province at that time attended to the 
subject, as it respected not only the town in particular, but the 
trade of the province in general ; and ordered by an act the sum 

* As the celebrated Mr. Whitefield was entering the settlement late in the autumn, 
when no verdure was to be seen, he exclaimed, " Pray where do they bury their dead ? 
It may be observed, that, notwithstanding the rough and forbidding aspect of the 
soil, it is very productive when cultivated. 



of 1,328 to be paid out of the public treasury for necessary re- 
pairs. It seems that about the year 1762 some necessary repairs were 
made. In the year 1790, although the town had carefully endea- 
vored to secure, support, and keep the same in good repair, the go- 
vernment of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, considering the 
preservation of the said harbor was a matter of public concern, &c., 
granted a sum of 1000 to be raised by a lottery" for this purpose. 
About 1742 this town was authorized to erect a fortification for the 
defence of the place ; the government, it seems, having granted 
690 for this purpose. In 1794 it was ceded to the United States 
by a vote of the town. The fortification which defends the har- 
bor is now called Fort Sewall. 

North-eastern view of Marblehead from Fort Seroall. 

The above is a north-eastern view of Marblehead taken from 
Fort Sewall. The harbor in front of the town is a mile and a 
half long from north-east to south-west, and half a mile wide. It 
is formed by a narrow isthmus at the south-west that separates it 
from Lynn bay, and connects the town with Great Neck. It is 
deep and excellent, capable of being entered at all times by ships 
of the largest size, and would be one of the finest in the country, were 
it not for its exposure to storms, which often render its anchorage 
unsafe. In 1837 the town of Marblehead contained 5,549 inhabit- 
ants : with the exception of about twenty farmers and their families, 
they are comprised within the limits of one mile by one quarter. 
The village is quite novel in its appearance, being compact and 
very irregularly built, owing to the very uneven and rocky surface 
of the ground on which it is built. There are five handsome 
churches in this place, viz. 2 Congregational, 1 of which is Unita- 
rian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist. There are two 
banks, the " Marblehead Bank," incorporated in 1803, capital 
$120,000, and the " Grand Bank," incorporated in 1831, capital 
$100,000 ; there are two insurance companies, each with a capi- 
tal of $100,000. There is an academy, incorporated in 1792, and 


has ever been a respectable and useful institution. Distance, 4 
miles from Salem, and 16 from Boston. The shipping owned here 
amounts to more than eight thousand tons. In 1837, there were 
55 vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fishery, the tonnage of 
which was 4603 ; codfish caught, 49,403 quintals ; mackerel caught, 
243 barrels ; 500 hands employed. In the same year were manu- 
factured 97 pairs of boots, and 1,025,824 pairs of shoes, the value 
of which was $367,780 ; males employed, 503 ; females, 655. 

In the Rev. Mr. Barnard's diary,* (early in the century, or before 
1720,) when speaking of this town, gives the following statement : 
" There was not a carpenter, a tailor, nor mason, nor butcher in 
the town ; nor any thing of a market worth naming. They had 
their houses built by country workmen, and their clothes made out 
of town, and supplied themselves with beef and pork from Boston, 
which drained the town of its money. Some years after, the town 
abounded with artificers, good workmen of every description, and 
the market had a full supply. At the time before mentioned, there 
was not one foreign vessel, although the town always possessed 
every advantage for a free and extensive navigation. The people 
contented themselves to be slaves to work in the mines, leaving it 
to the merchants of Salem, Boston, and Europe, to carry off the 
gains, by which means the town was poor and in debt : so much 
were they involved in debt to the merchants of other places, that 
very few families, not more than twenty, were independent in their 
circumstances. They were generally a rude, swearing, drunken 
and fighting crew ; but as they increased in numbers they made 
improvements in social life, in virtue and good morals. By the 
middle of the century, the manners of the people were so much 
cultivated, as to be remarkable for their civilities, and especially 
for their hospitality to strangers. There were not only gentle- 
manlike families, and pious and well-behaved people in the town, 
but the very fishermen rose superior to the rudeness of former gene- 
rations. When they were persuaded by individuals of public 
spirit to send their fish to foreign markets, they soon became conver- 
sant with the mysteries of trade, they soon became sensible of the 
advantage they should reap by it. And while individuals grew 
rich, the town also received the benefit." 

" Mr. Joseph Swett, a young man of strict justice, of great indus- 
try, enterprising genius, quick apprehension, and firm resolution, 
but small fortune, was the first man who engaged in it. He sent 
a cargo to Barbadoes ; and from the profits of the voyage found 
that he increased his stock, and went on building vessels, till he 
was enabled to send vessels to Europe, loading them with fish, and 
pointing out to others the path to riches. The more promising young 
men of the town followed his example ; and from this small begin- 
ning, Marblehead became one of the first trading towns of the Bay. 
In the year 1766, there were between thirty and forty ships, brigs, 
snows, and topsail schooners engaged in foreign trade." 

* Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc., vol. viii. 


About 1770 Marblehead was supposed to contain a greater num- 
ber of inhabitants than any other town of the province, Boston ex- 
-cepted. During the revolutionary war this place suifered severely, 
and the business of the place was almost wholly destroyed. The 
inhabitants were firm in the cause of American liberty, and this 
place alone furnished, of its own inhabitants, for the public service, 
one entire regiment, completely officered and manned. The value 
of this regiment at that trying period, composed of men inured to 
fatigue and danger, and not wasted by sickness in any one instance, 
is best determined by a recollection of their patience, bravery, and 
effective service. Captain James Mugford, an inhabitant of this 
place, rendered an important service to the American army during 
the Revolution, by capturing, at a critical juncture, a British ship 
just arrived in the vicinity of Boston, richly laden with arms, am- 
munition, and other warlike stores. He was killed the same day he 
made the capture, January 12th, 1776, in attempting to return from 
Boston to Marblehead, while defending his little privateer from the 
attack of some boats sent from the British men-of-war riding at 
Nantasket road. Their object was to take him at the moment his 
vessel run ashore on a point of land, which makes the entrance of 
Pudding Point Gut. Captain Mugford fought for a considerable 
time. At length, one of the boats attempting to board hirn, he 
sprung to the railing of his vessel in order the better to repel the 
enemy ; he was mortally wounded by a pistol-shot. Falling back, 
one of his crew anxiously inquired if he was wounded. He said, 
" Yes, but don't let the enemy know my situation, and if I die act as 
if I were alive and were still commanding;" after which he immedi- 
ately expired. His brave seamen made dreadful havoc of the limbs 
and lives of the enemy, beat them off, and got into Marblehead, 
where great respect was shown to the remains of Capt. Mugford. 

The Rev. Samuel Cheever, the first minister of Marblehead, was 
ordained in 1684, having preached here sixteen years previous to 
his settlement. He died in 1724, aged eighty-five. He preached 
upwards of half a century without being taken off from his labors 
one Sabbath ; when he died, the lamp of life fairly burnt out, for 
he felt no pain even in his expiring moments. He was succeeded 
by Mr. John Barnard, who had been previously an assistant pastor 
with Mr. Cheever. He died in 1770, and was succeeded by Mr. 
William Whitwell. Mr. Ebenezer Hubbard succeeded Mr. Whit- 
well, was ordained in 1783, and died in 1800. Mr. Samuel Dana 
was ordained pastor in 1801. The second church in Marblehead 
was formed when Mr. Barnard was assistant pastor with Mr. 
Cheever. Mr. Edward Holyoke, afterward president of Harvard 
college, appears to have been the first minister. He was chosen 
president in 1737. His successor in the ministry at Marblehead 
was Mr. Simon Bradstreet, who was ordained in 1738. Mr. Brad- 
street was succeeded by Mr. Isaac Story, in 1772. One of the first 
Episcopal societies in Massachusetts was planted in Marblehead. 
Their first minister was Mr. William Shaw ; the next Mr. David 
Monsam, who was succeeded by Mr. George Pigot and Alexander 


Malcolm. Mr. Peter Bours, their fifth minister, was highly es- 
teemed by Christians of all denominations. He was succeeded by 
Mr. Joshua Wirigate Weeks. For several years after the Revolu- 
tion, the church was destitute. Mr. Thomas Oliver was their next 
minister ; he was succeeded by Mr. William Harris. The next 
clergyman was Mr. James Bowers, who was ordained in Trinity 
church, in Boston, May 25, 1802, by the hands of the Rev. Bishop 
Bass. In 1789 a number of the inhabitants of Marblehead erected 
a meeting-house for those " whose opinions differed from the 
opinions of their neighbors." In 1800 a meeting-house was built 
for the Methodist denomination. The Baptist society was estab- 
lished in 1803. 

John Glover, a brigadier general in the American army in the 
revolutionary war, was a native of this town. 

He had the command of a regiment from the beginning of the revolutionary contest. 
He had the honor, with his brave officers and soldiers, of forming the advance part ot 
the army which, in a bold and intrepid manner, crossed the Delaware in the night of 
the 25th of December, 1776, at a most inhospitable and hazardous juncture, and added 
much to the martial glory of the American forces by capturing, at Trenton, a thousand 
Hessians, under the immortal Washington. This propitious event inspired the conti 
nental army with confidence of the final happy result, and was followed with victories 
in every quarter, till Heaven sanctioned the justice of the American appeal with the dis- 
comfiture of the enemy and the freedom of the United States. 

General Glover had the honor of conducting Burgoyne's army, after its surrender, 
through the New England states ; and, in various instances, during the war, he had 
the warm approbation and unqualified applause of his commander-in-chief. A want 
of documents prevents the author of this work from paying a more full tribute of res- 
pect to the memory of one of the most brave, bold, and persevering officers of the 
revolutionary army. He, therefore, cannot better close this article, than with an 
extract from a letter, addressed to General Glover by General Washington, dated 
Morris, 26 April, 1777, soon after his appointment to the command of a brigade. 

" Diffidence in an officer is a good mark, because he will always endeavor to bring 
himself up to what he conceives to be the full line of his duty ; but, I think I may 
tell you without flattery, that I know of no man better qualified than you to con- 
duct a brigade. You have activity and industry, and as you very well know the duty 
of a colonel, you know how to exact that duty from others." Aided 's Coll. vol. iii. 

" Hon. Elbridge Geny, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, was born in Marblehead, July 17, 1744, and from 
his first election as representative of his native town in the legis- 
lature, he continued in public life, almost without intermission, fil- 
ling the most important offices, such as that of a member of con- 
gress, ambassador to France, governor of the commonwealth, and 
vice president of the United States, till his decease. His spirit 
was nourished by close communion with the Adamses, Hancock, 
Warren, &c On the night preceding the battle of Lexington, he 
narrowly escaped capture as one of the 'rebel' committee of the 
provincial congress. In 1813, as he was proceeding to the senate 
chamber at Washington, ' a sudden extravasation of blood ,took 
place upon the lungs, and terminated his life within twenty 
minutes, almost without a struggle, and apparently without pain.' n 
- -Essex Memorial. 

The following inscriptions are from monuments in this place : 

206 M K T H U E N . 

In memory of the rev. JOHN BARNARD, a faithful pastor of the first church in Mar- 
blehead. He was a learned divine, a judicious and profitable preacher, who has left 
excellent performances to his and their posterity. He exhibited a bright example of 
piety and Christian virtue, was a promoter of peace and friendship, an ornament to the 
church and town, and after a long life spent in the service of Christ and souls, on the 
24th of Jan. 1770, in the 54 year of his ministry, and the 89 of his age, fell asleep in 

Memorise sacrum rev. domini JOHANNIS BARNARD, primae Christi ecclesise apud Mar- 
blehead pastoris fidelis. Theologus erat vere eruditus, concionator admodum sapiens 
utilisque. Suis non solum quin et posteris moruta reliquit. Exemplum pietatis ac 
christianae virtutis insigne, amicitiae et pacis cultor, ecclesise et oppidi decus nmltos 
post labores Christi et animarum causa peractos hac vita, Januarii 24, 1770, et minis- 
terii 54 setatis que 89, placide decessit. 

Under this stone lies the body of the Rev. PETER BOURS, once minister of this church, 
which office, for the space of nine years, he discharged with faithfulness, teaching the 
doctrines of the gospel with plainness and fervency, illustrating the truth and reality 
of what he taught, by his own life, the goodness of which, joined with great candor, 
and unbounded benevolence of mind, obtained for him not only the most sincere love of 
his own people, but also the love of virtuous men of every persuasion. He died 24 Feb- 
ruary, 1762, aged 36 years. To his memory his people have erected this monument in 
testimony of his great worth and their sincere regards. 

Persuasion draws, example leads the mind ; 
Their double force compels, when meetly joined. 


THE eastern part of this town was formerly a part of Haverhill. 
It was incorporated as a town in 1725. The soil near the Merri- 
mac, which is the south-western boundary of the town, is not so 
good as that in the more northern part. The surface of the town- 
ship is broken into a variety of hills and valleys, and the soil may 
be in general considered as good. Spicket or Spiggot river, in its 
course from New Hampshire, centrally intersects and falls into the 
Merrimac. This little river has a fall of about thirty feet down a 
rocky precipice, and affords a plentiful supply of water for manu- 
facturing purposes. This has been improved, and there is now a 
nourishing village at this place, containing about 1,000 inhabitants, 
3 churches, 1 Baptist, 1 Congregational, and 1 Universalist. Me- 
thuen Falls village is situated about one mile south of the New 
Hampshire line. The engraving shows the appearance of the vil- 
lage as seen from the eastward. The Congregational church ap- 
pears on elevated ground in the distance on the extreme right ; the 
Baptist church, the largest in the village, is the nearest ; the Uni- 
versalist church is seen beyond in the distance ; the large factory, 
built of brick, is seen on the extreme left, standing by the falls. 
Distance, 9 miles from Lowell, 9 from Haverhill, 5 worn Andover, 
and 25 from Boston. A cotton factory was commenced here about 
1812, by Stephen Minot, Esq. of Haverhill. This was burnt in 
1818, but was rebuilt soon after. A newspaper, the "Methuen 
Falls Gazette," was commenced here in Jan. 1835. A paper-mill was 
erected in this town in 1826. The following, relative to this town, 
is from the Statistical Tables, published by the state in 1837. Cot- 
ton mills 2 cotton spindles, 4,400 ; cotton consumed, 527,899 Ibs. ; 



Eastern view of Methwn Falls Village. 

cotton goods manufactured. 1,019,9:)3 yards; value of the same, 
$190,000 ; males employed, 55 ; females, 225 ; capital invested, 
$180,000 ; sperm oil used by the manufacturers, 2,750 gallons. 
Shoes manufactured, 211,300 pairs; value of the same, $159.225 : 
males employed, 190 ; females, 167. Manufactories of hats, 5 ; 
hats manufactured, 48,000 ; value of hats, $23,000 ; males employ- 
ed, 36 ; females, 9. Paper-mills, 2 ; stock manufactured, 195 tons ; 
value of paper, $32,500. Value of piano forte frames, $10,000. 

The first church in this town was formed in 1729, and Rev. 
Christopher Sergeant was ordained the same year. He died in 
1790. Rev. Simon F. Williams, a colleague with Mr. Sergeant, was 
dismissed in 1791. Rev. Humphrey C. Perley, his successor, was 
ordained in 1795, and dismissed in 1815. Rev. Jacob W. Eastman, 
the next pastor, was settled in 1815, and retired in 1828. A second 
church was formed in 1766, and Rev. Eliphaz Chapman was or- 
dained in 1772. The second pastor was John H. Stephens, the 
third Josiah Hill. (The first and second churches were united 
from 1817 to 1830.) The Baptist church was formed in 1815, and 
Rev. Charles O. Kimball was ordained pastor the next year. The 
Universalist society was organized in 1824. A small Episcopal 
society was formed here in 1833. Population, 2.463. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1728. It was formed of the uni- 
ted corners of several adjoining towns. The first church was 
gathered here in 1729, and Rev. Andrew Peters, the first pastor, 
was settled the same year. The second pastor, Rev. Elias Smith, 
was settled in 1759. He died in 1792. and was succeeded by Rev. 
Solomon Adams in 1793. Rev. Ebenezer Hubbard, the next pastor, 
was settled in 1816 ; his successor, Rev. Forrest Jeffords, was set 


208 N E W B U B Y . 

tied in 1832. There is another society in this town, called the 
United Society. 

The surface of the township is uneven, and the soil requires 
good management and great industry to render it productive. The 
inhabitants live scattered over the town, there being no village of 
importance. In 1837, there were 300 pairs of boots and 500 pairs 
of shoes manufactured, valued at $1,500; and one paper-mill, 
which manufactured 100 tons of stock ; value of paper, $35,000. 
Population, 671. Distance, 7 miles N. W . of Salem, 18 from New- 
buryport, and 20 N. of Boston. 


NEWBURY was originally one of the largest as well as one of the 
oldest towns in Massachusetts. " In 1633, arrived a number of 
people in the ship Hector, who settled at Quafcacanquen. In May, 
1634, arrived Mr. Thomas Parker and Mr. James Noyes. Mr. 
Parker, and about a hundred who came over with him, sat down 
at Ipswich, where he continued about a year, while Mr. Noyes 
preached at Medford. In May, 1635, some of the principal people 
of Ipswich petitioned the general court for liberty to remove to 
Quafcacanquen, which was granted, and the place incorporated by 
the name of Newbury. This was the tenth church gathered in 
the colony. Mr. Noyes was chosen teacher, and Mr. Parker pas- 
tor of the church." The first settlement was made on the banks 
of Parker river, which is about 8 miles north of Ipswich, and about 
4 south of the middle of Newburyport, on Merrimac river. Thence 
the settlements were soon extended westward up the river Parker 
about 4 or 5 miles to the falls, and northward to the Merrimac and 
the lands adjacent. 

The territorial limits of this town have been greatly reduced, and 
its wealth more than proportionably diminished, by the formation 
of the towns of Newburyport and West Newbury. Those parts 
of the town most compactly settled join on to Newburyport. That 
portion which lies on the south-east side contains about 1,100 peo- 
ple in a compact settlement, who are generally engaged in the fish- 
eries. There are 4 churches within the present limits of the town, 
and a cotton factory. In five years preceding 1837, there were 
built 57 vessels, the tonnage of which was 11,907; valued at 
$721,610; hands employed in ship-building, 136. Population, 
3,771. Distance from Boston, 31 miles. Plum Island, the greater 
part of which lies in this town, is mostly composed of sand. It is, 
however, esteemed a salutary resort for invalids in the summer 
season ; it is also a favorite haunt for pleasure parties. One cause 
of attraction is from the copious supply of beach plums which are 
found on the island in the autumn. 

Dummer Academy, in the limits of this town, is located in Byfield 
parish, and is the oldest institution of the kind in New England, 

N E W B U R Y . 209 

being founded by Lieut. Gov. Dummer, in 1756 ; it was not, how- 
ever, incorporated till Oct. 1782, which was subsequent to the in- 
corporation of Phillips Academy at Andover. It is richly endowed, 
and its location is retired ; pleasant, and remarkably healthy. 

The following, relative to the ancient manner of building church- 
es, is from the appendix to Rev. J. S. Popkins' Sermon, 1806. 

" October 5, 1698, the vote was passed to build the former meeting-house. April 22, 
1700, Sergeant Stephen Jaques, the builder, was ordered to hang the bell in the new 
turret. October 18, Col. Daniel Pierce, Esq. and Tristram Coffin, Esq. were impower- 
ed to procure a bell for the new meeting-house, of about 400 pounds weight. Decem- 
ber 16, 1700, the place of each man and woman, was assigned, by a committee. The 
number of men placed was about 176. This appears to have been the time of occupy- 
ing the meeting-house. The body of the house was filled with long seats. Contiguous 
to the wall were twenty pews. The spaces for the pews were granted to particular 
persons who appear to have been principals. Before the pulpit and deacons' seat was 
a large pew containing a table, where sat the chiefs of the fathers. The young people 
sat in the upper gallery, and the children on a seat in the alley fixed to the outside of 
the pews. The floor measured 60 and 50 feet. The roof was constructed with four 
gable ends or projections, one on each side, each containing a large window, which gave 
light to the upper galleries. The turret was on the center. The space within was open te 
the roof, where was visible plenty of timber, with great needles and little needles point- 
ing downwards, which served at once for strength and ornament. There were many 
ornaments of antique sculpture and wainscot. It was a stately building in the day of 
it, but it was not my lot to see it in all its ancient glory. Long ago a wall was spread 
overhead, which was dropping down, and the floor was occupied by pews. The roof 
made plain, the four very steep sides terminating in a platform, which supported a 
steeple " 

The following inscriptions are from monuments in this town : 

A Resurrection to immortality is here expected for what was mortal of the Rev- 
erend Mr. JOHN RICHARDSON, (once Fellow of Harvard Colledge, afterwards Teacher to 
the church at Newbury,) putt off Apr. 27, 1696, in the fiftieth year of his age. 

When Preachers dy the Rules the pulpit gave 
to live well, are still preached from the grave, 
The Faith and Life, which your dead Pastor taught 
in one grave now with him, Syrs bury not. 

Abi, viator ; A mortuo disce vivere ut moriturus, E. Terrio disce eogitare de Ccelis.* 

Here lyes the Body of the Rev. Mr. CHRISTOPHER TAPPAN, master of Arts, fourth 
Pastorof the First church in Newbury ; a gentleman of good Learning, conspicuous Pi- 
ety and virtue, shining both by his Doctrine and Life, skilled and greatly improv'd in 
the Practice of Physic and Surgery, who deceas'd July 23d, 1747, in the 76th year of 
his Age and the 51st year of his Pastoral office. 

Beneath are the remains of Rev. JOHN TUCKER D. D. Pastor of the first Church and 
Congregation in this town, who died March 22d, 1792, Etat. 73. Blessed with strong 
mental Powers, a liberal education, and an uncommon mildness of Temper, all directed 
and improved by that faith which purifies the heart, rendered Him dearly beloved in 
every relation in which he was placed, and more especially made him conspicuously- 
useful as a minister of the Gospel when meeting with peculiar Difficulties. He emi- 
nently complied with that direction of his Master to the first Preachers of his Gospel, 
Be ye wise as serpents and harmless as doves. As he lived a life of piety, he met 
with death with Serenety. By his doctrine and example he taught the humility and 
meekness, and at his death he exhibited the dignity and triumph, of the real Christian. 

* Which may be plainly translated : Go, traveller ; from the dead learn to live, as 
ne that must die ; from the earth learn to think of the heavens. 



THIS town is the smallest in its territorial limits of any m the 
commonwealth, containing but about six hundred and forty-seven 
acres. It was formerly the port of the town of Newbury, and was 
incorporated as a distinct town in 1764. Previous to the Revolu- 
tion, Newburyport was quite a commercial place, and the commerce 
with the French West Indies was constant and profitable. During 
the period of the Revolution " the people of this town signalized 
their patriotism and love of independence by consenting to the non- 
importation agreement, declaring their abhorrence of the stamp-act, 
and other arbitrary measures of the ministry, preparing the means 
of defence and warfare, resolving to support the Declaration of In- 
dependence with their lives and fortunes, and nobly keeping this 
resolution inviolate. Few parts of the country sacrificed more in 
proportion for the sake of freedom, than did Newburyport, in sub- 
mitting to have its staple business of ship-building broken up, in- 
curring large debts for the defence of the harbor, weakening its 
population for the supply of the continental armies, and undergo- 
ing many other privations and embarrassments attendant on a state 
of protracted warfare. The citizens gained a little, and but a lit- 
tle, by privateering ; and in other respects the town stood almost 
still during the war, and until peace restored its commercial advan- 

During the difficulties with the French directory, Newburyport 
presented an uncommon example of patriotism by building a 
twenty-gun ship by the subscription of some of the principal in- 
habitants of the town, and offered it to the government, and asked 
for the final reimbursement of the net cost " at the convenience 
of the government." This offer, when our navy was small, and 
the means of the government limited, was felt to be valuable. The 
commercial prosperity of Newburyport was at one period almost 
unexampled in a town of its size. But commercial restrictions ; 
the fire of 1811 ; and the war of 1812, bore heavily upon a mer- 
cantile and ship-building population, and the town has not entirely 
recovered its former prosperity. The sand bar at the mouth of the 
Merrimac. which, in prosperous times, would have afforded no 
great obstacle to trade, became, under disastrous circumstances, a 
source of despondence. 

The following description of Newburyport is extracted from 
Newhall's Essex Memorial, published in 1836. 

" The situation of the town is indeed uncommonly beautiful. 
The populous part stands upon a slope, gently declining to the 
river, so that a summer rain can at any time completely wash the 
streets. By whatever avenue it is approached, its appearance 
never fails to impress the mind of the visiter with pleasurable sen- 
sations. The compact settlement of the town of Newbury enclosing 
it upon two sides along the bank of the river, as you approach it 
upon the eastern road or from the sea, it presents the aspect of a 
considerable city, extending to the distance of nearly three miles 


The town is laid out with an unusual degree of regularity. A 
lower street, upon which the wharves and docks open, follows the 
course of the river ; and parallel with this an upper or High street 
extends the whole length of the town. Various avenues pass 
through its center, and a sufficient number of generally wide and 
spacious streets, at regular intervals, intersect these at right angles, 
and connect the upper with the lower street. The main post road 
from Boston enters Newburyport nearly at the central point of 
High street, and passes in a direct line through the town to a very 
large and convenient market-place, which is surrounded by brick 
stores, and is in the immediate vicinity of the principal wharves 
and docks. The dwelling-houses and other buildings are general- 
ly kept in good repair and condition, and present a neat and often 
elegant appearance. Some of the principal houses are extremely 
handsome ; and there are few of any condition which do not pos- 
sess a considerable garden spot, which gives a very open and airy 
aspect to the town, at the same time that it promotes that general 
health for which this place has always been highly distinguished. 
Indeed, a great deal of attention has been paid here, of late years, 
to ornamental as well as common gardening. 

u The Newburyport bridge crosses the Merrimac from the north 
part of the town. It was built in 1827. Abutments with stone 
walls, filled in with sods, gravel, &c., project from either shore. 
That on the Newburyport side is 240, and that on the Salisbury 
side is 187 yards long. The bridge rests on these abutments and 
on four piers built of stone from high-water mark, and is further 
supported by chains passing over the tops of pyramids erected on 
the piers and under the centers of the arches. The span of the 
center arch is 83 yards. The bridge is built in two distinct longi- 
tudinal parts, so that, in case of accident to one, the passage of the 
river will not be interrupted. Whole length, three sevenths of a 
mile. Cost, $70,000. There has been a rapid and steady increase 
of travel over this bridge. The tolls taken in 1835 amounted to 
nearly double those of 1827. 

" A breakwater was constructed by the United States, in 1830, 
near the mouth of the harbor, for the purpose of improving the 
same, at an expense exceeding $30,000. It has as yet been pro- 
ductive of but little if any advantage. A pier has since been erect- 
ed on Salisbury side, covering Badger's rocks, which affords a 
convenient harbor for vessels when prevented from coming up to 
town. The Newburyport turnpike to Boston commences at the 
head of State street, and is continued in a direct course to Maiden 
bridge. It was finished in 1806, at an expense of $420,000, but 
is now little travelled. 

" A custom-house has just been completed, situated on Water 
street. It is built of rough granite, with hammered stone pilasters, 
entablature, cornice and portico. The roof is covered with zinc. 
With the exception of the windows and window-frames, it is built 
entirely of stone and brick. The style of architecture is the Gre- 
cian Doric, and the cost of the building $25,000. There are eight 


churches, a stone jail and a keeper's house, an almshouse, an ele- 
gant brick court-house, on Bartlett's mall ; High street. There 
is also a brick market-house, containing a town hall, and rooms 
for municipal officers. The Newburyport Academy, though situ- 
ated within the bounds of Newbury, was built, as its name implies, 
by persons in Newburyport. It is a handsome brick building, 
situated on High street. A private school is now kept in it. The 
Newburyport Lyceum occupy the hall in the second story, which 
is a very handsome and convenient room, and was fitted for them 
at an expense of $1,200." 

There are 3 banks the Mechanics, incorporated 1812, capital 
$200,000; the Merchants, incorporated 1831, capital $300,000; 
and the Ocean, incorporated in 1833, capital $200,000. There is 
an institution for savings, and 3 insurance companies. Two 
newspapers are published, one semi-weekly the other semi- 
monthly. In 1837 there were 128 vessels employed in the cod 
and mackerel fishery from Newburyport and Newbury ; tonnage, 
6,628; cod-fish caught, 11,400 quintals; value of the same, 
$34,200; mackerel caught, 20,500 barrels; value of the same, 
$143,500 ; hands employed, one thousand. Four vessels were 
employed in the whale fishery; tonnage, 1,440; sperm oil import- 
ed, 148,480 gallons ; whale oil, 80,650 gallons ; hands employed, 
120. The value of boots and shoes manufactured, $113,173; 
males employed, 206; females, 114. The population of New- 
buryport in 1790 was 4,837; in 1800, 5,946 ; in 1810,7,634; in 
1820, 6,789; in 1830, 6,388; and in 1837, 6,741. Distance, 20 
miles N. of Salem, 24 southerly from Portsmouth, and 38 from 
Boston, on the main post road. 

The following account of the great fire in this place is from 
Cushing's History of Newburyport, published in 1826. 

But in addition to the evils arising to us from the cupidity of the European belli- 
gerents, and the restrictive and retaliatory measures into which this country was con- 
sequently driven, Newburyport was doomed to suffer by a peculiar misfortune. This 
was the great fire of 1811, which desolated the busiest portion of the town, by its 
destructive ravages ; and whose effects still meet the eye, in the depopulation of streets 
formerly filled with dwelling-houses and shops. 

This conflagration commenced in a stable in Mechanic Row, near the Market Square, 
and of course in the center of the portion of the town devoted to trade and business. 
The stable was at the time unoccupied, and when the fire was discovered was found 
to be completely enveloped in flames. This was at half past nine o'clock in the even- 
ing of the thirty-first day of May, 1811. The fire quickly extended to Market Square 
on the one hand, and to State street on the other, and soon spread in various directions, 
with a degree of celerity and fury which baffled all exertions to stop its progress. The 
fire continued to rage until about two o'clock in the morning, soon after which its vio- 
lence diminished ; and by sunrise it had in a great measure subsided, after having 
swept away everything on a tract of land of sixteen and a half acres, leaving there 
only a mass of deplorable ruins. No part of the town was more compactly built than 
this ; none contained so large a proportion of valuable buildings, merchandise, and 
other property. Indeed, the compactness of the buildings, which were chiefly construct- 
ed of wood, served constantly to feed the flames with combustible materials, so that 
for a time the destruction of the whole town was seriously apprehended. It was esti- 
mated that nearly 250 buildings were consumed, most of which were stores and dwell- 
ing-houses. This number included nearly all the shops in town for the sale of dry 
goods j four printing-offices j the custom-house j the post-office ; two insurance offices ; 


four bookstores; and one meeting-house; and the dwellings of more than ninety 

The scene presented by this conflagration was truly terrible. It is described by an 
eye-witness in the ensuing words : 

" At the commencement of the fire, it was a bright moonlight night, and the evening 
was cool and pleasant. But the moon gradually became obscured, and at length disap- 
peared in the thick cloud of smoke which shrouded the atmosphere. The glare of 
light throughout the town was intense, and the heat that of a sultry summer noon. 
The streets were thronged with those whose dwellings were consumed, conveying the 
remains of their property to places of safety. The incessant crash of falling buildings, 
the roaring of chimneys like distant thunder, the flames ascending in curling volumes 
from a vast extent of ruins, the air filled with a shower of fire, and the feathered throng 
fluttering over their wonted retreats and dropping into the flames, the lowing of the 
cows, and the confused noise of exertion and distress, united to impress the mind with 
the most awful sensations." 

The unprecedented rapidity with which the flames spread themselves over the town, 
may be inferred from the following circumstance. Many persons had, soon after the 
fire began, carried their goods and furniture seemingly to a secure distance, and depo- 
sited them in the meeting-house of the Baptist society in Liberty street. But the fire 
at length reached this place, and consumed the church and its contents, which, being 
accumulated there, greatly increased the flames. 

Nothing was more remarkable during the heart-rending scene of this destructive 
conflagration, than the spectacle which State street exhibited on one occasion. Two 
large brick buildings, four stories in height, stood upon the western side of this street, 
and opposed a barrier to the destructive element, which it was hoped for a time would 
there be arrested in its course. But a sudden change of wind threw the flames directly 
upon these immense piles, which were speedily involved in the general calamity. The 
opposite buildings being now on fire, and the wind blowing with great force, the flames 
ascended high on either side, and, meeting in the air, extended in a continual sheet of 
fire across the spacious street. The impression made by this tremendous scene upon 
the mind of the author of these pages, then a youthful spectator of it, will never be 
effaced from his recollection. It was sublime beyond conception. The beholder could 
look through a long vista of over-arching blaze, whose extreme brilliancy dazzled and 
fatigued, while it irresistibly attracted, the straining eye. 

The sufferings of the families, whose dwellings and property were consumed, imme- 
diately excited the sympathy of the liberal and charitable. Meetings were held in 
many of the large towns in various parts of the country ; and generous donations 
were received from different quarters, for the relief of the inhabitants. The citizens 
of Boston collected upwards of twenty-four thousand dollars, which, with characteristic 
liberality, they presented to the sufferers by the fire. By these means, the losses of the 
poorer class were very much lightened, and the extent of the calamity was diminished. 
But the injury to the town, and to very many individuals, by the absolute destruction 
of property, was still very serious ; and its effects must long continue to be felt. * 

The first religious society in Newburyport was formed in 1725, 
out of the first parish in Newbury, and the Rev. John Lowell was 
ordained their first pastor in 1726. He died in 1767, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Thomas Gary. Rev. John Andrews was settled as 
colleague with Mr. Gary, in 1788. The first Presbyterian society 
dates its origin to the year 1744 ; it consisted of persons who se- 
parated about that time from the first and third churches in New- 
bury. They erected a house of worship in High street, in which 
they remained until 1756, when the present church in -Federal 
street was built. The formation of this church took place in 
consequence of the excitement produced by the preaching of Mr. 
Whitefield. The Episcopal society was founded in 1711. The 
Orthodox Congregational church was founded 1767 ; the Indepen- 
dent Orthodox in 1794 ; the second Presbyterian in 1795 ; the 
Baptist society in 1804, and the Methodist Episcopal in 1827. 




House in ivhich M*. Whitefield died, Nervburyport. 

The above ancient house is now standing in School street, in 
Newburyport. It was the residence of the Rev. Jonathan Parsons, 
the first regular pastor of the first Presbyterian society. It is an 
object of interest on account of its being the place where Mr. 
Whitefield, the celebrated preacher, died. His lodging-room was 
the northern chamber on the second floor, two sides of which are 
seen in the engraving. He died in the entry at the window over 
the front door, to which he was taken to obtain the air. Some 
alterations have been made since that period about the window 
and front door. It was Mr. Whitefield's desire, should he die in 
this country, to be buried under Mr. Parsons' pulpit. The people 
of Boston and other places were desirous of having Mr. White- 
field's remains interred among them, but Mr. Parsons would not 
consent, but followed Mr. Whitefield's wishes in this respect. The 
first Presbyterian church in which Mr. Parsons, and also Mr. 
Whitefield, preached, is still standing, a few rods from the above 
house. The pulpit was formerly at the east side, and Mr. White- 
field's remains were buried under it : the pulpit is now at the south 
end of the church, and the remains, with those of Mr. Parsons and 
another minister, one each side, have been placed in a vault un- 
derneath, where they are yet to be seen. An elegant monument 
of Egyptian and Italian marble stands within -the walls of the 
church, at one corner, erected to the memory of Mr. Whitefield. 
It is the gift of an eminent merchant of this place to the society in 
which he worships ; it was designed by Strickland, and executed 
by Strother of Philadelphia. The following cut is from a draw- 
ing of this monument, and a copy of the inscription. 

THIS CENOTAPH is erected, with affectionate veneration, to the memory of the Rev. 
GEORGE WHITEFIELD, born at Gloucester, England, December 16, 1714. Educated at 
Oxford University; ordained 1736. In a ministry of Thirty-four years, He crossed 
the Atlantic Thirteen times, and Preached more than eighteen thousand sermons. As 
a soldier of the cross, humble, devout, ardent, He put on the whole Armour of God ; 
preferring the Honour of Christ to his own Interest, Repose, Reputation, and Life. As 

N E W B U R Y P O R T . 


White/kid? s Monument. 

a Christian orator, his deep Piety, disinterested zeal, and vivid imagination, gave un- 
exampled energy to his look, utterance, and action. Bold, fervent, pungent, and popu- 
lar in his eloquence, no other uninspired man ever preached to so large assemblies, or 
enforced the simple Truths of the Gospel, by motives so persuasive and awful, and 
with an Influence so powerful on the hearts of his hearers. He died of Asthma, Sep- 
tember 30, 1770, suddenly exchanging his Life of unparalleled Labours for his Eter- 
nal Rest. 

The following Elegy on Mr. Whitefield was written in England, 
by one of his admirers : 

" Warm, frequent, and successfully he preach'd, 
While crowding thousands piously improv'd; 

His powerful voice to distant regions reach'd, 
Two worlds attentive heard, admir'd, and lov'd. 

Great Britain, Ireland and America, 
This apostolic preacher press'd to hear; 

Sinners of every sort, the grave, the gay, 

Felt his reproofs, and learn'd their God to fear. 

His constant theme was Jesus and his erace ; 

Fir'd with this auhject, how his periods flow'd ! 
Celestial radiance shone upon his face, 

And in his heart divine affection glow'd. 

The sacred influence so plenteous pour'd 

On humbled sinners, fell with mighty power: 

Converted thousands felt the quick'ning word, 
Bow'd to the grace, and bless'd the happy hour. 

Terror and soft compassion mutual join'd 
To stop the sinner in his mad career ; 

Zion and thundering Sinai he combined, 
To draw with gentleness, or urge with fear. 

Nor did poor fainting souls attend in vain, 
Rich gospel cordials dropped from his tongue ; 

The wounded conscience lost its dreadful pain, 
And sorrow's plaint was changed to rapture's aong. 

\Vhitefotd is dead. Not so his deathless fame; 

Nor time nor calumny shall that impair ; 
Immortal excellence adorns his name, 

Immortal fruits his pious labors bear. 

Among the thousands of God's Israel, 

Most precious shall thy denr remembrance be, 

Religious fathers to their children tell 
The mighty work God brought to pass by thee. 

The annals of the churches shall record 
With what amazing power the Spirit came ; 

And while they give all glory to the Lord. 
Shall well remember WhitfJItitP* horior'dname." 

" Theophilus Parsons, a name identified with the history of our 
law, laid the foundations of his eminence in Newburyport. Born 
in Newbury, in February, 1750, he received the rudiments of his 
education at Dummer Academy, under the celebrated master Moo- 
dy. His father, the Rev. Moses Parsons, was minister of Byfield 
parish in Newbury. He was graduated at Harvard college, in 
1769, and afterwards studied law in Falmouth. now Portland, and 
while there taught the grammar-school in that town. He prac- 


tised law there a few years ; but the conflagration of the town by 
the British, in 1775, obliged him to return to his father's house, 
where he met Judge Trowbridge, and received the most valuable 
instructions from that eminent jurist. He soon resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession in this town, and rapidly rose to unrivalled 
reputation as a lawyer. 

" In 1777, he wrote the famous Essex Result, and in 1779 was 
an active member of the convention which framed the state constitu- 
tion. In 1789, he was a member of the convention for considering 
the present Constitution of the United States, and was peculiarly 
instrumental in procuring its adoption. In 1801, he was appointed 
attorney-general of the United States, but declined accepting his 
commission. In 1800, he removed to Boston. In 1806, he was 
appointed chief justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts, 
and his profound legal opinions have mainly contributed to settle 
the principles of our expository law. He died in Boston, October 
13, 1813, with reputation as a judge and a lawyer unequalled in 
Massachusetts." Gushing* s History of Newburyport. 

'' Jacob Perkins was born at Newburyport, July 9, 1766. His 
father, Matthew Perkins, was a lineal descendant of one of the 
first settlers of Ipswich, and lived to the advanced age of ninety. 
After receiving a common school education, he became apprentice 
to a goldsmith, and soon displayed those extraordinary inventive 
powers in mechanics which have elevated him to distinction. 

" At the age of twenty-one, he was employed, when other artists 
had failed, to make dies for the copper coinage of Massachusetts, 
under the old confederation. At twenty-four, he invented the nail 
machine, which cut and headed nails at one operation. His me- 
chanical genius was now fully developed ; and for twenty years 
and upwards, he continued to multiply useful inventions in the 
arts with a facility truly astonishing. His ingenuity in making a 
plate for bank notes incapable of being counterfeited, and in dis- 
covering the art of softening and hardening steel at pleasure, was 
particularly useful to the public. The latter discovery opened a 
wide field for the labors of the engraver, and led to many happy 

" It would be endless to recount the great number of useful or 
ingenious inventions which he was constantly producing during the 
latter part of his residence in America. His talents found, for a 
time, a wider field for their display in Philadelphia, whither he 
removed from Newburyport. After residing there several years, 
he crossed the Atlantic, and is now exercising his genius in Eng- 
land the great theatre for the exhibition and encouragement of 
abilities like his. Besides many things of merely philosophical 
interest, which he has there been teaching to the teachers of the 
world, he has also made some signal improvements in the steam 
engine, the great mechanical agent of modern times. His inven- 
tions in the arts of engraving and in calico printing, among other 
things, have been successfully put in operation ; while his genius, 
and his urbanity of deportment and simplicity of character, are 

ROWLEY. . 217 

procuring him the admiration and esteem of the wisest m^n and 
greatest nobles of Britain." 


ROWLEY was settled in 1638 by a company of persons from 
Yorkshire, England, at the head of which was the Rev. Ezekiel 
Rogers, who had been a minister at Rowley, England. The town 
took its present name in honor of Mr. Rogers. The easterly part 
of the town is made up of broad tracts of marsh land, which yields 
vast quantities of salt grass. The central village of Rowley con- 
sists of 2 churches, and upwards of thirty dwelling-houses. Dis- 
tance from Boston, 28 miles. 

Mr. Rogers, says Dr. SpofFord, "was born at Wethersfield, 
England, in 1590. He entered the university at thirteen years of 
age, and graduated A. M., at the age of twenty. After enduring 
many afflictions in England, he obtained a peaceful settlement in 
this place, to which he was a distinguished benefactor. He suf- 
fered many domestic sorrows in the evening of his days, and died, 
worn out with labor and care, in 1660." His remains were disin- 
terred a few years since, and removed to a more suitable part of 
the burying-ground, and a marble monument erected by the people 
of Rowley, who still enjoy the fruits of his bounty. Edward Carl- 
ton was said to be the first person born here, ancestor of the 
Carl tons who now live in the town, born 1639. The first mar- 
riage took place the same year. The parties were Robert and 
Anna Haseltine. A fulling-mill was established here by some of 
the first settlers, who made the first cloth that was ever made in 
North America. The following are some of the names of the first 
settlers : Chaplin, Gage, Jewett, Mighill, Nelson, Payson, Spof- 
ford, Stickney, and Tenney. The act incorporating the town is 
as follows : " 1639, 4th day of the 7th month, ordered that Mr. Eze- 
kiel Roger's Plantation shall be called Rowley." The towns of 
Bradford and Boxford, with parts of one or two other towns, were 
then included. By a late act of the legislature another town has 
been made out of Rowley, by the name of Georgetown. Much 
attention is paid to the cultivation of fruit in the town; upwards 
of 1,000 barrels of perry are annually made. 

There is $400,000 to $500,000 capital employed mostly in the 
manufacture of shoes and leather. In 1837, before Georgetown 
was set off from this town, there were 32,600 pairs of boots ; shoes, 
300,250 pairs, were manufactured, valued at $315,360. There 
were 16 tanneries the value of leather tanned and curried was 

The first church in this place was organized in 1639. The first 
pastor, Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, settled on the formation of the church, 
and died 1661. He was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Phillips, in 

218 SALEM. 

1650, died 1696. His successor was the Rev. Samuel Shepard, 
who was settled in 1665, died 1668. The fourth pastor was Rev. 
Edward Payson, direct ancestor of Dr. Pay son of Portland; he was 
settled in 1682, and died 1732. In 1729 he was succeeded by the 
Rev. Jedediah Jewett, who died 1774. His successor was the Rev. 
Ebenezer Bradford, who was settled in 1782, died in 1801. The 
next was the Rev. David Tullar, who settled here in 1803, and 
was dismissed 1810. He was succeeded by the Rev. James 
W. Tucker, in 1812, who died 1829. His successor was Rev. Wil- 
lard Holbrook, settled in 1818. 

The following is the inscription on the monument of Mr. Rogers, 
the first minister of Rowley. 

Sacred to the memory of the Rev. EZEKIEL ROGERS, first minister of the churcn in 
Rowley, who emigrated from Britain to this place, with his church and flock, in 1638. 
He finished his labors and life, 23 Jan. 1660, in his 70th year. He was a man of emi- 
nent piety, zeal, and abilities. His strains of oratory were delightful. Regeneration 
and union to Jesus Christ, by faith, were points, on which he principally insisted. He 
so remarkably expressed the feelings, exercises, motives, and characters of his hearers, 
that they were ready to exclaim, who hath told him all this ? With the youth he took 
great pains, and was a tree of knowledge laden with fruit, which children could reach. 
He bequeathed a part of his lands to the town of Rowley for the support o/ the gospel, 
which generous benefaction we, in the first parish, enjoy to the present day, and here 
gratefully commemorate, by raising this monument to his memory, in 1805. 


SALEM, the chief town in Essex county, was the first town set- 
tled in the bounds of the old Massachusetts colony. It was in- 
debted for its first settlement to the failure of a " fishing planta- 
tion" at Cape Ann. The Rev. John White, and a number of 
gentlemen belonging to Dorchester, in England, were strongly set 
on establishing colonies in Massachusetts, in order that they might 
become places of refuge from the corruptions and oppressions 
which prevailed under James I. There being some difficulty 
among the Plymouth settlers, some of them were obliged to leave 
Plymouth and reside at Nantasket, the most distinguished of 
whom were Rev. John Lyford and Roger Conant. These per- 
sons, with their companions, being chosen by Mr. White and his 
associates to manage their affairs at Cape Ann, they accordingly 
left Nantasket, and removed to this place in the autumn of 1625. 
Conant, finding a better place for a plantation a little to the west- 
ward, called Naumkeag, gave notice of it to his friends in Eng- 
land. This information gave rise to a project for procuring a 
grant for settling a colony in Massachusetts Bay. In 1628, a pa- 
tent having been obtained, Capt. John Endicott was sent over with 
about 100 persons, to carry on the plantation at Naumkeag, where 
he arrived in September. For his dwelling, he purchased the 
materials of a house which had been located at Cape Ann, and 
belonged to the Dorchester company. Some remains of this build- 
ing are said to be in existence. Those who remained at Naum- 
keag passed through severe afflictions. Some had scarcely a 

8 . 


SALEM. 219 

suitable place to lay their head, or food sufficient to satisfy the 
cravings of hunger. A large proportion died with scurvy and 
other diseases. 

In 1629, the Massachusetts company obtained a charter from the 
king, granting them powers to administer the government of the 
colony : they received the title of " The Governor and Company of 
Massachusetts Bay, in New England." Their seal was in part the 
representation of an Indian, having a bow in one hand and an 
arrow in another, and a label from his mouth, with the scriptural 
expression, "Come over and help us" The spirit of emigration 
now gained strength. During this year, four clergymen, the Rev. 
Francis Higginson, and Messrs. Skelton, Bight, and Smith, set 
sail in a fleet, which contained as passengers 300 men, 60 women, 
and 26 children. There were, also, on board, 115 neat cattle, 
some horses, sheep, goats, and 6 cannon, with stores suitable for a 
fort. The ship Talbot arrived with Messrs. Higginson and Smith 
at Cape Ann, June 27th. There they spent the Sabbath, and came 
to Naumkeag the 29th. On the condition of the plantation, Mr. 
Higginson writes : " When we came first to Nehurnkek, we 
found about half a score of houses ; we found also abundance of 
corn planted by them, very good, and well liking. And we brought 
with us more than 200 passengers and planters more, which by 
common consent of the old planters were combined together into 
one body politic, under the same governor. There are in all of 
us, both old and new planters, about 300, whereof 200 of them 
are settled at Nehumkek, now Salem. And the rest have planted 
themselves at MasatJndcts Bay, beginning to build a town there, 
which we do call Cherto, or Charlestown. We that are settled at 
Salem make what haste we can to build houses ; so that in a short 
time we shall have a fair town. We have great ordinance, where- 
with we doubt not but we shall fortify ourselves in a short time 
to keep out a potent adversary. But that which is our greatest 
comfort and means of defence above all others is, that we have 
here the true religion and holy ordinances of Almighty God taught 
among us." Mr. Higginson and the others, after their arrival, 
deemed it expedient to alter the name of the town, and wished to 
designate it by a term significant of their freedom from civil and 
religious oppression. It therefore received the name Salem, a He- 
brew word, meaning peace. It appears that the natives had for- 
saken this spot, and none ever claimed it, and the possession was 

" The company's advice to Mr. Endicott shows how careful they were to have the 
Lord's day kept holy. They observe, <To the end the Sabbath may be celebrated in 
a religious manner, we appoint that all that inhabit the plantation, both for the general 
and particular employments, may surcease their labour every Saturday throughout 
the year at 3 o'c. in the afternoon, and that they spend the rest of that day in chate- 
chizing and preparing for the Sabbath as the ministers shall direct.' They were 
equally desirous to have family order and religion kept up. On this subject they say : 
' For the better accommodation of business we have divided the servants belonging 
to the company into several families, as we desire and intend they should live together, 
a copy whereof we send you here enclosed, that you may accordingly appoint each 
man his charge and duty ; yet it is not our intent to tie you so strictly to this direction 


220 SALEM. 

but that in your discretion, as you shall see cause, from time to time, you may alter or 
displace any as you should think fit. Our earnest desire is that you take special care 
in settling these families, that the chief in the family (at least some of them) be 
grounded in religion, whereby morning and evening family duties may be duly per 
formed, and a watchful eye held over all in each family, by one or more in each fam- 
ily to be appointed hereto, that so disorders may be prevented and ill weeds nipt before 
they take too great a head.' * * * * * 

" In order to secure a primary object of their emigration, our fathers took measures 
for the regular establishment of the chlirch and ministry among them. July 20th 
was set apart by Mr. Endicott for choice of the pastor and teacher. Of the services 
on that interesting day, Mr. Charles Gott writes to Gov. Bradford of Plymouth. He 
thus expresses himself: ' The 20th of July, it pleased God to move the heart of our 
governor to set it apart for a solemn day of humiliation for the choice of a pastor and 
teacher ; the former part of the day being spent in praise and teaching ; the latter 
part was spent about the election, which was after this manner : The persons thought 
on were demanded concerning their callings. They acknowledged there was a two- 
fold calling, the one inward calling, when the Lord moved the heart of a man to take 
that calling upon him, and filled him with gifts for the same ; the second was from 
the people ; when a company of believers are joined together in covenant, to walk 
together in all the ways of God, every member is to have a free voice in the choice of 
their officers. These two servants clearing all things by their answers, we saw no 
reason but that we might freely give our voices for their election after this trial. 
Their choice was after this manner, every fit member wrote in a note his name 
whom the Lord moved him to think was fit for. a pastor, and so likewise whom they 
would have for a teacher ; so the most voice was for Mr. Skelton to be pastor and 
Mr. Higginson to be teacher ; and they accepting the choice, Mr. Higginson, with 
three or four more of the gravest members of the church, laid their hands on Mr. Skelton, 
using prayers therewith. This being done, then there was imposition of hands on Mr. 
Higginson. Then there was proceeding in election of elders and deacons ; but they 
were only named, and laying on of hands deferred, to see if it pleased God to send us 
more able men over ; but since Thursday is appointed for another solemn day of 
humiliation for the full choice of elders and deacons and ordaining them ; now, good 
Sir, I hope that you, and the rest of God's people with you, will say that here was a 
right foundation laid, and that these two blessed servants of the Lord came in at the 
door and not at the window.' When the 6th of August came the services in contem- 
plation were performed. A platform of church government, a confession of doctrines 
in general, and a covenant were adopted. The last was subscribed by thirty persons. 
To this number many of good report were soon added. One particular contained in 
their covenant was, that they would endeavor to be clear from being stumbling- 
blocks in the way of the Indians. The Plymouth church were invited to take part in 
the ordination, with the understanding that their counsel was to be nothing more than 
discretionary. Of their delegates was Gov. Bradford. He and his attendants were 
prevented by adverse winds from being here in the forenoon; but they arrived season- 
ably enough to present the right hand of fellowship. 

" It will be perceived, that there were two ministers placed over the congregation here 
instead of one. This custom seems not to have been fully complied with here in any 
other instance, excepting that in which Mr. Williams served for a short period with 
Mr. Skelton. It was a custom, however, so dear to some of the colony, they would 
not interrupt it, lest they should be chargeable with flagrant iniquity ; and those thus 
inclined succeeded to keep it alive over a century. Instead of being titled Reverend 
then and a considerable period afterwards, Congregational ministers were called Elders. 
The ruling elder selected for the church here was Mr. Henry Haughton. This office 
was considered an important one, and continued to be esteemed in the colonial 
churches till the middle of the last century. The duty of such officers was to preach 
occasionally in the absence or on the illness of the ministers, and also to assist in cases 
of church discipline. When preachers except their own served, they were in the habit 
of remarking, previously to their beginning ' If ye have any word of exhortation, 
say on.' " Felt's Annals of Salem. 

" For a time, Salem increased so slowly that Ipswich and Lynn 
were before it in importance; but in 14 or 15 years after the arri- 
val of Mr. Endicott, the fisheries had been commenced with suc- 
cess, and all other towns had been left behind in commercial enter- 
prise. The township in 1637 comprehended, together with its 


]>resent limits, Beverly, Danvers, Manchester, Marblehead, Middle- 
ton, a part of Lynn, Topsfield, and Wenham." The following 
description of Salem in 1639 is from Wood's New England Prospect. 

11 Salem stands on the middle of a necke of land very pleasantly, having a South 
river on the one side and a North river on the other side. Upon this necke where most 
of the homes stand, is very bad and sandie ground, yet for seaven years together it hath 
brought forth exceeding good corne,-by being fished, but every third year. In some 
places is very good ground and good timber, and divers springs hard by the sea side. 
There likewise is store of fish, as Basses, Eels, Lobsters, Clammes, &c. Although 
their land be none of the best, yet beyond these rivers is a very good soyle, where 
they have taken farms, and get their hay, and plant their corne ; there they crosse 
these rivers with small Cannowes, which were made, of whole pine trees, being about 
two foote and a halfe over, and twenty foote long. In these likewise they goe a fowl- 
ing, sometimes two leagues at sea. There be more cannowes in this, towne, than in 
all the whole Patent, every household having a water horse or two. This Town wants 
an Alewife river, which is a great inconvenience. It hath two good harbours, the one 
being called Winter and the other Summer harbours, which lieth within Derbins Fort, 
which place, if it were well fortified, might keepe shippes from landing forces in any 
of those two places." i 

During the spring and summer of 1692 occurred one of the most 
surprising and afflicting scenes ever witnessed in New England, 
from the supposed prevalence of witchcraft. This excitement 
commenced in Salem village, now Danvers, in the family of the 
Rev. Mr. Parris, the minister of that place. The town suffered 
greatly by the excitement ; a fourth part of the inhabitants left the 
place. Twenty persons were executed for witchcraft ; one of them, 
Giles Cory, refusing to put himself on trial, was pressed to death. 
About one hundred were accused, about fifty confessed themselves 
guilty, and about this number of other persons were afflicted. 
Those who confessed themselves guilty of this crime appear to 
have done it in order to save their lives, as they afterwards declared 
themselves innocent. Most of those who were executed exhibited a 
forcible example of the strength of moral principle ; rather than con- 
fess what they knew to be untrue, they nobly suffered death. Those 
who suffered were executed on a hill in the westerly part of the 
town, ever since known as Gallows Hill The house in which 
some of them were examined is the mansion standing in Essex 
street, upon the west corner of North street. Dr. Cotton Mather 
was a firm believer in the existence of witchcraft, and in his Mag- 
nolia gives quite a number of examples, which he says are well 
attested. The following, giving a general account of these occur- 
rences, is taken from that work, in his own words 

It is to be confessed and bewailed, that many inhabitants of New England, and 
young people especially, had been led away with little Sorceries, wherein they did 
secretly those things that were not right against the Lord their God : they would often 
cure hurts with spells and practice detestable conjurations with Sieves, and Keys, 
and Peas, and Nails, and Horse Shoes, to learn the things for which they had a for- 
bidden and impious curiosity. Wretched books had stolen into the land, wherein fooJs 
were instructed how to become able fortune tellers. 

Although these diabolical divinations are more ordinarily committed perhaps all 
over the world, than they are in the country of New England, yet that being a coun- 
try devoted unto the worship and service of the Lord Jesus Christ above the rest 
of the world, he signalized his vengeance against these wickednesses with such 
extraordinary dispensations as have not often seen in other places. 

The Devils which had been so played withall, and it may be by some few criminals 

222 SALEM. 

more explicitly engaged and employed, now broke m upon the country after as aston- 
ishing a manner as was ever heard of. Some scores of people, first about Salem, the 
centre and first born of all the towns in the Colony, and afterwards in other places, 
were arrested with many preternatural vexations upon their bodies, and a variety of 
cruel torments which were evidently from the Demons of the invisible world. The 
people that were infected and infested with such demons, in a few days time arrived 
unto such a refining alteration upon their Eyes that they could see their tormentors ; 
they saw a Devil of a little stature, and of a tawny colour, attended still with spectres 
that appeared in more human circumstances. 

The tormentors tendered unto the afflicted a book requiring them to sign it, or to 
touch it at least, in token of their consenting to be listed in the service of the Devil 
which they refusing to do, the Spectres under the command of that black man, as they 
called him, would apply themselves to torture them with prodigious molestations. 

The afflicted wretches were horribly distorted and convulsed ; they were pinched 
black and blue ; pins would be run every where in their flesh ; they would be scalded 
until they had blisters raised on them ; and a thousand other things, before hundreds 
of witnesses, were done unto them, evidently preternatural ; for if it were perternatu- 
ral to keep a rigid fast for nine, yea, for fifteen days together ; or if it were preternat- 
ural to have ones hands tied close together with a Rope to be plainly seen, and then 
by unseen hands presently pulled up a great way from the earth, before a crowd of 
people ; such preternatural things were endured by them. 

But of all the preternatural things which these people suffered, there were none 
more unaccountable than those wherein the prestigious Demons would ever now and 
then cover the most corporeal things in the world with a fascinating mist of invisibility. 
As now, a person was cruelly assaulted by a spectre, that she said came at her with a 
spindle, though nobody else in the room could see either the spectre or the spindle j at 
last, in her agonies, giving a snatch at the spectre, she pulled the spindle away ; and 
it was no sooner got into her hand, but the other folks then present beheld that it was 
indeed a real, proper, Iron spindle ; which when they locked up very safe, it was, 
nevertheless, by the demons taken away to do farther mischief. 

Again, a person was haunted by a most abusive spectre, which came to her, she 
said, with a sheet about her, though seen to none but herself. After she had under- 
gone a deal of teaze from the annoyance of the spectre, she gave a violent snatch at 
the sheet that was upon it ; wherefrom she tore a corner, which in her hand imme- 
diately was beheld by all that were present, a palpable corner of a sheet : and her 
Father, which was of her, catched, that he might see what his Daughter had so 
strangely seized ; but the spectre had like to have wrung his hand off, by endeavour- 
ing to wrest it from him ; however he still held it ; and several times this od accident 
was renewed in the family. There wanted not the oaths of good credible people to 
these particulars. 

Also it is known, that these wicked spectres did proceed so far as to steal several 
quantities of money from divers people, part of which individual money dropt some- 
times out of the air, before sufficient spectators, into the hands of the afflicted, while 
the spectres were urging them to subscribe their covenant with death. Moreover, 
poisons to the standersby wholly invisibly, were sometimes forced upon the afflicted ; 
which, when they have with much reluctancy swallowed, they have swoln presently, 
so that the common medicines for poisons have been found necessary to relieve them ; 
yea, sometimes the spectres in the struggles have so dropt the poisons, that the stand- 
ersby have smelt them and viewed them, and beheld the pillows of the miserable 
stained with them. Yet more, the miserable have complained bitterly of burning 
rags run into their forcibly distended mouths ; and though nobody could see any such 
cloths, or indeed any fires in the chambers, yet presently the scalds were seen plainly 
by every body on the mouths of the complaine r s, and not only the smell, but the 
smoke of the burning sensibly filled the chambers 

Once more the miserable exclaimed extremely of Branding Irons, heating at the 
fire on the hearth to mark them ; now the standersby could see no Irons, yet they 
could see distinctly the print of them in the ashes, and smell them too, as they were 
'arried by the not-seen furies unto the poor creatures for whom they were intended ; 
and those poor creatures were thereupon so stigmatized with them, that they will bear 
the marks of them to their dying day. Nor are these the tenth part of the prodigies 
that fell out among the inhabitants of New England. 

Flashy people may burlesque these things, but when hundreds of the most sober 

people, in a country where they have as much mother wit certainly as the rest of man 

know them to be true, nothing but the absurd and froward spirit of saducism 
can question them. I have not yet mentioned one thing that will be iustified, if it be 


SALEM. 223 

required, by the oaths of more considerate persons than can ridicule these od phe- 

But the worst part of this astonishing tragedy is yet behind ; wherein Sir "William 
Phips at last being dropt as it were from the machine of Heaven, was an instrument 
of easing the distresses of the land, now so darkened by the Lord of Hosts. There 
were very worthy men upon the spot where the assault from hel was first made, who 
apprehended themselves called from the God of Heaven, to sift the business unto the 
bottom of it ; and indeed, the continual impressions which the outcries and the havocks 
of the afflicted people that lived nigh unto them caused on their minds, gave no little 
edge to this apprehension. 

They did, in the first place, take it for granted, that there are witches, or wicked 
children of men, who upon covenanting with and commissioning of evil spirits, are 
attended by their ministry to accomplish the things desired of them : they had not only 
the assersions of the holy scriptures ; assersions which the witch advocates cannot 
evade without shifts too foolish for the prudent, or too profane for any honest man to 
use ; and they had not only well attested relations of the gravest authors, from Bodin 
to Bovet, and from Binsfield to Brombal and Baxter ; to deny all which, would be as 
reasonable as to turn the chronicles of all nations into romances of Don Quixot and 
the Seven Champions ; but they had also an occular demonstration in one, who a little 
before had been executed for witchcraft, when Joseph Dudley, Esqr. was the Chief 
Judge. There was one whose magical images were found, and who confessing her 
deeds, (when a Jury of Doctors returned her compos mentis,) actually showed the 
whole court by what ceremonies used unto them, she directed her familiar spirits how 
and where to cruciate the objects of her malice ; and the experiment being made over 
and over again before the whole court, the effect followed exactly in the hurts done to 
the people at a distance from her. The existence of such witches was now taken for 
granted by the good men, wherein so far the generality of reasonable men have thought 
they ran well ; and they soon received the confessions of some accused persons to 
confirm them in it ; but then they took one thing more for granted, wherein it is now 
as generally thought they went out of the way. The afflicted people vehemently 
accused several persons, in several places, that the spectres which afflicted them did 
exactly resemble them ; until the importunity of the accusations did provoke the Ma- 
gistrates to examine them. When many of the accused came upon their examination, 
it was found that the demons, then a thousand ways abusing of the poor afflicted peo- 
ple, had with a marvelous exactness represented them ; yea, it was found that many 
of the accused, but casting their Eye on the afflicted, though their faces were never 
so much another way, would fall down and lie in a sort of a swoon, wherein they 
would continue, whatever hands were laid upon them, until the hands of the accused 
came to touch them, and then they would revive immediately ; and it was found that 
various kinds of natural actions, done by many of the accused in or to their own 
bodies, as leaning, bending, turning awry, or squeezing their hands, or the like, were 
presently attended with the like things preternaturally done upon the bodies of the 
afflicted, though they were so far assunder that the afflicted could not at all observe the 

It was also found that the flesh of the afflicted was often bitten at such a rate, that 
not only the print of the teeth would be left on their flesh, but the very slaver of spittle 
too, even such as might be clearly distinguished from other peoples. And usually the 
afflicted went through a terrible deal of seeming difficulties from the tormenting spec- 
tres, and must be long waited on, before they could get a breathing space from their 
torments to give in their testimonies. 

Now many good men took up an opinion, that the providence of God would not per- 
mit an innocent person to come under such a spectral representation ; and that a con- 
currence of so many circumstances would prove an accused person to be in a confede- 
racy with the demons thus afflicting of the neighbors ; they judged, that except these 
things might amount unto a conviction, it would scarce be possible ever to convict a 
witch ; and they had some philosophical schemes of witchcraft, and of the method and 
manner wherein magical poisons operate, which further supported them in their 

Sundry of the accused persons were brought unto their trial, while this opinion was 
yet prevailing in the minds of the Judges and Juries, and perhaps the most of the 
people in the country, then mostly suffering ; and though some of them that were tried 
there came in so much other evidence of their diabolical compacts, that some of the 
most Judicious, and yet vehement opposers of the notions then in vogue, publicly 
declared, had they themselves been on the bench, they could not huve acquitted them : 
nevertheless, divers were condemned, against whom the chief evidence was founded 
in the spectral exhibitions. 

224 SALEM. 

And it happening, that some of the accused coming to confess themselves guilty, 
their shapes were no more seen by any of the afflicted, though the confession had 
-been kept never so secret, but instead thereof the accused themselves became in all 
vexations just like the afflicted ; and this yet more confirmed many in the opinion that 
Tiad been taken up 

And another thing that quickened them, yet more to act upon it, was, that the 
tifflicted were frequently entertained with apparitions of Ghosts, at the same time that 
-the spectres of the supposed witches troubled them : which Ghosts always cast the 
beholders into a far more consternation than any of the spectres ; and when they 
exhibited themselves, they cried out of being murdered by the witchcrafts, or other 
violences of the persons represented in the spectres once or twice the apparitions 
were seen by others at the very same time that they showed themselves to the afflicted ; 
and seldom were they seen at all, but when something unusual and suspicious had 
attended the death of the party thus appearing. 

The Dutch and French Ministers in the province of New York, having likewise 
'about this time their Judgment asked by the Chief Judge of that province, who was 
then a gentleman of New England, they gave it under their hands that if we believe 
no Venefick Witchcraft, we must renounce the Scripture of God, and the consent of 
almost all the world ; but that yet the apparition of a person afflicting another, is a 
very insufficient proof of a witch ; nor is it inconsistent with the holy and righteous 
government of God over men, to permit the affliction of the neighbors, by devils in 
the shape of good men ; and that a good name, obtained by a good life, should not be 
lost by mere spectral accusations. 

Now upon a deliberate review of these things, his Excellency first reprieved, and 
then pardoned many of them that had been condemned ; and there fell ouf several 
strange things that caused the spirit of the country to run as vehemently upon the 
acquitting of all the accused, as it by mistake ran at first upon the condemning of 

In fine, the last Courts that sate upon this thorny business, finding that it was impos- 
sible to penetrate into the whole meaning of the things that had happened, and that 
so many unsearchable cheats were interwoven into the conclusion of a mysterious 
business, which perhaps had not crept thereinto at the beginning of it, they cleared the 
accused as fast as they tried them ; and within a little while the afflicted were most of 
them delivered out of their troubles also ; and the land had peace restored unto it, by 
the God of peace, treading Satan under foot. 

Salem is situated in latitude 42 35' north, and in longitude 70 47' 
west. It is the chief and a shire town in Essex county, and from 
the early period of its history has been a place of importance. Its 
enterprising merchants were the first, in this country, to engage in 
the East India trade, which they have prosecuted with great energy 
and success. They have also taken an active part in the com- 
merce with the West Indies, South America, and Europe. Perhaps 
the greatest degree of the commercial prosperity of Salem was pre- 
vious to the war with Great Britain in 1812. Salem is built on a pe- 
ninsula formed by two inlets of the sea, called North and South 
rivers. The lower or eastern part of the peninsula is called the 
Neck, and has now but few houses upon it. The compact part of 
the town is about a mile and a half in length, and half a mile in 
breadth. The land on which it is built lies low and is nearly % 
level, scarcely any place being more than 20 or 24 feet above the 
surface of the water at high tide. The soil is generally light, dry, 
and sandy, and free from standing water. There are many islands 
in the harbor, most of them small and rocky. Winter Island lies 
on the north side of the entrance to the harbor, and contains 38 
acres. Fort Pickering is located on its eastern point. The light- 
houses are on Baker's Island, which contains 55 acres. 

The streets of the town run .somewhat irregularly. Essex street. 



the most noted, runs directly through the whole extent of the place r 
nearly east and west. The numerous streets are rilled with well- 
built houses, many of which are elegant, particularly some of 
those in the vicinity of the Common; a view of which, taken 

\Vtstern view of Washington Square, Salem. 

near the western entrance, is here given. This common is a beau- 
tiful plot of eight and a half acres, almost perfectly level, enclosed 
by a neat railing, bordered by a large number of elms, and tra- 
versed by gravel walks. The " East India Marine Society" was 
incorporated in 1801. It has a spacious hall, in which is collected 
a great variety of natural and artificial curiosities, collected from 
almost every part of the world. There are in Salem 16 churches: 
S Congregational, 4 of which are Unitarian, 2 Baptist, 1 Episcopal, 
1 Friends. 1 Christian, 1 Universalist, 1 Catholic, 1 Methodist; 
besides these there is a Seamen's Bethel. There are eight banks r 
whose united capitals amount to $1,850,000. There are six insur- 
ance companies, the capital of which is nearly a million of dollars, 
Six newspapers are published, 3 weekly and 3 twice a week. 
The Salem Laboratory was incorporated in 1819, and has a capi- 
tal of $150,000. At this establishment are manufactured great 
quantities of aquafortis, muriatic acid or spirits of salt, oil of vitriol, 
and alum. Of this last from 800,000 to one million pounds are 
made annually. About 300,000 pounds of saltpetre are also refined 
annually. There are two white lead manufacturing establishments 
in South Salem, at which much business is done. To one of them 
is attached an India rubber factory. The tonnage of the district 
of Salem, which includes Beverly, is 34,906 tons. There are 30 
ships, 12 barks, 70 brigs, 124 schooners, and 14 sloops. The popu- 
lation of Salem in 1800 was 9,457; in 1810, 12,613; in 1820 7 
12,731: in 1830, 13,886; in 1837, 14,985. 

The first Congregational church in Salem was organized Aug. 6, 
1629, O. S., and is stated to be the first Protestant church formed in 



Francis Higginson, 
Samuel Skelton, 
Roger Williams, 
Hugh Peters, 
Edward Norris, 


John Higginson, 
Nicholas Noyes, 
George Curwen, 
Samuel Fiske, 
John Sparhawk, 


the new world* The brethren at Plymouth belonged to a church 
which remained at Leyden, and are supposed not to have estab- 
lished themselves as a distinct church until after the formation 
of this at Salem. The following is a list of the pastors of this 
church, and year in which they were settled. 

Thomas Barnard, 1755. 

Asa Dunbar, 1772. 

John Prince, 1779. 

Charles W. Upham, 1824. 

Roger Williams and Hugh Peters, whose names are in the above list, were both dis- 
tinguished men. Mr. Williams was banished from the settlements on account of cer- 
tain opinions which were deemed heretical. He retired into the wilderness, among 
savages, to a place which he named Providence, and became the founder of Rhode 
Island. Peters was a man of strong powers of mind. He did not confine his atten- 
tion to the ministry, but entered with zeal into the political affairs of the nation. He 
went to England about the period of the civil wars, and supported the cause of the 
parliament by his preaching. After the restoration of monarchy in England, he was 
executed as a regicide, in 1660, aged sixty-one years. 

Hon. Nathaniel Bowditch, LL. D., F. R. S., one of the most 
celebrated mathematicians of the age, was a native of this town. 
He was born March 26th, 1773. His ancestors for three genera- 
tions had been ship-masters, and his father on retiring from that 
business " carried on the trade of a cooper, by which he gained a 
scanty and precarious subsistence for a family of seven children." 

The early residence of Dr. Borvditch. 

The above is a representation of the house, in Danvers, in which 
Dr. Bowditch lived with his mother when a child, when his father 
was far off upon the sea. She used to sit at the chamber window 
and " show him the new moon." The advantages of a school he 
was obliged to forego at the early age of ten years, that he might go 
into his father's shop and help support the family. He was soon, 
however, apprenticed to a ship-chandler, in whose shop he conti- 
nued until he went to sea, first as a clerk, then as supercargo, and 
finally as master and supercargo jointly. Whilst he was in the ship- 
chandler's shop, he manifested that genius for mathematical pur- 
suits, for which he afterwards became so distinguished. In 1823 
he removed to Boston, where he continued to reside till his death, 

* Newhall's Essex Memorial, 1836. 


on the 16th of March, 1838. The following resolves on the occa- 
sion of his death, will serve to show the estimation in which Dr. 
Bowditch was held. 

At a special meeting of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, held March 
20th, 1838, the following resolves were presented by his excellency Edward Everett, 
and adopted unanimously by the Fellows of the Academy : 

Resolved, That the Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences entertain 
the liveliest sense of the exalted talents and extraordinary attainments of their late presi- 
dent, who stood pre-eminent among the men of science' in the United States, and who, 
by universal consent, has long been regarded as one of the most distinguished mathe- 
maticians and astronomers of the age ; that we consider his reputation as one of the 
most precious treasures of our common country; that we deeply deplore his loss in the 
fullness of his intellectual power ; and that we esteem it our sacred duty to cherish his 

Resolved. That in addition to the loss which they have sustained, as members of 
this scientific body, in being deprived of their distinguished associate and head, whose 
name has for many years conferred honor on their institution, and whose communica- 
tions are among the most valuable contents of the volumes of the Academy's Memoirs, 
the Fellows of the Academy, as members of the community, lament the loss of a 
friend and fellow-citizen, whose services were of the highest value in the active walks 
of life ; whose entire influence was given to the cause of good principles ; whose 
life was a uniform exhibition of the loftiest virtues ; and who, with a firmness and 
energy which nothing could shake or subdue, devoted himself to the most arduous 
and important duties, and made the profoundest researches of science subservient to 
the practical business of life. 

" The connection of the deceased with the Boston Athenaeum was so beneficial to this 
institution, that the trustees are urged alike by official duty and by private feeling to 
express their sense of his loss. This institution is deeply indebted to the late Dr. 
Bowditch for the zeal with which he labored to advance its interests. Finding it weak, 
he determined, in connection -with several other public-spirited individuals, to make it 
prosper. Their appeals to the munificence of our wealthy citizens were successful, and 
the resources of the Athenaeum were greatly increased. For several years Dr. Bow- 
ditch, continuing a member of this Board, aided in the application of the funds which 
he had done so much to procure, and the high rank which the scientific portion of our 
library enjoys among similar institutions in the United States, is in a great measure 
owing to his judgment and exertions. 

" But Dr. Bowditch has far higher claims to notice. He stood at the head of the scien- 
tific men of this country, and no man living has contributed more to his country's 
reputation. His fame is of the most durable kind, resting on the union of the highest 
genius with the most practical talent, and the application of both to the good of his 
fellow-men. Every American ship crosses the ocean more safely for his labors, and 
the most eminent mathematicians of Europe have acknowledged him their equal in 
the highest walks of their science. His last great work ranks with the noblest pro- 
ductions of our age." Extract from the Records of the Boston Athenceum. 

The following is from a granite monument in this place. 

Beneath this monument are deposited the remains of TIMOTHY & REBECCA PICK- 
ERING. He was an r,ssertor of the rights of the North American Colonies, a soldier in 
the War for their Independence, a Statesman in the cabinet of Washington. Integrity, 
disinterestedness, energy, ability, fearlessness in the cause of Truth and Justice, 
marked his public conduct : pure in morals, simple in manners, sincere, benevolent, 
and pious in private life, he was revered and honored. She, during a life of extraor- 
dinary vicissitude, was distinguished by fortitude, resignation, discretion, maternal 
affection ; in the words of her bereaved husband, " A spirit more gentle, more inno- 
cent, more pure, never perhaps appeared in the female form." He was born July 17th, 
1745, and she on the 18th of the same month, 1754 : she died August 14th, 1828, he 
January 29th, 1829. 


SALISBURY is the oldest town in Massachusetts on the north 
bank of the Merrimac, it being incorporated in 1640. The Rev. 


John Wheelwright, the brother of the famous Mrs. Hutchinsoii, and 
founder of Exeter, N. H., was minister here some time, and died 
here in 1679, at a very advanced age. He embraced Mrs. Hutch- 
inson's antinomian sentiments, and on this account was banished 
from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts ; he was, however, restored 
afterwards on confession. Several sessions of the general court 
have been held here ; an important sitting was had in 1737, for the 
purpose of settling the boundary between New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts ; the legislature of New Hampshire sitting at Hamp- 
ton, the adjoining town, at the same time. 

The first church in this town was formed in 1638; the first pas- 
tor was Rev. William Worcester, who came from Salisbury in 
England, and was settled at the organization of the church. He 
died in 1662, and was succeeded by Rev. John Wheelwright, of 
whom some mention has been made. The third pastor was Rev. 
John Ailing, who settled here in 1687, and died 1696 ; he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Caleb Gushing, in 1698. The fifth pastor was Rev. 
Edmund Noyes, who settled here in 1751, and died 1809. The 
second Congregational church was founded in 1718. The first 
Baptist society was founded in 1779; the Methodist in 1805; the 
Christian in 1820; the Universalist in 1831; the Congregational 
Evangelical Union in 1835; and the Salisbury and Amesbury 
Mills Christian Union Society in 1833. 

Salisbury is a flourishing town, and most of the soil is good. 
The town is bordered on the river opposite Newburyport by a salt 
marsh, one mile and a half in extent : beyond that the ground rises 
and is gently uneven ; it grows narrower farther up the river. 
On the sea-shore is a beach of yellow sand, over which in high 
tides the sea sometimes rushes to a great extent. There are three 
villages in the township one opposite Newburyport; another, 
called the Point, at the mouth of Powow river, where formerly 
much ship-building was carried on ; the other forms part of the 
Mills village. (See Amesbury.) 

In the limits of the town there were in 1837 1 cotton mill, 2 
woollen mills, with 20 sets of machinery ; 850,000 yards of cloth 
were manufactured, the value of which was $275,000 ; males em- 
ployed, 200; females, 100. Shoes manufactured, 65,500 pairs, 
valued at $40.800 ; males employed, 87 ; females, 48. Nine ves- 
sels were employed in the cod and mackerel fishery ; hands 
employed. 45. In five years preceding 1837, there were 47 vessels 
built ; tonnage, 3,975 ; valued at $89,644 ; hands employed in ship- 
building, 81. The continental frigate Alliance was built here 
during the Revolution. Population, 2,675. Distance, 35 miles 
N. E. from Boston. 

A tornado which took place in this vicinity, on the 1st of 
August, 1773, is thus described in a publication of that period : 

The tornado took its course from the east, first struck Salisbury Point, and, following 
the course of the Merrimac river, spread havoc before it for the space of a mile in 
width, extending to Haverhill. The devastation was almost beyond conception or 
description. Almost every house and building from Salisbury Point to a quarter of a 
mile above Amesbury ferry, was levelled with the ground, uprooted, or otherwise dam 

s A u G u s . 229 

aged. A Capt. Smith, who belonged to Beverly, was sitting in a sail-maker's loft, at 
Amesbury, when the storm commenced, and in a moment h? and the whole build- 
ing were carried away together, the building rent to pieces and dispersed. Capt. 
Smith was found lying senseless ninety-four feet from the sill of the loft he was car- 
ried from ; one of his legs was broken, and he was otherwise bruised. A large white 
oak post, fourteen feet in length, and twelve by ten inches, was transported one hun- 
dred and thirty -eight feet. Two vessels of ninety tons, building in Amesbury, were 
lifted from the blocks, and carried sidewise through the air twenty-two feet. A large 
bundle of shingles was taken from the ground, and thrown three hundred and thirty 
feet, in an opposite direction to that of the post above mentioned, and at right angles 
to the course the vessels were carried. Large trees were torn up by the roots and cast 
into the river. Large oak planks were hurled, with the velocity of cannon balls, 
through the roofs of houses ; and, in fine, daring the hurricane, which lasted a few 
minutes only, the air was filled with every thing that could be moved, whirling with 
the most surprising rapidity through the air, and surrounding the affrighted inhabi- 
tants, some of whom were taken up by the winds, carried a considerable way, and let 
down safe ; others were buried in their cellars, but were dug out without receiving 
any hurt. About one hundred and fifty buildings fell. 

In Haverhill, the inhabitants fled in consternation from one large dwelling-house, 
which was blown down, and thought to save themselves in a barn, which was almost 
new, and filled with about thirty tons of hay ; but the barn was entirely blown to 
pieces, in another moment, and some parts of it carried to the distance of three miles. 

This tempest was preceded by heavy rain and gross darkness ; and it appeared 
first on the Merrimac river, which was in the utmost tumult, rolling upon the banks, 
and threatening to swallow up the affrighted inhabitants. 


THIS town formed the west parish of Lynn till 1815, when it 
was incorporated as a distinct town, and received the name of 
Saugus, the Indian name of Lynn. The first, church (the third 
of Lynn) was founded here in 1736, and Rev. Edward Cheever 
was settled here in 1739; the Rev. Joseph Roby in 1752; Rev. 
William Frothingham in 1804; Rev. Joseph Emerson in 1821; 
Rev. Ephraim Randall in 1826 ; and Rev. Sidney Holman in 1833, 
The Methodist society was organized in 1810 ; there is also a society 
of Universalists in this town. 

This town is centrally intersected by Saugus river, which winds 
its way through its whole length, with numerous bends. On the 
banks of the river are meadows and marsh lands, and the salt 
marshes near the sea are very extensive. The greater part of the 
rest of the township is rough and uneven, and to a considerable 
extent covered with wood. The land upon the river is generally 
good, well cultivated, and productive. In 1837, there were manu- 
factured in this town 190.326 pairs of shoes, the value of which 
was $149,847; males employed, 269; females, 114. Snuff and 
cigars were manufactured to the value of $27,473, and 2 persons 
were employed in the manufacture. There is also a woollen fac- 
tory and dying establishment. Population, 1,123. Distance, 3 
miles from Lynn, 10 from Salem, and 9 from Boston. 

An iron mine was discovered at an early period on the west bank 
of the Saugus, and as early as 1645 iron works were established by 
a company in England. The village at the foundry was called Ham- 
mersmithby some of the workmen, who came from a place of that 
name in England. Iron was manufactured here for more than one 


hundred years, but seldom in large quantities. Heaps of scoria or 
cinder banks are still to be seen near where the works stood. 

In 1658 there was a great earthquake in New England, con- 
nected with which is the following story, which is taken from Mr. 
Lewis' History of Lynn. 

Some time previous, on one pleasant evening, a little after sunset, a small vessel 
was seen to anchor near the mouth of Saugus river. A boat was presently lowered 
from her side, into which four men descended, and moved up the river a considerable 
distance, when they landed, and proceeded directly into the woods. They had been 
noticed by only a few individuals ; but in those early times, when the people were 
surrounded by danger, and easily susceptible of alarm, such an incident was well cal- 
culated to awaken suspicion, and in the course of the evening the intelligence was 
conveyed to many houses. In the morning, the people naturally directed their eyes 
toward the shore, in search of the strange vessel but she was gone, and no trace 
could be found either of her or her singular crew. It was afterwards ascertained that, 
on that morning, one of the men at the iron works, on going into the foundry, dis- 
covered a paper, on which was written, that if a quantity of shackles, handcuffs, 
hatchets, and other articles of iron manufacture, were made and deposited, with 
secrecy, in a certain place in the woods, which was particularly designated, an amount 
of silver, to their full value, would be found in their place. The articles were made in 
a few days, and placed in conformity with the directions. On the next morning they 
were gone, and the money was found according to the promise ; but though a watch 
had been kept, no vessel was seen. Some months afterward, the four men returned, 
and selected one of the most secluded and romantic spots in the woods of Saugus, for 
their abode. The place of their retreat was a deep narrow valley, shut in on two 
sides by high hills and craggy precipitous rocks, and shrouded on the others by thick 
pines, hemlocks, and cedars, between which there was only one small spot to which the 
rays of the sun at noon could penetrate. On climbing up the rude and almost perpen- 
dicular steps of the rock on the eastern side, the eye could command a full view 
of the bay on the south, and a prospect of a considerable portion of the surrounding 
country. The place of their retreat has ever since been called the Pirates' Glen, and 
they could not have selected a spot on the coast for many miles, more favorable for the 
purposes both of concealment and observation. Even at this day, when the neighbor- 
hood has become thickly peopled, it is still a lonely and desolate place, and probably 
not one in a hundred of the inhabitants has ever descended into its silent and gloomy 
recess. There the pirates built a small hut, made a garden, and dug a well, the 
appearance of which is still visible. It has been supposed that they buried money; 
but though people have dug there, and in several other places, none has ever been 
found. After residing there some time, their retreat became known, and one of the 
king's cruisers appeared on the coast. They were traced to their glen, and three of 
them were taken and carried to England, where it is probable they were executed. 
The other, whose name was Thomas Veal, escaped to a rock in the woods, about two 
miles to the north, in which was a spacious cavern, where the pirates had previously 
deposited some of their plunder. There the fugitive fixed his residence, and practised the 
trade of a shoemaker, occasionally coming down to the village to obtain articles of suste- 
nance. He continued his residence till the great earthquake this year, when the top 
of the rock was loosened, and crushed down into the mouth of the cavern, enclosing the 
unfortunate inmate in its unyielding prison. It has ever since been called the Pirate's 
))ungeon. A part of the cavern is still open, and is much visited by the curious. 


THIS town was at the time of its settlement called Neiv Meadows. 
It was settled about 1639, but was not incorporated till 1650, 
The first settlers were from Salem and Ipswich. The names of 
some of the principal inhabitants were Bradstreet, Clark, Cum- 
mings, Smith, Town, Wildes, and Easty. Mr. Knight and Mr. 
Wm. Perkins were preachers here before the formation of a church. 

W E N H A M . 23 1 

Mr. Perkins died in 1682. A church was formed and Rev. 
Thomas Gilbert was ordained in 1663; he was dismissed in 1671, 
and succeeded by Rev. Jeremiah Hobart the next year. Mr. Ho- 
bart was dismissed in 1680. Rev. Joseph Capen, his successor, 
was ordained in 1684. Rev. John Emerson, the next pastor, was 
ordained in 1728, and died in 1774. Rev. Daniel Breck, his suc- 
cessor, was ordained in 1779, and dismissed in 1788. Rev. Asa- 
hel Huntington was the next minister, in 1789, and died in 1813. 
Rev. Rodney G. Dennis was ordained in 1820. The Methodist 
society in this place was formed in 1830. 

The surface of the township is uneven, and there are some hills 
of considerable elevation. The plain on which the church stands, 
and the sides of the hills around it, present a pleasant prospect. 
There are some handsome buildings and an academy in the place. 
Newburyport turnpike passes a short distance from the meeting- 
house. Population, 1,049. Distance, 9 miles from Salem, 13 from 
Haverhill, and 21 from Boston. In 1837, there were 900 pairs of 
boots and 124,396 pairs of shoes manufactured in this town ; 272 
males and 269 females were employed in this business. The value 
of boots and shoes manufactured was estimated at $98,676. 


THE first regular settlement in this town appears to have been 
made about the year 1639. It was then called Enon, and was 
within the limits of Salem. It was incorporated a town in 1643. 
The first sermon ever preached iu the town was by the celebrated 
Hugh Peters, then minister of Salem, about the year 1636. It 
was on a small conical hill, on the bank of the pond, and the text 
was, " At jEnon, near Salem, because there ivas much water there" 
The first church was gathered here in 1644, and the first pastor 
Rev. John Fisk. In 1656, he removed with a large part of his 
church to Chelmsford, and commenced the settlement of that 
town. The following is a list of the succeeding pastors of this 
church, with the year of their settlement : Antipas Newman, set- 
tled in 1663 ; Joseph Gerrish, in 1675 ; Robert Ward, in 1712 ; John 
Warren, in 1733 ; Joseph Swain, in 1750 ; Adonijah Judson, in 
1792 ; Rufus Anderson, in 1805 ; John Smith, in 1817 ; Ebenezer 
P. Sperry, in 1820. A Baptist church was formed in 1831. 

There is no compact settlement in this town, the inhabitants 
being mostly farmers, and live scattered about on their farms. 
The surface of the land is generally level, and the soil good. The 
township is about six miles in length, and but a little more than 
one in breadth. Wenham pond is considered to be one of the 
most beautiful sheets of water in the county ; it is large, and pre- 
sents an uncommonly romantic appearance ; about one third of it 
lies within the bounds of Beverly. Wenham swamp, so called, 
lies in the north-western section of the township, and extends into 
Hamilton. The Manchester woods extend over a considerable 


part of the eastern end of this town. Population, 698. Distance, 
6 miles from Salem, and 21 from Boston. 

In the journal of John Duntan, a gentleman who travelled in this country in 1686, 
this town is thus noticed : "Wenham is a delicious paradise; it abounds with rural 
pleasures, and I would choose it above all other towns in America to dwell in. The 
lofty trees on each side of it are a sufficient shelter for the winds, and the warm sun so 
kindly ripens both the fruits and flowers, as if the, spring, the summer and the autumn 
had agreed together to thrust winter out of doors." The same writer, speaking of 
Joseph Gerrish, the minister, says " 'T were endless to enter on a detail of each 
faculty of learning Mr. Gerrish is master of, and therefore take his character in short 
hand. The philosopher, is acute, ingenious and subtle. The divine, curious, orthodox 
and profound. The man, of a majestic air, without austerity or sourness ; his aspect 
is masterly, yet not imperious or naughty. The Christian, is devout, without morose- 
ness or starts of holy frenzy and enthusiasm. The preacher, is primitive, without the 
occasional colors of whining or cant ; and methodical, without intricacy or affectation j 
and, which crowns his character, he is a man of public spirit, zealous for the conver- 
sion of the Indians, and of great hospitality to strangers. He gave us a noble dinner, 
and entertained us with such pleasant fruits as I must own Old England is a stran- 


THIS town was settled at an early period, and was within the 
limits of Newbury. It was incorporated as a distinct town in 1819. 
The first church in this town was the second of Newbury. The 
first pastor was Rev. Samuel Belcher, who was settled here in 
1698. The succession of ministers in this church is as follows : 
John Tufts, settled here in 1714; Thomas Barnard, in 1739; 
Moses Hale, in 1752; True Kimball, in 1782; Samuel Tomb, in 
1798; Ebenezer Hubbard, in 1809; Gilbert T. Williams, in 1814; 
Henry C. Wright, in 1826 ; Benjamin Ober, in 1834. The sec- 
ond Congregational church (the fourth of Newbury) was formed 
in 1731. Rev. William Johnson was the first pastor, settled in 
1731; David Tappan, in 1774; Leonard Woods, in 1798; John 
Kirby, in 1816 ; Elijah Demond, in 1821 ; Paul Couch, in 1827. 
The Friends have a meeting-house in this town. 

The town occupies an elevated situation on the south bank of 
the Merrimac. The soil is excellent, and grain and hay are pro- 
duced in great quantities. The butter and cheese made in this 
town are held in high estimation. Fruit is also produced in abun- 
dance. The town is connected with Rocks village, Haverhill, by 
an excellent bridge over the Merrimac, one thousand feet in length. 
This bridge was built in 1828 ; the one previous was erected in 
1796, but was swept away in the great freshet of 1818. From 
the elevated grounds in this town many fine prospects of the sur- 
rounding scenery are obtained. Population, 1,448. Distance, 6 
miles from Newburyport, 20 from Lowell, and 34 from Boston. 

A. S H F 1 E L D . 233 


FRANKLIN COUNTY was originally the north part of Hampshire 
county: it was incorporated as a distinct county in 1811. Con- 
necticut river passes centrally through the county from north to 
south, and Deerfield river passes from west to east centrally 
through the western, and Miller's river from east to west through 
the eastern part of the county. Pew tracts of country exceed this 
for the extent and value of its water powers. The great body of 
the people are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The fine grazing 
lands found upon the verdant hills and fertile valleys, enable the 
farmers in this section to raise large droves of fat cattle for market. 
The manufacturing interests have received considerable attention 
of late years, and are increasing in value and importance. The 
following is a list of the towns, which are 26 in number. 

Ashfield, Erving, Monroe, Shutesbury, 

Bernardston, Gill, Montague, Sunderland, 

Buckland, Greenfield, New Salem, Warwick, 

Charlemont, Hawley, Northfield Wendall, 

Coleraine, Heath, Orange, Whately. 

Con way, Leverett, Rowe, 

Deerfield, Leyden, Shelburne, 

In 1820, the population of this county was 29,268 ; in 1830, it 
was 29,344; in 1837, it was 28,655. 


THE territory comprising this town was granted to Capt. Ephraim 
Hunt, of Weymouth, as a compensation for services rendered in 
the Canada expedition of 1690. It was actually conveyed to his 
heirs forty-six years afterwards, and was settled by a few families 
in 1742. It was incorporated as a town in 1764 ; previous to that 
time it went by the name of Huntstown, from the name of its ori- 
ginal proprietor. Richard Ellis, a native of Ireland, was the first 
permanent settler ; Thomas Phillips, with his family, from Easton. 
was the next ; Chileab Smith, from South Hadley, was the third 
settler. These persons all settled in the north-eastern part of the 
town. Mr. Chileab Smith settled on the farm now owned and oc- 
cupied by his son Chileab, who is 96 years of age, and in good 
health at this time, (1837.) 

The first regular church formed in this town was of the Baptist 
denomination. It was constituted in July, 1761, and consisted of 
nine members. In the following August the Rev. Ebenezer Smith, 
the eldest son of Chileab Smith, was ordained its pastor. He was 
succeeded in 1798 by elder Enos Smith, who deceased about two 
years since. The Congregational church in this town was formed 
by an ecclesiastical council, Feb. 22d, 1763, and Rev. Jacob Sher- 


win ordained its pastor the same year. Rev. Nehemiah Porter 
succeeded him in 1774, and died Feb. 29th, 1820, aged 99 years 
and 11 months. Rev. Alvan Sanderson was ordained colleague 
pastor in 1808. Rev. Thomas Shepherd succeeded Mr. Sanderson 
in 1819. Rev. Mason Grosvenor, the next pastor, was installed 
1833; he was succeeded by Rev. Burr Baldwin, in 1836. In 
1820 an Episcopal society was formed in this town, and they have 
a handsome church in the center of the place. There is also a 
small society of Methodists. 

Ashfield is a little over six miles square. The face of the town- 
ship is uneven and hilly, better adapted for grazing than tillage. 
There is, however, much good tillage land interspersed among the 
hills. The principal productions are com, potatoes, oats, and of 
late wheat. Some of the farmers have large dairies. In 1837, 
there were in this town 8,021 merino sheep, which produced 
24,063 Ibs. of wool. There are four churches, 2 for Baptists, 1 
Congregational, and 1 Episcopal. The central village consists 
of about twenty dwelling-houses, an Episcopal church, an aca- 
demy, and a number of mercantile stores. Distance, 18 miles from 
Greenfield, 18 from Northampton, and 105 to Boston. Population 
of the town, 1,656. 


IN 1735, the general assembly of the province of Massachusetts Bay 
granted a. tract of land six miles square, north of Greenfield, inclu- 
ding the present towns of Bernardston and Leyden, and a part 
of Coleraine, to the officers and soldiers who were in the Fall Fight, 
an account of which may be found under the head of Gill. In 
consideration of the services and sufferings of these men, the tract 
above mentioned was granted to them or their descendants 59 
years after the battle. From the fact that this battle took place at 
the Falls, the town took the name of Fall Town, which it was 
called for nearly 20 years. The first meeting of the owners of this 
tract of country was held at Northampton, in January, 1736, the 
next month after it was granted by the legislature. The proprie- 
tors were 97 ; among the names of these were the following : Ather- 
ton, Field, Hitchcock, Cook, Chamberlain, Alexander, Chapin, 
Connable, Dickinson, Edwards, Hoit, Lyman, Munn, Hunt, Smith, 
Wright, Pomeroy, Pratt, Rogers, Sikes, Smead, Scott, Wells. 
The town was first settled in 1738. The four first houses that 
were built in town were Major Burk's, Mr. Samuel Connable's, 
Lieut. Ebenezer Sheldon's, and Dea. Sheldon's. Major Burk's 
house was situated a little north of the present bark-house ; Mr. S. 
Connable's stood near the house now occupied by Mr. Joseph Con- 
nable ; Lieut. E. Sheldon's house was situated a little west of Mr. 
Hatsell Purple's late residence; and Dea. Sheldon's stood near 
Mr Seorin Slate's, on Huckle Hill. 


These houses, or forts, as they were called, were built of hewn logs, and served the 
double purpose of houses to live in, and a defence against the sudden, and often fatal, 
attacks of the Indians. They were built with port-holes through the sides, through 
which those within could fire, with elevated stands for a watch, where they could better 
see the approach of the enemy, and give the alarm. These houses were occupied by 
those by whose name they were called, and the occupants were among the first settlers 
in this town. At a proprietors' meeting held in Deerfield, in June, 1739, it was voted 
that a meeting-house should be built, 59 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 23 feet between 
joists. This house was built in two years after the first settlement of the town. It 
was situated on Huckle Hill, and was the first meeting-house built in Fall Town. In Oct. 
1740, it was voted that there be 20 paid^out for the support of preaching. And at an 
adjourned meeting it was voted that a committee be chosen to cut the brush and burn them 
ten rods round the meeting-house. Rev. John Norton, from Windham, Con., the first minister, 
was ordained in 1741, and was dismissed, on account of the unsettled state of the times, in 
1745. In the first French war, he acted for a season as chaplain at the fort which was 
kept at Hoosic, near Adams. He was there at the time that fort was surprised and 
taken by a party of French and Indians, whence he was carried captive into Canada. 
After his release, he was installed a pastor in Chatham, Con. From 1750 to 1761 there 
was no ordained preacher in Fall Town. The Rev. Job Wright, the next minister, 
was settled in 1761. About 1755, commenced the French and Indian war, in which 
the settlers in the town suffered severely ; while it continued, the people lived mostly 
in Burk's fort. Every man that was capable, bore arms, and, in some cases, females 
were under the necessity of bearing arms to defend their dwellings from the attacks of 
a barbarous enemy. When the men went into the fields, they took their arms with 
them, and constantly had some one on guard. Agriculture and education were but 
little attended to. The Indians were almost constantly lurking in the woods, which 
kept them in a perpetual state of danger and alarm. 

Fall Town was incorporated into a township in 1762, by the name 
of Bernardston, after Governor Bernard, the provincial governor of 
Massachusetts. The first selectmen were Messrs. John Burk, Re- 
memberence Sheldon and Moses Scott. During the Revolutionary 
war the inhabitants of Bernardston furnished their full quota of men 
and means during the continuance of the struggle, and made many 
sacrifices for the American cause. In Jan. 1782, a vote was passed 
"that those persons who are professed Baptists, and have attended 
that particular form of worship, shall be free from the minister tax;" 
this appears to be the first account of the Baptist society in this town. 
The Rev. AmasaCook, the third settled minister in this town, was or- 
dained in Dec. 1783. In 1790, the first census was taken by Mr. David 
Saxton, of Deerfield, by order of the general government. The 
population of the town at that period was 691, being divided into 
108 families. In 1789 the Baptist society was organized, and in 
1790 their first meeting-house was built, and the same year Elder 
Hodge was ordained, and continued here about ten years. He 
was succeeded by Elder Rogers and Elder Green. The present 
Baptist meeting-house was built in 1817. In 1821 the Universal- 
ist society was organized, and their meeting-house was built in 
1823, and the same year Dr. Brooks was ordained as minister. The 
first Orthodox Congregational society was organized in 1823. 

The following is a representation of the public buildings and 
Cushman's tavern, in the central part of the village, as they appear 
when passing through to the northward. The Universalist church 
is the one-story building with four windows, on the western side ; 
Cushman's tavern appears on the left. The distance between this 
tavern and the Universalist church is about 35 rods. In the engra- 

B E K N A R D S T O N . 

South-west view of Bernardston, (central part.) 

ving this distance is contracted, and some buildings are left out, in 
order to show Mr. Cushman's house, long known as an excellent 
tavern stand, and, with the elms standing south, is a very striking 
feature in the appearance of this village. Within the distance of 
half a mile from this place there are upwards of fifty dwelling- 
houses, which, though mostly small, are neat in their general ap- 
pearance. Distance, 7 miles from Greenfield, 13 from Brattleboro', 
Vt, and 96 from Boston. Agriculture is the principal business of 
the inhabitants. Population, 878. 

The following is a letter of Maj. John Burk, (one of the prin- 
cipal men of Bernardston,) to his wife, giving an account of 
the battle of Lake George. For this, and the journal of Maj. 
Burk, together with the materials for the preceding historical 
sketch, the author is indebted to the politeness of Henry W. 
Cushman, Esq., of Bernardston. 

Lake Sacrament, now catted Lake George, Sept. 11, 1755. 

DEAU WIFE : T wrote to you yesterday, but was not allowed to say any more than that 
I was well, and that we have had a battle, &c. The particulars of the engagement I 
now send you by Capt. Wyman. On the 7th inst., our Indians discovered the track of a 
large body of the enemy east of us. On the 8th, Col. Williams, with a detachment 1000 
strong, marched in pursuit, or to make discovery. They marched in the road 3 miles 
south, and being discovered by the enemy,,(as we are told by the French general who is 
taken by us,) were waylaid by 1800 French and Indians. The French lay on one side 
the road on rising ground ; the Indians on the other side, in a swamp. Part of the 
French were regular troops ; these lay south. Their scheme was to let our men march 
quite to the south end of the ambush, the regular troops to give the first fire, then all 
to fire and rash on ; which if they had done, they would have cut our men all to pieces. 
But the general says that a heady Indian, who was very eager, fired as soon as they 
entered the ambush. Then the enemy pursued and fired briskly, and, having the ad- 
vantage of the ground, obliged our men to retreat, which, the French general says, they 
did very regularly. We at the camp heard the guns ; were not suffered to go out, but to 
make ready to receive the enemy, lest they should rout us and take our baggage, for 
we knew they retreated by the guns, (viz. our men.) The enemy drove on very furi- 
ously, but while they were coming we placed our cannon, felled trees and rolled logs to 
make a breast-work all round the camp, but it was a poor defence. The regulars 
marched along the road, 6 deep, till they got near our camps ; then all fired upon us, 


and we upon them with cannon and small arms. They made a very smart push, but 
we stood firm, and I believe there was never such firing before, and had not our can- 
non broke their regulars and affrighted their Indians, they might, perhaps, destroyed 
more of us, if not taken the camps. The battle began between 10 and 11 ; continued 
till between 5 and 6 afternoon, at which time we were so hot upon them, that they be- 
gan to draw off. Our men pursued some way ; we were so fast upon them that they 
left their dead and wounded on the spot. The enemy all drew off to where they arn- 
bushed our men at the first. While we were engaged, the people at the other fort, 
at the carrying place, heard our great guns, and sent 200 New Hampshire and N. York 
men to relieve us. These met the enemy stripping our dead, engaged them smartly, 
drove them off the ground. They fought 3 hours, took 2 prisoners and 2 scalps. We 
have taken about 25 prisoners in all. One is the general of all the French forces in 
North America. Another officer, called aid-de-camp, who was stunned by a cannon- 
ball and lay till night, came in and surrendered himself. The French general is 
wounded in the knee and in the thigh, and like to recover. Some of the captives are 
dead, others very badly wounded. One is Mr. Thos. French's sister's son, cousin to 
Lue. He says that Lue was killed in the engagement. We have had a very smart 
battle, but got the victory. The French general says we. have broke his army all to 
pieces. We have been out and buried our dead, and got a great deal of plunder, guns, 
blankets, provisions, &c. We have lost some famous men in the battle, a list of which 
I send, belonging to our regiment, and^ilso of the wounded and missing, as far as I am 
able. \Here follows a fist of the dead and wounded, &c.l 

x* * * * * * * * * 

This is the best account I can get at present of the dead, wounded and missing. 
Let cousin Chapin know that her dear husband is certainly dead and buried. Joel and 
Hezekiah are well. I can sympathize with her, for it is a great loss to me, as we were 
friends and neighbors. Pray God to comfort her. Hope our friends will not be dis- 
heartened at this news, and so fail of coming to assist us. They that love their religion 
and liberty I hope will not fail to come to the help of the Lord against the mighty. 
Now is the time to exert ourselves. 


P. S. I have wrote in great haste, not so well as if otherwise. I received a letter 
from you last night. Pray send as often as you can. The army is in high spirits. 
Hope we shall have Crown Point sooner or later. We have done a good job toward it. 

Loving wife, since the scout is detained till to-morrow, I add something more. Yes- 
terday we buried on the road 136 dead corpses of ours ; to-day 4. I believe about 15 
or 20 more buried at the camp. Several of our Indians are killed. King Hendrick is 
killed. The day after the battle, every captain carried in an account of dead, wound- 
ed and missing. The whole of the dead and missing was 191, and about 224 wounded 
in our regiment. Since this account several are come in that were missing. Col. Titcom 
is killed ; Capt. Regas is dead killed. I mention those because some may know them. 
The account carried in was as followeth : Col. Williams' regiment, 50. Col. Ruggles' 
regiment and others I must omit ; I cannot find the account. The French general is a 
very great man, has been an old warrior in Flanders. He says his army consisted of 
some of the chief men in Canada, a great many of which are killed. The chief man 
that headed the army at Ohio against Braddock, is killed here. This general had an 
exact account of all our proceedings, our numbers, and chief officers, and also a list of 
> all his own troops and forces. Perhaps this may be of service to us. This is the best 
account I can send ; it is not altogether perfect. 

Your loving husband, JOHN BURK. 

The following is extracted from the daily journal kept by Major 
Burk at this period, and will serve to show a soldier's life during 
the French wars. 

Thursday, 3lst, (1755.) Lwas ordered up the river with about 30 men to see what I 
could discover, but saw nothing. Tarried still at Saratoga. Our men went out to Sara- 
toga fort arid dug out of the earth 1114 cannon ball. The men, about 300, went up the 
river to make the road. I tarried in the camp. Friday, Aug. 1st. The army all moved 
to the second falls above Saratoga, 4 miles. We drew the batteaux up the first falls, 
load and all ; it was fatiguing, but the men worked like lions, some to the neck in 
water. We had about 180 batteaux. This day the men had half a pint of rum given 
more than allowance. Saturday, 2d. We tarried at the falls and got our batteaux by in 
the river. The Dutch came up with 32 wagons, carried all our provisions by, and 
some tents. Our guard that went up the river to make ready, saw 4 or 5 Indian? 


Sunday, 3d. We moved to carrying place, Col. Ly dies' house, about 45 miles from 
Albany. It rained very hard this night ; some provisions got wet. Monday, Mh. I 
was ordered to attend the court, which adjourned to this day. It was adjourned again 
to Friday next in the afternoon. I was ordered with 5 men to scout round the camps, 
but. made no discovery. Tuesday, 5th. I was ordered to take 9 men and go to the 
Lake Sacrament. Lieut. May, Ensign Stratton and Ensign Stevens went to make the 
number. As we marched we saw 3 deer, 1 bear, and an old mare and a wolf, which 
was at the lake. We came a little back from the lake and camped. Wednesday, 6th. 
We returned to our camps, brought in an old mare, picked some huckleberries, brought 
some to Gen. Lyman. Made no discovery ; got back by 3 o'clock. This day the man 
confined for sodomy was whipped 100 stripes and drummed out of the company. 
Thursday, 1th. I tarried in the camps. The men got timber for a store-house and 
bark to cover it, &c. A scout was sent to the drowned land, at the place called by the 
Dutch Ziaborter. Friday, 8th. Tarried at the camp ; help about the fort. Capt. Pat- 
terson set out for Wood Creek with 30 men. He was ordered to go to the mouth of 
the creek. Saturday, 9th. I tarried at the camps ; worked at drawing timber, &c. 
The scout that went for the drowned land returned, but did not find it. Sunday, IQth. 
We work at forting our company ; set up 15 foot of stockades. Mr. Williams preached 
2 sermons. The scout returned from Wood Creek ; they saw signs of Indians, viz. a 
piece of bread stuck up in the path. Maj. Hoar and Lieut. Nixson set out for Albany. 
Monday, llth. I help get some timber. I tarried at the camps. A scout set out for 
Crown Point, another for the So. Bay, and another for Lake Sacrament. The two 
last returned. They reported that they saw Indians, but upon examination it was 
their own men. Some men went to Saratoga, to kill some Dutch cattle. Tuesday, 
12th. I tarried at the camp, and help get timber. Some went to clear roads. The 
men that went to Saratoga returned, brought some beef, and brought news that the 
rest of the army was coming near by. Wednesday, 13th. I tarried at the camps ; 
went over on the island afternoon to get gate timber. Gen. Lyman had an express 
from Gov. Fitch, and some newspapers, which gave an account of the death of Gen. 
Braddock, and that the army was defeated. 

Thursday, llth. Gen. Johnson, Col. Titcom, and Col. Williams, with a great num- 
ber of forces, came to the carrying place, with some Indians and 20 cannon, 2 of 
which were thirty-two pounders, and a great many wagons. The general was waited 
upon with a number of men, and on his arrival saluted by the officers and the discharge 
of field-pieces. Connecticut boys and Rhode Island all come. Friday, 15th. A coun- 
cil was held ; it was determined to send for more men to join us at our head-quarters. 
Little or no work done this day. A scout from Crown Point returned ; no news. 
Saturday, ibth. I tarried at the camps ; did little or nothing. A scout came from 
Fort Massachusetts. I heard from home. Sunday, llth. I was ordered by Gen. 
Johnson to scout, with 11 men and 7 Indians, to the Lake Sacrament. Capt. Passore, 
bound for the So. Bay, with 30 or 40 white men and 6 Indians, marched 4 miles with 
us, and turned off. I marched 10 miles. Connecticut and New York forces arrived 
with women ; a man was drowned. Monday, 18th. We marched to the lake ; made 
no discovery of an enemy. Six of the Indians went farther westward. We sat out 
from the lake at one o'clock, and got home before dark. Tuesday, 19th. Tarried in 
the camps ; did nothing. A general court-martial was held. Gen. Lyman, Cols. 
Ruggels, Williams, Goodrich, were ordered to be ready to meet at all hours. Wed- 
nesday, 20th. Tarried at the camps. A general court-martial was held in trial of Lieut. 
Noble and others. Capt. Ayres began to dig a trench. A great number was employed 
at digging. Thursday, 21st. Tarried in camp. Saw Nelly and Polly, in great taking 
for the women, were all ordered away. Five Indians of the Six Nations came from 
Canada. General court-martial sat. About 120 men employed digging in the 
trenches. The Indians brought news from Canada, that 17 ships were at Quebec, 
600 regulars ; that 8000 were expected at Crown Point, 300 out. 

Friday, 22d. I tarried at the camp. A council sit; determined to go by Lake 
Sacrament. I sent a letter to my wife. Trenching yet, sawing boards. Saturday, 
23d, Four hundred men were ordered to go upon the road ; I went pilot. Cleared 6 
mile'.. The women were sent to Albany. When they went off there was a great 
huzza. Trenching and sawing with whip-saw yet. Sunday, 24th. I was not well ; I 
had a bad cold. Kept in the tent all day. Mr. Williams preached 2 sermons. A 
number of men went upon the road. Some Indians came to us ; informed of more 
coming. Lieut. Noble read his acknowledgment before the assembly. Monday, 25th. 
I tarried at home in the camps. A scout sent to Fort Massachusetts, Serg. A very, 
who was one ordered to Deerfield. I wrote to my wife. Trenching and sawing, 
and making a powder-house. All going forward briskly. Tuesday, 26th. Gen. John- 


son, Cols. Ruggels, Williams, Goodrich's regiments, and some of Rhode Island and. 
York forces, about 1500 men and 200 wagons, marched forward for Lake Sacrament. 
March 6 miles and camped. Wednesday, 21th. We all marched 4 miles and camped. 
We had some clearing and large causeways to make this day. Thursday, 28th. We 
cleared the road 10 miles ; got to the lake. The men worked very hard this day. 
One of the men found a gun and Indian pack. Friday, 29th. Went to clearing by the 
lake, making a causeway, &c. The wagons returned for more stores. About 20 
Indians came to us. Saturday, 30th. I was made captain of the guard. Hendrick, 
with about 170 Indians, came to us ; they were saluted with a round of guns, and the 
men all drew up to receive them. The clearing went off briskly, One man killed, 1 
taken, 3 escaped. They were keeping cattle at the great carrying place. Sunday, 
31st. A number of wagons and cannon came up, guarded by the Rhode Islanders and 
"Workers. Clearing carried on still. At night the Indians had a great dance. Mon- 
day, Sept. 1st. Capt. Porter, with some Indians, marched to the So. Bay to intercept 
the enemy that did the mischief. Some canoes were seen by our Indians up the lake. 
I tarried by the camp and cleared for tenting. Alarm at night ; a sentry shot at a 

Tuesday, 2d. Capt. Porter and men returned. The Indians marched forward. 
Five Indians that went out 5 days ago, that went to the carrying place at 
the north end of the lake, saw 15 of the enemy. Could not come to speech. 
Our scout returned from Fort Massachusetts. I tarried at the camps. Moved 
our tents. Wednesday, 3d. Gen. Lyman, Col. Titcomb, Col. Gilbert came to us 
at Lake George. Some Indians came and joined us. It is said they came 1100 
miles. I carried the camps. 3 Indians went a-scalning to Crown Point. Thursday, 
tth. I was ordered to go up the lake with Capt. Stoddard and Capt. Ingersoll, and 3 
other white men, to carry 3 Indians, who were going to Lake West, and we sailed 15 
miles. Landed the Indians ; returned by 11 at night. Began to build a fort. Friday, 
5th. I was very bad with a cold ; tarried at the camps. No news this day. Saturday, 
6th. I went to get a cask out of the store-house, &c. Heard that 8 or 9 of the sick 
were dead at the other forts. Batteaux, stores, daily coming up. Fort building, scows 
making. Sunday, 1th. A scout of Indians came in who have been to Crown Point, 
and inform that they saw as they returned the signs of a large army marching south 
in 3 files ; designed, as they suppose, for our fort at great carrying place. A man 
who was thought to have deserted was found dead at the other fort ; killed by the fall 
of a tree, as is supposed. Monday, 8th. Col. Williams was sent out with 1000 men 
in search of the enemy ; determined to march toward the south bay. They marched 
so in the road 3 miles, when they were waylaid by the enemy and fired upon. The 
enemy, having the advantage of the ground, obliged our men to retreat to the camps ; 
killed and wounded a great number by the way. The enemy made a very smart 
attack upon the camps, but we stood ground and drove them back. Took the general 
and aid-de-camp, and about 25 prisoners. New Hampshire and York men at the 
other fort, at the carrying pla,ce, heard the great guns, came up and met the enemy 
stripping our dead; drove them from the ground and took 2 prisoners. They fought 
them 3 hours, and we fought them from between 10 and 11 till between 6 and 7 after- 
noon. No such" battle before in North America. Tuesday, Qth. About 300 we 
sent out to bury the dead. I went with them. The men forward took a start, 
ran back; were stopped by the officers. Found it too late to do the business. 
Returned to the camps, brought one wounded man of ours, a great deal of plunder, &c. 
Wednesday, IQth. We went out again, buried 136 dead of ours, and some French. 
Brought in a great deal of plunder and French provisions, and one of our wounded, 
a scout from the other fort, and from Hoosuck, Capt. Wyman. I sent a letter to my 
wife. All a-fortifying at the camps. Col. Willard, Capt. Symers, came up with a 
number of wagons with provisions, &c. Thursday, llth. I wrote a large letter to my 
wife; sent it by Capt. Wyman. The wagoners went back, the Indians went off home. 
A great number of men went plundering ; found a great deal. Buried 4 more of our 

The following inscriptions are from monuments in the old bury- 
ing-ground in this place, about one mile from the center. 

In memory of the Hon. Maj r - John Burke, who died Oct r - 27th, 1784, in y e 67th year 
of his age. 

Were I so tall to reach the pole, 
Or grasp the ocean with my span, 
I must be measur'd by my soul, 
The Mind's the standard of the man. 


To the memory of Doctor Polycarpus Cushman, who died 15th December. A. D. 
1797, JEtate 47. 

Vain censorious beings little know, 
What they must soon experience below. 
Your lives are short, eternity is long, 
think of death, prepare, & then begone. 
Thus art and natures powers & charms 
Arid drugs & receipts and forms 
Yield all last to greedy worms 
A despicable prey. 
Mors absque morbo vorax mortalium rapuit medicum.* 


THIS town was incorporated in 1779. A part of its territory 
was within the limits of Charlemont. The first minister of this 
place was Rev. Josiah Spaulding, from Plainfield, Con. ; he was 
installed pastor in 1794. His successor, the Rev. Benjamin F. 
Clarke, was settled here 1824. The first settlement within the 
limits of the town was probably made on Deerfield river, about 
two and a half miles from the Congregational church in the center 
of the town. A Mr. White is believed to have been the first per- 
son who settled there. About the same time a settlement was 
made in the south part of the town by Capt. Nahum Ward. His 
son, Jonathan Ward, was the first white child born in the town. 
Capt. Ward settled about one and a half miles westward of the 
center. Persons of the Baptist denomination settled about two 
miles south-easterly from the center of the town at a very early 

The surface of this town is hilly and broken. Clesson's river, a 
mill-stream, passes centrally through the town. It was formerly 
noted for trout, and on its banks were fine hunting-grounds. A 
park for deer was built about two miles northerly from the center of 
the town, by Othniel Taylor. Agriculture is the principal business 
of the inhabitants. There are 3 houses of worship 1 Congrega- 
tionalist, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist. Distance, 12 miles from 
Greenfield, 23 to Northampton, and 105 from Boston. Population, 

The following is the inscription on the monument of Mr. Spaul- 
ding, the first minister : 

In memory of Rev. Josiah Spaulding, died May 8th, 1823, JE. 72. Rev. J. S. was 
born at Plainfield, Conn., Jan. 10, 1751, graduated at Yale College 1778, licenced to 
preach 1780, ordained 1782. Of the 41 yrs: of his ministry, 5 were spent at Uxbridge, 
6i at "Worthington, 28^ at Buckland. Merciful men are taken away, none considering 
that the righteous is taken away from the evil to come. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1765. During the French and 
Indian wars, this being one of the frontier towns, it was open to 

* Rapacious Death, without disease, has snatched away the healer of mortals. 



iheir ravages. In the limits of this town were three garrisons, 
Taylor's, Rice's, and Hawk's. These were of a cordon of fortifica- 
tions projected by Col. Williams in the year 1754. These works were 
either mounts, a diminutive kind of block-house, or stockaded dwel- 
ling-houses, bearing the names of the resident families, defensible 
only against musketry. In June, 1755, as a party of people were 
at work in a meadow 'in the upper part of Charlemont, near Rice's 
fort, they were attacked by a party of Indians ; Captain Rice and 
Phineas Rice were killed, and Titus King, and Asa Rice, a lad, 
were captured, conveyed to Crown Point, and from thence to 
Canada. King was some time afterward carried to France, then to 
England, and from thence he returned to Northampton, his native 
place. The Congregational church in this town was organized in 
June, 1788 ; the Rev. Isaac Babbit, the first Congregational minis- 
ter, was settled here in 1796; he resigned in 1798. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Joseph Field, who resigned in 1823. The next 
minister, Rev. Wales Tileston, was settled in 1825 ; he resigned 
in 1837. 

Eastern view in the central part of Charlemont. 

The above is an eastern view in the central part of Charlemont, 
showing the Baptist and Methodist churches ; 17 miles from Green- 
field, 16 from Adams, 55 from Troy, N. Y., and about 104 from 
Boston. The Baptist church is the nearest building in the view, 
having six windows on the southern side ; the Methodist church, a 
small building, is seen farther northward ; it lias a tower, and 
stands on an elevation of ground. There is a little villa-ge north- 
ward of these churches, which is but partially seen in the engrav- 
ing. The highest mountainous elevation, seen in the distance, is 
called Mount Peak, and is upwards of 1000 feet in height. Deer- 
field river, which flows at the foot of this elevation, winds through 
the whole length of the town. High hills and mountainous eleva- 
tions in many places rise immediately from its banks, affording 
many views of picturesque and delightful scenery. Agriculture is 


the principal business of the inhabitants. In 1837, there were 
3,355 merino sheep, and 1,398 of other kinds; the value of wool 
produced, $7,460. Population of the town, 994. In 1838, a large 
proportion of an unincorporated tract of mountainous and broken 
land, called Zoar, with few inhabitants, on the western border of 
the town, was, by an act of the legislature, added to this town. 


COLERAINE* was incorporated in 1761. It was previously called 
Boston Township. It was partly settled by emigrants from Ireland, 
who were Presbyterians in religious sentiment. The church in 
this place was Presbyterian till 1819, when it became Congre- 
gational. The first minister, Rev. Alexander McDowel, it is be- 
lieved, was from Ireland. Rev. Daniel McClallen was born in 
Pennsylvania, but educated in Ireland. Yery little is known of 
the early state of the religious affairs of the people, as either no 
church records were kept, or if kept have been lost. Mr. McDow- 
el, the first minister, was settled in 1753 ; Mr. McClallen in 1769. 
The third minister, Rev. Samuel Taggart, was settled in 1777, and 
died in 1825 ; he retained his connection with his church and so- 
ciety till the close of life. He was a member of the house of 
representatives of the United States, from 1804, for 14 years. He is 
said to have remarked to a Christian friend, that he had read the 
Bible through at Washington every year during the time he had 
served as a member of congress. Rev. Aretas Loomis succeeded 
Mr. Taggart in 1829. 

Coleraine has a larger population than any other town in Frank- 
lin, county. It is finely watered by two branches of North river, a 
tributary stream of Deerfield river, affording water-power for a 
number of factories in various parts of the town, which are now in 
successful operation. After the union of the two branches of the 
North river in this town, in its course towards Deerfield river, it 
passes through a very narrow defile, with lofty elevations on each 
side, particularly on the north bank ; the road, in some places, 
passes at a great elevation from the bed of the river, and to a lover 
of natural scenery in its varied forms this place possesses uncom- 
mon attractions. The engraving is a western view of part of the 
village in the central part of the town. The Methodist church ap- 
pears on the right, and the Congregational on the left. This place 
is surrounded by lofty elevations on almost every side. It is 9 
miles from Greenfield, 30 from Adams, 30 from Northampton, 70 
from Albany, N. Y., and 100 from Boston. Population, 1,998. In 
1837 there were 3 cotton mills, 5,000 cotton spindles ; 125,000 Ibs. 

* It is said that this town was named from Lord Coleraine, in Ireland. His lordship 
was so well pleased with the honor done him that he sent the inhabitants a fine bell ; 
but, through the unfaithfulness of the agent to whom it was intrusted, it never reached 
them. It is believed to be still in existence, and used in one of the churches in Boston 

O I, E R A I N E . 


Western view of Coleraine, (central part.) 

of cotton were consumed ; 930.000 yards of cotton goods manufac- 
tured, valued at $59,500; 40 males and 120 females were em- 
ployed. There were 4,340 merino and 1,414 other kinds of sheep 
in the town; value of wool produced, $9,133 11 ; capital invested, 
$14,385. There were two air and cupola furnaces ; 150 tons of iron 
castings were made, valued at $17,500. Various other articles 
were also manufactured in the town. 

One of the first settlers in this town was Deacon Thomas McGee, 
a Protestant, from Ireland ; he located himself about two miles 
south from the center of the town. James Steward, who officiated 
as town-clerk for a number of years, lived a little east from Mr. 
McGee. Hugh McClallen located himself in the south-western 
part of the town ; he filled various public offices, and was the first 
acting magistrate. John Cochren, from Pelham, Hampshire coun- 
ty, located himself in the center. He built the whole or part of 
the Barber House, so called, near the Congregational church : 
this house is now standing. John Clark, of Irish descent, had a 
house about half a mile north of the meeting-house, on land which 
was given to his father by the proprietors of Coleraine. Mr. Clark's 
father was killed in the "last French war. Hugh Morrison located 
himself about one and a half miles north of the center. He was 
a captain, and commander of the north or Morrison's fort. Dea- 
con George Clark settled about a mile easterly from the center. 
Capt, John Wood, from South Hadley, kept the first tavern > a build- 
ing now standing. The first meeting-house built by the proprie- 
tors stood about 80 rods north of Capt. Wood's tavern ; it was two 
stories in height, and was never completed on account of its loca- 
tion. Rev. Mr. McDole, or Dowel, the first minister, lived about 80 
rods north, in a building used as a fort. Besides the two forts men- 
tioned, there were two others : one, called the east fort, was situated 
about two miles eastward of the meeting-house the south fort was 


244 C O N W A Y . 

near Deacon McGee's. Hezekiah Smith, from Woodstock, in Con- 
necticut, settled about two miles south-west down the North river. 
Thomas Fox and Deacon Moses Johnson were early settlers. 
Deacon Elliot Harroun and Joseph Thompson settled near Hugh 
McClallen, in the north-western part of the town. 

In May, 1746, Matthew Clark, with his wife and daughter, and 
two soldiers, were fired upon by the Indians. Clark was killed, 
and his wife and daughter wounded. One of the soldiers returned 
the fire and killed one of the enemy, which gave them a check, 
and the wounded were brought into the fort and saved. In July, 
David Morrison was captured by the Indians. In 1756, John 
Morrison and John Henry were wounded near Morrison's fort, but 
getting on to a horse, made their escape. The enemy burned a 
house and killed some cattle on North river. In 1759, John 
McCown and his wife were captured, and their son was killed. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1767. The first minister of the 
place was Rev. John Emerson, who settled here in 1769. At this 
time the town contained but 400 or 500 inhabitants. Mr. Emerson 
afterwards shrewdly remarked, that when he came " it was lite- 
rally John preaching in the wilderness." He lived to see a popula- 
tion of about 2000 souls. Mr. Emerson was eminently a prayer- 
ful and devoted minister of the gospel. " For several of his last 
years he had an impediment in his speech ; it was, however, scarce- 
ly perceptible in his devotional exercises, showing it was more 
natural for him to pray than to converse." Rev. Edward Hitch- 
cock was settled as colleague with Mr. Emerson in 1821. Mr. 
Emerson died in 1826, aged 80. Mr. Hitchcock was succeeded by 
Rev. Daniel Crosby, in 1827. 

The following is a southern view of the central part of Conway, 
as it appears from the road passing over the elevated ground south 
from the village. The village, which consists of about thirty 
dwelling-houses and other buildings, lies principally in a narrow 
valley between two elevated hills, the one westward called Beal's 
Hill, the one eastward Billings' Hill. South river, a mill-stream, 
passing into Deerfield river, divides the village into two parts. 
There are two churches in the village, one a Congregational, the 
other a Baptist church. The Congregational church is seen in the 
engraving in the southern part of the village. The Baptist church 
is without a spire, and stands in the northern part, on elevated 
ground. Distance, 7 miles S. W. from Greenfield, and 100 from 
Boston. Population, 1,445. 

In 1837, there was one cotton mill, 924 spindles ; cotton con- 
sumed, 10,045 Ibs. ; cotton goods manufactured, 151,140 yards, 
valued at $16,625 ; males employed, 8 ; females, 20 ; capital in- 
vested, $10,000. One woollen mill, which manufactured 3,500 
yards of cloth, which employed 18 hands. There were in the town 



Southern view of Conway. 

2,415 merino sheep ; other kinds of sheep, 2,415; merino wool pro- 
duced, 7,245 Ibs. ; other kinds of wool, 7,245 ; average weight of 
fleece, 3 Ibs. ; value of wool, $5.071 ; capital invested, $7,245. 

The following votes, passed during the "Revolutionary times," 
are copied from the records of this town. They will serve to show 
the process used against those who were disaffected towards the 
American cause, and who dared, like freemen, to let their senti- 
ments he known. The orthography is retained. 

At a legal meeting, held June 25, 17.77, Voted to try the minds of the town with re- 
gard to the enernical persons that the selectmen have entered in a list and laid before 
he town as such seperately. 

Voted, the following persons are dangerously enemical to the American States, viz. 
Joseph Catlin, Elias Dickinson, Joseph Brunson, Elijah Wells, Elijah Billings, James 
Dickinson, Win. Billings, John Hamilton, Jonathan Oaks, Capt. Consider Arms 
Eben'r Bedfield, and David Field. Voted, that Capt. Alexander Oliver be the person 
to collect the evidence, and lay it before the court, against the above enemical per- 

At a legal meeting, held August 27th, 1777, Voted, that we proceed in some mea- 
sures to secure the enemical persons called Tories among us. Then the question was 
put, whether we would draw a line between the Continent and Great Britain ; voted in 
the affirmative. Voted that all those persons that stand on the side of the Contanant 
take up arms and go hand in hand with us in carrying on the war against our unnatu- 
ral enemies ; such we receive as friends, and all others treet as enemies. Voted, that 
the broad ally be a line, and the south end of the meeting-house be the Continant side, 
and the north end the British side ; then moved for trial, and found 6 persons to stand 
on the British side, viz. Elijah Billings, Jonathan Oaks, Wm. Billings, Joseph Catlin, 
Joel Dickinson, and Elias Dickinson. Voted to set a gard over those enemical persons. 
Voted the town clerk emmediately desire Judge Mather to issue out his warrants 
against those enimical persons returned to him in a list heretofore. 


DEERFIELD is the oldest town in Franklin county. In 1669, a 
tract of 8,000 acres of land was granted by the general court 
at Pocumtuck to a company at Dedham, embracing most of 



the interval lying on Pocumtuck or Deerfield river, and the plain 
southerly as far as Hatfield bounds. The proprietors first met at 
Dedham in 1670 ; at which time it was agreed to lay out the lots 
at Pocumtuck. By subsequent grants it comprehended within its 
limits the present towns of Deerfield, Conway, Shelburne, Green- 
field, and Gill. Whether the whole was purchased from the 
natives does not appear. A deed, however, of a part of the early 
grant, is still extant; it was made to John Pynchon, Esq., of 
Springfield, "for the use and behoof of major Eleazer Lusher, 

Southern view of Deerfield, (central part.) 

ensign Daniel Fisher, and other English at Dedham, their asso- 
ciates and successors," by Chauk, alias Chaque. the sachem of 
Pocumtuck, and his brother Wapahoale, and is dated Feb. 24, 
1665, prior to the grant by government. The deed is witnessed 
by Wequonock, who " helped the Sachem in making the bar- 
gain ;" and reserves to the Indians " the right of fishing in the 
rivers and waters ; hunting deer, or other wild animals ; the gath- 
ering of walnuts, chesnuts, and other nuts, and things on the com- 
mons." The first settlement at Deerfield commenced in 1670, 
and within four years a considerable number of buildings were 
erected. In 1686, the Rev. John Williams was settled as minister 
of the place, on. a salary of 60, to be paid in wheat at three shil- 
lings and three-pence the bushel, pease at two shillings and six- 
pence, Indian corn at two shillings, and salted pork at two-pence 
halfpenny the pound. 

Deerfield is finely situated on the west bank of Connecticut 
river. Deerfield river, a large and beautiful stream, meanders 
through the center of the town, and on its banks are large tracts 
of interval land, the quality of which is equal to any in the state. 
The principal street runs north and south on a beautiful elevation 
above the meadows, which spreads out from the foot of East or 
Deerfield mountain. 



The engraving on the opposite page, is a view (looking to the 
northward) in the central part of the~ village, showing the Unita- 
rian Congregational church, and some other public buildings. 
The ancient house, which escaped destruction at the time the 
Indians burnt the town in 1704, is seen in the distance, standing 
a few feet westward of the church. Deerfield is principally an 
agricultural town. In 1837, there was one manufactory of cutlery, 
which employed seventy hands; the value of cutlery manufac- 
tured was $100,000. The value of palm-leaf hats manufactured 
was $7,800; the value of corn brooms made was $10,990; the 
value of pocket-books, &c., $11,000. Population, 1,952. Distance, 
3 miles south from Greenfield, 18 miles north of Northampton, 60 
to Hartford, Conn., and 95 from Boston. 

Monument and Sugar-loaf Mountain, Deerfield. 

The above is a north-western view of the monument at Bloody 
Brook, erected in memory of Capt. Lathrop and his men, who fell 
on this spot, in an ambuscade of the Indians. This monument 
stands perhaps 30 or 40 rods southerly from the Cong- ogational 
church. South-easterly from the monument is seen Sugar-loaf 
Mountain, a conical peak of red sand-stone, about 650 feet in 
height. In 1835, the 160th anniversary of the destruction of Capt. 
Lathrop and his men was commemorated in this place. The Hon. 
Edward Everett, now governor of Massachusetts, was appointed 
orator for the occasion, and General Epaphas Hoyt, of Deerfield, 
was appointed to make the address at the laying of the corner 
stone for the monument. About six thousand persons were present 
on this occasion. Governor Everett delivered his address under a 
walnut tree, a few rods eastward of the monument, the top of 
which is seen rising between the two mountainous elevations in 
the back ground. About forty years after Capt. Lathrop and his 
men were killed, a rude monument was erected to their memory, 
but the different occupants of the soil removed it so many times, 
that it was a matter of uncertainty where he or his men were 

248 D E &R F 1 E L D . 

buried. In 1835, the committee of investigation, guided by the 
tradition of some aged people, found the spot where he and about 
thirty of his men were interred ; the grave was just in front of the 
door-yard of Stephen Whitney, Esq., and about twenty feet north- 
west of his front door. Their bones were in a state of tolerable 
preservation, but fell to pieces on exposure to the air. "A grave, 
probably containing the bones of the ninety-six Indians who were 
slain on that day, was likewise found by accident about the same 
time, nearly one hundred rods west of the road leading from 
Bloody Brook to Con way. by Mr. Artemas Williams, and a little 
more than half a mile south-west of the grave of Lathrop." 

The monument is six feet square and about twenty feot in 
height; it is constructed of marble, by Mr. Woods, of Sunderland. 
On its completion an address was delivered at its foot by Mr. 
Luther B. Lincoln, of Deerfield. The following is the inscription on 
the monument : 

On this ground Capt. Thomas Lothrop and eighty-four men under his command, 
including eighteen teamsters from Deerfield, conveying stores from that town to Had- 
ley, were ambuscaded by about 700 Indians, and the Captain and seventy-six men 
slain, Sept. 18th, 1675, (old style.) The soldiers who fell were described by a co- 
temporary Historian, as " a choice company of young men, the very flower of the 
County of Essex, none of whom were ashamed to speak with the enemy in the gate." 
" And Sanguinetto tells you where the dead 

Made the earth wet, and turn'd the unwilling waters red." 
This monument erected August, 1838. 

The bearing and distance of the grave of the slain (south 21 
rods) is inscribed on the monument, and a stone slab placed on 
the spot. In order to defend the frontier settlements from the 
Indians in Philip's war, a considerable number of soldiers were 
posted at Hadley, and it became necessary to procure provisions 
and forage for their subsistence. The Indians having burnt the 
principal part of Deerfield, it was abandoned by the inhabitants ; 
their grain, consisting of about 3,000 bushels of wheat, remained 
stacked in the fields, having escaped the conflagration. Deter- 
mining to avail himself of this supply, the commanding officer at 
Hadley detached Capt. Lathrop and his company, with a number 
of teams and drivers, to thrash it and transport it to head-quarters. 
Having thrashed the grain and loaded his teams, Capt. Lathrop, on 
the 18th of September, commenced his march for Hadley. As no 
Indians had been seen in the vicinity, he did not probably appre- 
hend any danger. The following account of the fatal attack of 
the savages at Bloody Brook is taken from Hoyfs Indian Wars, 
published at Greenfield in 1824. 

" For the distance of about three miles, after leaving Deerfield 
meadow, Lathrop' s march lay through a very level country, closely 
wooded, where he was every moment exposed to an attack on 
either flank ; at the termination of this distance, near the south 
point of Sugar-loaf Hill, the road approximated Connecticut river, 
and the left was in some measure protected. At the village now 
called Muddy Brook, in the southerly part of Deerfield, the road 
crossed a small stream, bordered by a narrow morass, from which 



the village has its name ; though more appropriately it should be 
denominated Bloody Brook, by which it was sometimes known. 
Before arriving at the point of intersection with the brook, the 
road for about half a mile ran parallel with the morass, then, cross- 
ing, it continued directly to the south point of Sugar-loaf Hill, tra- 
versing what is now the home lots, on the east side of the vil- 
lage. As the morass was thickly covered with brush, the place of 
crossing afforded a favorable point of surprise. On discovering 
Lathrop's march, a body of upwards of seven hundred Indians 
planted themselves in ambuscade at this point, and lay eagerly 
waiting to pounce upon him while passing the morass. Without 
scouring the woods in his front and flanks, or suspecting the snare 
laid for him, Lathrop arrived at the fatal spot ; crossed the morass 
with the principal part of his force, and probably halted, to allow 
time for his teams to drag through their loads. The critical 
moment had arrived the Indians instantly poured a heavy and 
destructive fire upon the column, and rushed furiously to close 
attack. Confusion and dismay succeeded. The troops broke and 
scattered, fiercely pursued by the Indians, whose great superiority 
enabled them to attack at all points. Hopeless was the situation 
of the scattered troops, and they resolved to sell their lives in a 
vigorous struggle. Covering themselves with trees, the bloody con- 
flict now became a severe trial of skill in sharp shooting, in which 
life was the stake. Difficult would it be to describe the havoc, 
barbarity, and misery that ensued ; ' fury raged, and shuddering 
pity quit the sanguine field,' while desperation stood pitted, at 
' fearful odds,' to unrelenting ferocity. The dead, the dying, the 
wounded, strewed the ground in all directions; and Lathrop's 
devoted force was soon reduced to a small number, and resistance 
became faint. At length the unequal struggle terminated in the 
annihilation of nearly the whole of the English ; only seven or 
eight escaped from the bloody scene, to relate the dismal tale ; and 
the wounded were indiscriminately butchered. Capt. Lathrop 
fell in the early part of the action. The whole loss, including 
teamsters, amounted to ninety." 

Capt. Mosely, who was at Deerfield with his company, between 
four and five miles distant, hearing the musketry, hurried on to 
the relief of Lathrop, but it was too late ; he found the Indians 
had done their bloody work, and were stripping the dead. Rush- 
ing on in close order, he broke through the enemy, and, charging 
back and forth, cut down all within the range of his shot. After 
several hours of gallant fighting, the savages were compelled to 
seek for safety in the surrounding swamps and forests. Lieuten- 
ants Savage and Pickering greatly distinguished themselves by 
their skill and bravery. Just at the close of the action, Major 
Treat, of Connecticut, who on the morning of this day had 
marched towards Northfield, arrived on the ground with one 
hundred men, consisting of English, Pequot and Mohegan Indians, 
and shared in the final pursuit of the enemy. Captain Mosely lost 
but two men in the various attacks 3 and seven or eight only were 


wounded. The loss of the Indians in the various attacks of tne 
day was estimated at ninety-six, the greatest proportion of which 
fell in the engagement with Mosely. On the approach of night, 
Treat and Mosely proceeded to Deerfield, where they encamped 
for the night, and the next morning returned to the field of slaugh- 
ter to bury the dead. The day after this disaster, the Indians 
appeared at Deerfield, on the west side of the river in that town, 
and, displaying the garments they had stripped from Lathrop's 
slain, made demonstrations of an attack on the fortified house, 
which then contained a garrison of only twenty-seven men. The 
commander held out delusive appearances of a strong force, 
caused his trumpet signals to be given, as if to call in additional 
troops, which so intimidated the Indians that they withdrew with- 
out making an attack. This post, however, was afterwards 
abandoned by the garrison, and the place was soon after des- 
troyed by the enemy. 

During the French and Indian wars, Deerfield was often exposed 
to the incursions of the French and their savage allies. In the 
evening of the 29th of February, 1704, Major Hertel de Rouville, 
with 200 French and 142 Indians, after a tedious march of 
between 2 and 300 miles through deep snow, arrived at an ele- 
vated pine forest, about two miles north of the village, (now called 
Petty's plain,) bordering Deerfield meadow, where they lay con- 
cealed till after midnight. Finding all quiet, and the snow being 
covered with a crust sufficient to support the men, Rouville left 
his snow-shoes and packs at the foot of the elevation, and, crossing 
Deerfield river, began his march through an open meadow before 
daylight with the utmost caution, which, however, was unneces- 
sary, as the guard had retired to rest a little before daylight. 
Arriving at the north-west quarter of the fort, where the snow 
had drifted in many places nearly to the top of the palisades, 
the enemy entered the place, and found all in a profound 
sleep. Parties detached in different directions broke into the 
houses and dragged the astonished people from their beds, and 
wherever resistance was made they were generally killed. A 
party forced the door of the house of the Rev. Mr. Williams, who, 
awakened by the noise, seized a pistol from his bed tester and 
snapped it at one of the Indians who were entering his room. He 
was seized, bound, and kept standing in his shirt for near an hour. 
His house in the mean time was plundered, and two of his chil- 
dren, with a black female servant, were murdered before the door. 
They then permitted him and Mrs. Williams, with five other chil- 
dren, to put on their clothes. The house of Capt. John Sheldon 
was attacked, but as the door at which the Indians attempted 
to enter was firmly bolted, they found it difficult to penetrate. 
They then perforated it with their tomahawks, and, thrusting 
through a musket, fired and killed the captain's wife, as she was 
rising from a bed in an adjoining room. The captain's son and 
wife, awakened by the assault, leaped from a chamber window, at 
the east end of the house, by which the latter strained her ankle, 



and was seized by the Indians, but the husband escaped to the 
woods and reached Hatfield. After gaining possession of the 
house, which was one of the largest in the place, the enemy 
reserved it as a depot for the prisoners as they were collected from 
other parts of the village. The whole number made prisoners was 
112, and the number of killed was forty-seven. Having collected 
the prisoners, plundered and set fire to the buildings, Rouville left 
the place when the sun was about an hour high. Every building 
within the fort was reduced to ashes except the meeting-house 
and that of Captain Sheldon, which was the last fired, and saved 
by the English, who assembled immediately after the enemy left 
the place. This house is still standing near the center of the vil- 
lage, of which the annexed engraving is a representation. 

South-east view of Ancient House in Deerfidd. 

The ground plan of the building is 42 by 21 feet. The timber 
used in the construction of this house is of a large size and firm 
texture, most of which remains sound even to the sills, and the 
primitive clapboards at the gables are in a good state of preserva- 
tion ; the walls are lined with brick. The door, showing the per- 
foration made by the tomahawks, still remains. Other parts of the 
building have been repaired, and the general appearance of the 
house does not exhibit so antique an appearance as its age would 
indicate. The night following the attack, the enemy encamped in 
the meadow, in what is now Greenfield, about four miles from 
Deerfield village, where, by clearing away the snow and construct- 
ing slight cabins of brush, the prisoners were as comfortably lodged 
as circumstances would admit. On the second day of their jour- 
ney Mrs. Williams, who had lain in but a few weeks previous, be- 
came exhausted through fatigue, and, proving burdensome, her 
Indian master sunk his tomahawk into her head and left her dead 
at the foot of a hill near Green river. The march of the captives 
on Connecticut river continued for several days without any inci- 



dent of note, excepting now and then murdering an exhausted 
captive and taking off the scalp. At the mouth of White river, 
Rouville divided his force into several parties ; that which Mr. 
Williams accompanied proceeded down Onion river to Lake Cham- 
plain, and from thence into Canada. After his arrival there he 
was generally treated with civility, and often with humanity. In 
1706 a flag-ship was sent to Quebec, and Mr. Williams and fifty- 
seven other captives were redeemed and brought to Boston.* All 
the surviving children of Mr. Williams returned, with the exception 
of his daughter Eunice, who was left behind, being about ten 
years old. She adopted the Indian manners, to one of whom she 
was married, and adopted the Catholic faith. She repeatedly 
visited her relatives in New England ; every inducement was offered 
to make her remain among her connexfons, but she uniformly 
persisted in wearing her blanket and counting her beads. She left 
a number of descendants, one of whom, a grandson, was educated 
at Longtneadow, and afterward became a missionary to the Oneida 
Indians. Twenty-eight of the captives remained in Canada, and, 
mixing with the French and Indians, adopted their manners and 
customs, and were thus lost to their friends. The journal which 
Rouville kept while on his expedition against Deerfield is said to be 
still in existence, having been preserved in one of the Canadian 
convents ; also a small church bell, which the Indians took from 
Deerfield, when it was destroyed. It was conveyed on a sledge 
as far as Lake Champlain and buried, and was afterwards taken 
up and conveyed to Canada, and is now hanging in an Indian 
church in St. Regis. 

[From the Boston Post Boy, Sept. 1st, 1746.] 

Friday sev'night some of our soldiers going from Deerfield to Colerain, were fired 
upon by a party of the enemy Indians, and one Mr. Bliss, a Connecticut soldier, was 
kill'd, scalp'd and his body left inhumanly cut and mangled by them. 

And last Monday seven men and a young woman being in a field at Deerfield, mak- 
ing of hay, were surpris'd by about 40 of the enemy Indians, and five of the men were 
killed on the spot ; the young woman they struck three times, with their hatchets, and 
wounded her terribly on both sides of her head. The people of this town, being alarm- 
ed, went out after the enemy ; when they hastened off, leaving the wounded young 
woman, and the bodies of the men they had slain on the ground. The other two men 
escaped, and the young woman was brought into Deerfield, but is not like to live. 

The names of those kill'd were Samuel Allen, two of the widow Amsdel's sons, Elea- 

/,er Hawkes, Jun., all of Deerfield, and one Gillet, a soldier from Connecticut ; the 

young woman wounded aforesaid was daughter to the aforesaid Allen. One of the 
Indians was kill'd upon their assault; and some of them had thrown his body into a 
pond, which was soon after found and his scalp taken off and bro't in by our men. It 
is supposed another of the enemy is mortally wounded, as a Tract was discovered 
where one of them had been carried off who had bled a great quantity. 

The following are inscriptions copied from monuments in the old 
bury ing-ground in this place : 

* Mr. Williams after his return published a particular account of his sufferings and 
those of his family and townsmen, entitled the Redeemed Captive, (-c. / t^ 8 work has 
passed through a 'number of editions. A recent work, by Stephen W. Williams, Esq., 
entitled " A Biographical Memoir of the Rev. John Williams," has been recently pub- 
lished in Greenfield. It contains many particulars respecting Mr. Williams and his 
family which never before have been published. 

ERVING. 253 

^ Here lies buried the body of Lievt. Mehuman Hinsdell, died May y 9, 1736, in the 
63d year of his age, who was the first male child born in this place, and was twice cap- 
tivated by the Indian Salvages. Math. 5th. 7th. Blessed are the merciful, for they 
shall obtain mercy. 

Here lyeth the body of Mrs. Eunice Williams, the vertuous & desirable consort of the 
Rev rd -Mr. John Williams, & daughter to y e Rev rd ' Mr. Eleazer &c Mrs. Esther Mather 
of Northampton. She was born Augt. 2, 1664, and fell by rage of y e barbarous Enemy 
March 1, 1703-4. Prov. 31. 28. Her children rise up and call her Blessed. 

Here lyes y e body of the Reu' 1 - Mr. John Williams, the beloved & faithful pastor of 
this place, who dyed on June y e 12 lh > 1729, in the 65 th year of his age. Reu. 14. 13. 
Write blessed are the dead which die in the Lord. 


THE territory comprising this town was an unincorporated tract, 
called Erving's Grant, lying on the north bank of Miller's river, 
bounded north by Northfield and Warwick. It was incorporated 
as a town in 1838. A Congregational church was organized here 
five or six years since, but there never has been any minister set- 
tled in the place. At this time the inhabitants meet occasionally 
in a school-house for public worship. In the Statistical Tables 
published by the -state, it is stated that in Erving's Grant there 
was 1 woollen mill, which manufactured 25,600 yards of satinet, 
valued at $16,640; 12 hands, 6 male and 6 female, were employ- 
ed ; capital invested, $7,000. Two thousand and fifty pairs of 
boots and 744 pairs of shoes were manufactured, valued at $4,345. 
Population in 1837 was 292. There is a post-office in the town. 
Distance, 10 'miles east from Greenfield, and 85 miles from 


THIS town was formerly a part of Deerfield ; it was incorporat- 
ed in 1793. It received its name in honor of Lieutenant Governor 
Moses Gill. The church records have been lost, but it is supposed 
that the Congregational church was organized in 1793. The first 
minister was Rev. John Jackson, who was settled in 1798 ; his 
successor, Rev. Jabez Munsell, was settled in 1802 ; the next minis- 
ter, Rev. Josiar; W. Canning, was settled in 1806. The township 
is situated on a great bend of Connecticut river, and contains much 
fertile land. It lies on the west side of the Connecticut, and is 
separated from Greenfield by Fall river. There are two churches, 
1 Congregational and 1 Methodist, both situated in the small vil- 
lage in the central part of the town. Population, 809. Distance, 
5 miles E. N. E. of Greenfield, 15 S. of Brattleborough, Vt., and 
86 westerly from Boston. 

Near the point where the boundaries of this iown, Montague 



and Greenfield meet, there is in the Connecticut tne most interest- 
ing waterfall in the state. They were formerly called Miller's 
falls, but. of late have received the name of Turner's Falls, in 
commemoration of Capt. Turner, who surprised a body of Indians, 
in 1676, at this place, during Philip's war. A canal, three miles 
in length, in order to pass the falls, has been constructed in the 
town of Montague, on the eastern side of the river. An artificial 
dam has also been constructed at the falls, more than a thousand 
feet long, resting near the center upon two small islands. Over 
this dam the water descends more than thirty feet perpendicularly, 
and for half a mile continues descending rapidly and foaming in 
its course. From an elevation perhaps about fifty rods below the 
cataract, the observer perceives that he has a miniature resem- 
blance of the falls of Niagara before him. The country about 
these is but little cultivated. On the opposite side of the river, the 

Turner's Falls, in Connecticut River. 

observer will, however, perceive a few dwellings and the head of 
a canal ; but a little beyond appear elevations, which are princi- 
pally covered with evergreens, and terminate the landscape. 

The Indians during Philip's war resorted to the falls for the pur- 
pose of taking fish, as vast quantities of shad, salmon, and other 
fish ascended the river during the spring season. Several hundred 
Indians took a station on the right bank of the river, on elevated 
ground ; a smaller party occupied the opposite bank ; and another 
was stationed at what is now called Smeaffs Island, upwards of a 
mile below. As the English forces at Hadley and the adjacent 
towns were not, at this time, numerous, the Indians appeared to 
have considered themselves but little exposed to an attack. Two 
lads, Stebbins and Gilbert, who had been taken prisoners and car- 
ried to the falls, fortunately made their escape, and gave informa- 
tion of the position and carelessness of the Indians. On the receipt 
of this intelligence, it was determined to attack them by surprise. 
About one hundred and sixty mounted men assembled at Hatfield, 

GILL. 255 

under the command of Capt. Turner of the colony troops. He 
was accompanied by Capt. Holyoke of Springfield, and Ensign 
Lyman of Northampton. Under the direction of two skilful guides, 
the English commenced their march for the falls, about twenty 
miles distant, in the evening of 17th of May. 

" Passing the ruins of Deerfield, and the river at the northerly 
part of the meadow in that town, they were heard by a lodge of 
Indians, seated at what is now called Cheapside, a small distance 
below the place where the English forded. The Indians immedi- 
ately turned out and examined the usual place of crossing, but, 
finding no trail, supposed the noise to proceed from moose wading 
the river, and returned to their lodge. Turner having passed Green 
river and a trackless forest of about four miles, halted on elevated 
ground, a small distance west of Fall river, about half a mile from 
the Indian camp at the fails, where his men dismounted and left 
their horses, tied to saplings, under a small guard. About the 
dawn of day the English crossed Fall river, and, climbing up an 
abrupt hill, went rapidly through an intervening wood, rushed 
upon the camp, and found the Indians in a deep sleep, without 
even a watch. Roused from their slumber by the sudden discharge 
of musketry, they fled towards the river, exclaiming, Mohawks! 
Mohawks! verily believing this furious enemy was upon them. 
Many leaped into their canoes, some in the hurry forgetting their 
paddles, and, attempting to cross, were shot by the English or pre- 
cipitated down the cataract and drowned. Some were killed in 
their cabins, others were cut down under the shelving rocks of the 
river bank, where they had fled for shelter. One hundred Indians 
were left dead on the ground, one hundred and forty passed down 
the falls, but one of whom escaped drowning. Their whole loss, 
as was acknowledged afterwards, was about three hundred men, 
among whom were some of their principal chiefs. Turner, who at 
this time had lost but one of his men, now returned towards his 
horses. By this time the Indians from the east side of the river, 
having joined those from Smead's Island, advanced on the left and 
rear of the English. Capt. Holyoke, who with part of the force 
formed a rear guard, often drove back the savages with great reso- 
lution. They, however, continued their attacks, being covered by 
a thick morass extending along the left flank of the retiring troops. 
By a captive which they took the English were informed that 
Philip was now approaching with a thousand Indians. This, with 
several attacks at various points, produced a panic among the men, 
and the main body at length fell into confusion, and separated into 
several parties under different leaders. Two of these parties were 
cut off by the Indians, and the prisoners of one party, as was after- 
wards ascertained, were burnt to death. Capt. Turner, at the head 
of the van, being enfeebled by a previous sickness, was unable to 
act with his usual vigor, and with much difficulty reached Green 
river. The enemy came up as he was crossing over, and he soon 
fell by a shot. Capt. Holyoke, who then commanded, continued 
the retreat through the meadow bordering Green river, and, cross- 


ing a pine plain and Deerfield river, entered the meadow in that 
town, hard pressed by the Indians, and after sustaining several 
furious attacks arrived at Hatfield, with the loss of thirty-eight 
men. ' The most fatal part of the retreat lay across the present 
town of Greenfield, to the north of the extended swamp, lying 
north of the old meeting-house. Capt. Turner is supposed to have 
fallen in Greenfield meadow, near the mouth of the brook, on 
which now stands Nash's mill, where his body was afterwards 
found by a scouting party of the English. The Indians followed 
Holyoke to the village, now called the Bars, at the south end of 
Deerfield meadow.' "* 


THIS town was formerly a part of Deerfield. It was incorpo- 
Tated as a town in 1753. Rev. Edward Billings, the first minister 
of the first Congregational church in this town, was a native of 
Sunderland ; he settled here in 1754. He was succeeded by Rev. 
Roger Newton, D. D., in 1761. Rev. Gamaliel S. Olds was settled 
as colleague in 1813; he resigned in 1816, and became .professor 
of mathematics and natural philosophy in the University of Ver- 
mont and in Amherst college. His successor was Rev. Sylvester 
Woodbridge, who was succeeded by Rev. Amariah Chandler in 
1832. Rev. Titus Strong, D. D., the present rector of the Episco- 
pal church, was instituted by Rt. Rev. Bishop Griswold, in 1814. 
The first pastor of the second church was Rev. Charles Jenkins, 
who was settled in 1820 ; his successors have been Rev. Wm. C. 
Fowler, Rev. C. S. Henry, Rev. Th. Bellows, and Rev. Saml. Wash- 
burn. The first minister of the Unitarian Congregational church 
was the Rev. Winthrop Bailey, who was installed in 1825, and died 
in 1835. He was succeeded by Rev. John Parkman Jr., in 1837. 

The principal part of Greenfield is composed of an extensive 
plain ; on the eastern part of the township runs a succession of 
eminences, of moderate height, which are a continuation of Deer- 
field mountain. The soil on and near these eminences is, for some 
extent, light and sandy ; that of the plain is moderately good ; and 
that along Green river, near the western border, is excellent. 
Greenfield is the shire town of Franklin county. The village is 
beautifully situated on an elevated plain, rising above the interval 
on Green river, and built on two intersecting streets. The village 
consists of 100 well-built dwelling-houses, 4 churches, 2 Congre- 
gational, one of which is Unitarian, 1 Episcopal, and 1 Methodist, 
a court-house, jail, a bank, the " Greenfield Bank," with a capital 
of $150,000, 2 printing-offices, with quite a number of mercantile 
stores and mechanic shops. The "Greenfield High School for 
young Ladies " has a high reputation, and the buildings connected 
with it are large, extensive, and elegant, and add very much to 
the fine appearance of the village. The following statement of dis- 

* Hoyt's Indian Wars, p. 131. 


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lances was taken from a guide-board, (or a kind of pilaster,) stand- 
ing near the elegant hotel in the center of the place : 20 miles to 
Northampton ; 3 to Deerfield ; 7 to Bernardston ; 9 tQ Coleraine ; 
40 to Springfield; 54 to Worcester; 20 to Brattleboro', Vt. j 118 
to Haverhill ; 66 to Hartford, Con. ; 255 to Montreal, U. C. ; and 
88 miles to Boston. Population of the town> 1,840. 

In 1837, there was in the town 1 woollen mill, 4 sets of ma- 
chinery ; 36.000 Ibs. of cotton and 150,000 Ibs. of wool were con- 
sumed, and 180,000 yards of satinet were manufactured, the value of 
which was $110,000; males employed, 26; females, 63; capital 
invested, $80,000. Merino sheep, 1,000; other kinds of sheep, 
1,153 ; merino wool produced, 2,730 Ibs.; other kinds of wool, 3,459 

This town during the Indian and French wars was made the 
theater for some of the horrors of Indian warfare. The fall fight, 
so called, took place near the eastern border of this town. (See 
account of Gill.) The most fatal part of the action to the English 
took place within the limits of this town. The following case of 
individual suffering deserves notice : it is extracted from Hoyfs 
Indian Wars. 

Mr. Jonathan Wells, of Hatfield, one of the twenty who remained in the rear when 
Turner began his march from the falls, soon after mounting his horse received a shot 
in one of his thighs, which had previously been fractured and badly healed, and 
another shot wounded his horse. With much difficulty he kept his saddle, and, after 
several narrow escapes, joined the main body just at the time it separated into several 
parties, as has been related. Attaching himself to one that was making towards the 
swamp on the left, and perceiving the enemy in that direction, he altered his route, 
and joined another party flying in a different direction. Unable to keep up with the 
party, he was soon left alone, and not long after fell in with one Jones, who was also 
wounded. The woods being thick and the day cloudy, they soon got bewildered, arid 
"Wells lost his companion ; and after wandering in various directions, accidentally 
struck Green river, and proceeding up the stream, arrived at a place, since called the 
country farms, in the northerly part of Greenfield. Passing the river, and attempting 
to ascend an abrupt hill, bordering the interval west, he fell from his horse exhausted. 
After lying senseless some time, he revived and found his faithful animal standing by 
him ; making him fast to a tree, he again lay down to rest himself, but finding he 
should not be able to remount, he turned the horse loose, and making use of his gun 
as a crutch hobbled up the river, directly opposite to the course he ought to have taken. 
His progress was slow and painful, and being much annoyed by musquetoes, towards 
night he struck up a fire, which soon spread in all directions, and with some difficulty 
he avoided the flames. New fears now arose ; the fire, he conjectured, might guide 
the Indians to the spot, and he should be sacrificed to their fury. Under these impres- 
sions he divested himself of his ammunition, that it might not fall into their hands 
bound up his thigh with a handkerchief, and staunched the blood, and composing him- 
self as much as possible, soon fell into a sleep. Probably before this he had conjec- 
tured that he was pursuing a wrong course, for in a dream he imagined himself 
bewildered, and was impressed with the idea that he must turn down the stream to find 
his home. The rising of the sun the next morning convinced him that his sleeping 
impressions were correct that he had travelled from, instead of towards. Hatfield, 
and that he was then further from that place than the falls, where the action took 
place. He was now some distance up Green river, where the high lands closed down 
to the stream. Reversing his course, he at length regained the level interval in the 
upper part of Greenfield, and soon found a foot path which led him to the trail of his 
retreating comrades ; this he pursued to Deerfield river, which, with much difficulty, 
he forded by the aid of his gun ; ascending the bank, he laid himself down to rest, 
and being overcome with fatigue, he fell asleep ; but soon awaking, he discovered an 
Indian making directly towards him, in a canoe. Unable to flee, and finding his 
situation desperate, he presented his gun, then wet and filled with sand and gravel, as 
if in the act of firing ; the Indian, leaving his own gun, instantly leaped from his canoe 



into the water, escaped to the opposite shore, and disappeared. Wells now concluded 
he should be sacrificed by others, who he knew were but a small distance down the 
river; but determining if possible to elude them, he gained an adjacent swamp, and 
secreted himself under a pile of drift-wood. The Indians were soon heard in search 
of him, traversing the swamp in all directions, and passing over the drift-wood ; but lying 
close, he fortunately avoided discovery, and after they had given up the search and 
left the place, he continued his painful march through Deerfield meadows. Hunger 
now began to prey upon him, and looking about he accidentally discovered the skele- 
ton of a horse, from the bones of which he gathered some animal matter, which he 
eagerly devoured, and soon after found a few birds' eggs, and some decayed beans, 
which in some measure allayed the cravings of nature, and added to his strength. 
Passing the ruins of Deerfield at dusk, he arrived the next morning at Lathrop's battle- 
ground, at Bloody Brook, in the south part of Deerfield, where he found himself so 
exhausted that he concluded he must give up further efforts, lie down, and die. But 
after resting a short time and recollecting that he was within about eight miles of 
Hatfield, his resolution returned, and he resumed his march over pine woods, then 
smoking with a recent fire ; here he found himself in great distress from a want of 
water to quench his thirst, and almost despaired of reaching his approximated home. 
But once more rousing himself, he continued his route, and about mid-day on Sunday 
reached Hatfield, to the inexpressible joy of his friends, who had supposed him dead. 
After a long confinement, Mtf Wells' wound was healed, and he lived to an advanced 
age, a worthy member of the town. 

After the sacking of Deerfield, Rouville, the commander of 
the French and Indians, after the destruction of the town, after 
a march of about four miles, encamped in the meadows on the 
bank of the river. The second day's march was slow. At the 
upper part of Greenfield meadow it was necessary to pass 
Green river, a small stream, then open, in which Mrs. Williams, 
the wife of the Rev. John Williams, plunged under water, but, 
recovering herself, she with difficulty reached the shore, and con- 
tinued her route. An abrupt hill was now to be surmounted, and 
Mr. Williams entreated his Indian master for leave to return and 
help forward his distressed wife ; he was refused, and she left to 
struggle with difficulties beyond her power. Her cruel and bloody 
master, finding her a burthen, sunk his hatchet in her head, and 
left her dead at the foot of the hill. Her body was soon afterwards 
taken up and interred in the burial-ground in Deerfield. 

On the twelfth of August, 1766, a party of Indians attacked five men at labor at a 
place called the Country farms, in the northerly part of Greenfield. The Indians had 
secreted themselves on an adjacent eminence, and observed the people deposit their 
arms before they commenced their labor, and by a cautious approach placed them- 
selves between them and the men, and rushing furiously on, gave their fire ; but it 
proved harmless. Destitute of the means of defence, the people fled in different direc- 
tions ; Shubal Atherton leaped into a ravine, among thick brush, where he was dis- 
covered, shot, and scalped ; Benjamin Hastings and John Graves, dashing through 
Green river, outstripped the Indians, and escaped ; but Daniel Graves and Nathaniel 
Brooks were captured. The former being in years, and unable to travel with the 
speed of the Indians, was killed a small distance from the place of capture ; Brooks 
was carried off. arid never returned; whether he suffered the fate of his fellow-pri- 
soner, is not known. A party of people from Greenfield village hurried on to the spot, 
and followed the trail of the enemy some distance, and were soon joined by Major 
Williams with a party from Deerfield, but the enemy eluded their pursuers. 

The following is copied from a monument in the grave-yard in 
this place : 

Sacred to the memory of Thomas Chapman, Esq., a native of Barforth, in York- 
shire, Great Britain ; and many years a resident at Cossim-buzar, in the East Indies. 
He departed this transitory life May 25th, A. D. 1819, aged 73 ; and was a Gentleman 

H A w L E y . 259 

of inviolable integrity, of great urbanity of manners, and a generous example of good 
old English hospitality. He was also an affectionate Father, an indulgent husband, 
a zealous friend of the primitive church, and a sincere follower of Jesus Christ. 
Hence he lived beloved, and died lamented, by a large circle of friends and acquain- 
tance, and the few sorrowing relatives who have erected this marble to perpetuate his 


THIS town was incorporated in 1792. It has an elevated situa- 
tion on the Green mountain range, and is well watered by. several 
branches of Deerfield river. Rev. Jonathan Grout, the first Con- 
gregational minister, was settled here in 1793; he died in 1835, 
aged 72. His successor was Rev. Tyler Thacher. No regular 
minister has yet been settled over the second parish. The names 
of some of the first settlers were Deacon Joseph Bangs, Adjutant 
Zebedee Wood, Dauiel Bnrt, Samuel and Arthur Hitchcock, 
Timothy Raker, Reuben Cooley, Joseph Easton, Elisha Hunt, Abel 
Parker. Nathan West, Phiueas Scott, Thomas King, Joseph Long- 
ley, William Mclntire, and James Percival. Part of the north 
part of the town is named from Bozrah, Con., from which place 
some of the first settlers came. 

Old Mr. Hale, one of the first settlers of this town, located him- 
self about half a mile from the South Hawley post-office. He is 
described as being a very singular sort of a man. He was never 
married, but lived by himself: with his own hands he cleared up 
land and raised a considerable quantity of grain. He used to talk 
much to himself, and was very much harassed by the appearance 
of "spirits," which he said very much troubled him: he, however, 
like Fingal," showed fight " with his tormentors. He has been seen 
armed with a pitchfork, and to all appearance, as far as he was 
concerned, engaged in mortal combat with his enemies. He 
would violently thrust the fork into the air in various directions 
about him, furnishing a kind of representation of Fingal's cele- 
brated contest with the spirit of Loda, thus described in Carric- 
Thura, a poem of Ossian : 

''The flame was dim and distant : the moon hid her red face in the east. A blast 
came from the mountain ; on its wings was the spirit of Loda. He came to his place 
in his terrors, and shook his dusky spear. His eyes appear like flames in his dark 
face ; his voice is like distant thunder. Fingal advanced his spear in night, and 
raised his voice on high. 

" < Son of night, retire : call thy winds, arid fly ! Why dost thou come to my presence 
with thy shadowy arms ? Do I fear thy gloomy form, spirit of dismal Loda? Weak 
is thy shield of clouds ; feeble is that meteor thy sword! The blast rolls them together ; 
and thou thyself art lost. Flv from my presence, son of night ! call thy winds and 

"'Dost thou force me. from my place?' replied the hollow voice. 'The people 
bend before me. I turn the battle in the field of the brave. I look on the nations, 
and they vanish ; my nostrils pour the blast of death. I come abroad on the winds : 
the tempests are before my face. But my dwelling is calm, above the clouds ; the 
fields of my rest are pleasant.' 

'"Dwell" in thy pleasant fields,' said the king. 'Let Combal's son be forgot. Do 
my steps ascend from my hills into thy peaceful plains? Do I meet thee with a speai 
on thy cloud, spirit >f dismal Loda ? Why then dost thou frown on me ? why shake 

260 HEATH. 

thine airy spear ? Thou frownest in vain : I never fled from the mighty in war. And 
shall the sons of the wind frighten the king of Morven ? No : he knows the weakness 
of their arms ! ' 

" 'Fly to thy land,' replied the form ; ' receive thy wind, and fly ! The blasts are 
in the hollow of my hand -, the course of the storm is mine. The king of Sora is my 
son ; he bends at the stone of my power. His battle is around Carric-thura ; and he 
will prevail ! Fly to thy land, son of Combal, or feel my flaming wrath ! ' 

'< He lifted high his shadowy spear! He bent forward his dreadful height. Fingal, 
advancing, drew his sword ; the blade of dark-brown Luno. The gleaming path of 
the steel winds through the gloomy ghost. The form fell shapeless into air, like a 
column of smoke, which the staff of the boy disturbs as it rises from the half-extin- 
guished furnace." 

In 1837, there were in this town 2,716 merino sheep, which pro- 
duced 8,148 Ibs. of wool, valued at $4,574. The value of leather 
tanned and curried was $13,000. Population, 985. Distance, 20 
miles from Greenfield, 23 from Northampton, 53 to Albany, and 
about 120 from Boston. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1785. Rev. Joseph Strong, the 
first minister, was settled here in 1790. The church originated 
from that in Charlemont, at the close of the Revolutionary war, 
when Mr. Leavitt was the minister of the latter. " It was a period 
of some difficulty, owing, in part, to the state of the times." The 
number of original members was thirty-five. Rev. Moses Miller 
succeeded Mr. Strong in the ministry, in 1804. It is stated in the 
American Quarterly Register, Feb. 1838, as follows, viz. : "The 
church now consists of about 200. It has been diminished 100, by 
emigration. About 60 families attend Mr. Miller's meeting; of 
which 15 do not belong to the parish. About 350 persons attend 
meeting statedly ; 30 families attend the Baptist meeting ; 10 the 
Methodist ; and 20 are Unitarians. At one time one third of the 
persons in town were professors of religion." 

This is principally an agricultural town. The principal articles 
manufactured in the town are palm-leaf hats ; of these, in 1837, 
there were 30,000 manufactured, valued at $5,000. The number 
of inhabitants in 1830 was 1.199 ; in 1837 it was reduced to 953. 
Distance, 4 miles N. of Charlemont, 13 from Greenfield, and 125 
from Boston. There are three churches in the town, 1 Congrega- 
tional, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist ; and two post-offices. One of 
the cordon of forts, built in 1744 for a defence against the Indians, 
was situated in this town, and was called Fort Shirley. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1774. Rev. Henry Williams was 
installed pastor here in 1784. He died in 1811, and was succeed- 

L E Y D E N . 26 1 

ed by Rev. Joel Wright, in 1812, who continued pastor till 1820 ; 
Rev. Joseph Sawyer, the next minister, was settled in 1822. The 
next was Rev. Jonas Colburn, who was settled in 1824 ; and was 
succeeded, in 1832, by Rev. Freegrace Reynolds. 

This is principally an agricultural town. In 1837, there were 
two scythe factories, which manufactured 2,400 scythes, valued at 
$1,600. Palm-leaf hats manufactured, 30,400 ; the value of which 
was $4,590. There are two Congregational churches, one in the 
north, the other in the south part of the town ; there are two post- 
offices. Population, 902. Distance, 3 miles E. from Sunderland, 
10 from Greenfield, and 85 from Boston. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1809. It was formerly a part of 
Coleraine, and is now divided from that town by Green river, 
which, passing through Greenfield, passes into Deerfield river. 
There is one church in the town, which is situated in the central 
part, and belongs to the Baptists, the only regular denomination in 
the town. Agricultural pursuits is the business of the inhabitants. 
In 1837, there were 1,140 Saxony, 1.733 merino, and 269 other 
kinds of sheep in this town; Saxony wool produced, 3,320 Ibs. ; 
merino, 5,199 Ibs. ; other kinds, 807 Ibs. ; average weight of fleece, 
3 Ibs. ; value of wool, $5,129 30; capital invested, $7,855. Popu- 
lation. 656. Distance, 7 miles from Greenfield, and 100 from Bos- 
ton. The " Glen" a narrow rocky pass, through which a branch 
of the Green river passes, is much admired for its wild and pic- 
turesque scenery. 

William Dorrell, the founder of the sect of Dorrellites, it is believed is still living m 
the north-west corner of this town. He is a native of England, and was born in Glou- 
cestershire, about 1750, and was the son of a farmer. He enlisted as a soldier when 
he was twenty years of age. He came to America and was captured with Burgoyne. 
He lived for a time in Petersham, where he married a woman by the name of Polly 
Chase ; he lived afterwards in Warwick, and then removed into Leyden. He was 
visited by a gentleman in 1834, from whom the above, and following particulars are 
derived. He was found living in a poor old house, situated in a bleak place, far from 
any travelled road. He was six feet or more in height. He did not believe in the Bible. 
He said the first revelation was made to him when he was chopping wood ; it was, " Ren- 
der yourself an acceptable sacrifice," or something similar. He began to have follow- 
ers in the spring of 1794, and at one time twenty or more families joined him; some 
were from Bernardston. Dorrell held that all days were alike, and also to non-resist- 
ance, and would say that no arm of flesh could hurt him. Some of his followers wore 
wooden shoes and tow cloth. Dorrell possessed a good deal of firmness of mind, and 
it is said that the organ for this was very fully developed in his cranium. He was in 
the habit of occasionally drinking too much ; he was, however, very punctual in ful- 
filling all his engagements, whether drunk or sober. The sect of which he was the 
head, it is believed, has become extinct. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1822. It is situated on the high 
lands north of Hoosic river. Distance, 23 miles from Greenfield, 



and 130 N. W. of Boston. Number of inhabitants, 232. It is 
stated that no religious society has yet been formed in the place. 
In 1837, there were 400 Saxony, 600 merino, and 103 other kinds 
of sheep ; the average weight of whose fleeces were three and one 
fourth pounds. 


MONTAGUE was incorporated as a town in 1753. Before that 
time, the southern part belonged to the town of Sunderland, and 
the northern part belonged to the state. It is about 6 miles square. 
The general face of the town is uneven, the soil various ; a range 
of highlands in the easterly part of the town, the parts of which 

North-west view of Montague, (central part.) 

are designated by different names, Harvey's Hill, Chesnut Hill, 
Bald Hill, Pine Hill, Quarry Hill, &c. South-westerly from the 
present center of the town there is a hill called Taylor Hill. The 
northerly part consists of pine plains ; on the west of the town, 
bordering upon the Connecticut, there is quite an extensive tract of 
meadow land, of a good quality for cultivation. There is also 
upon the Saw-mill river, which takes its rise from Lock's Pond, 
Shutesbury, considerable meadow land. This river enters the town 
of Montague near the south-east corner, and winds its way in a 
north-westerly direction, passing northerly of the center of the town, 
and empties itself into the Connecticut, about one mile from the 
south-west corner of the town. The town affords many excellent 
water privileges. Timber, clay, granite and other stone of a good 
quality for building, are abundant. 

The above is a view from the north-west of the central part of 
the town, on the bank of Saw-mill river, showing the two churches, 
and some other buildings in the vicinity. In 1837, there was 
$6,000's worth of scythe-snaiths and $3,000's worth of palm-leaf 


hats manufactured. Population, 1,260. Distance, 7 miles from 
Greenfield, and 80 from Boston. 

In the north-westerly part of the town there is a canal 3 miles 
long, commencing at the head of Turner's falls, descent 70 feet, 
through which lumber and goods are conveyed in great abundance 
annually. There is a post-office at this place, called Montague 
Canal post-office. From time to time many traces of savage men 
are here discovered, such as points of arrows, stone chisels, &c. 
The first ordained minister was the Rev. Judah Nash, as appears 
upon a slab of slate-stone over his grave ; was settled Nov. 17, 1752, 
died Feb. 19, 1805, having continued with his people 53 years, 
And it is engraven upon said slab, that 

" He was faithful to his God, a lover of the church, a friend to mankind. 

Ever ready to hear affliction's cry, 
And trace his Maker's will with a curious eye, 
He tried each art, reproved each dull delay, 
Allured to brighter worlds and led the way. 
At church, with meek and unaffected grace, 
His look adorned the venerable place." 

The names of some of the first settlers are Ellis, Harvey, Root, 
Gunn, Taylor, Clapp, &c. The celebrated Capt. Jonathan Carver 
had his residence in this town for many years.* One of his daugh- 
ters married a Mr. Moses Gunn, who is still living in this place, 
and through the descent of his children by Capt. Carver's daughter 
claims an interest in what is called the Carver lands, granted 
him by the western Indians, situated in the Wisconsin Territory. 
The following was transcribed from a grave-stone in said Mon- 
tague, about one mile from the present center: "In memory of 
Mrs. Olive, wife of Mr. Moses Gunn. and daughter of Capt. Jona- 
than Carver of Montague, who died April 21, 1789, aged 30 years, 
leaving 4 children." 

That part of the town taken from Sunderland in early times 
was called Hunting-hill Fields. Tradition says that it was thick- 
ly inhabited by animals of the forest, such as bears, wolves, deer, 
and moose. From the many stories of hunters, one only is select- 
ed. "A Mr. Ebenezer Tuttle and his father, of this place, at the 
time of its first settlement, went out on a hunting expedition, agree- 
ing to continue out over night, designating the spot, about 3 miles 
from any house, in the easterly part of the town, in a gloomy 
forest. They separated for the objects of their pursuit. The son 
returned first to the place of encampment ; he had not been there 
long before he heard a noise, saw the bushes move, and, being 
somewhat frightened, he thought he saw a bear, levelled his piece 
and fired ; his father replied, ' You have killed me ! ' and soon expir 
ed. It was then almost dark. He took his father in his arms, with 
what emotions nor pen nor tongue can describe, and continued 
with him till day, and then went and gave information of what 
had taken place." In the grave-yard in said Montague there is 
the following inscription: 

* Communication from J. Hartwell, Esq. 


fin memory of Mr. Elijah Bordwell, who died Jan 1 * 26, 1786, in y e 27th year of 
his age, having but a few days survived y e fatal night when he was flung from his 
horse and drawn by y e sturrup 26 rods along ye path, as appeared by y e place where his 
hat was found, and here he had spent y e whole of the following severe cold night tread- 
ing down the snow in a small circle. The Family he left was an aged Father, a wii> 
and three small children." 


THIS town was incorporated in 1753. The first inhabitants were 
chiefly from Middleborough, and some from Danvers. The first 
minister was Rev. Samuel Kendal, who died in 1792, and Was 
succeeded in the ministry by Rev. Joel Foster, who was settled in 
1779 ; he resigned in 1802, and was succeeded by Rev. Warren 
Pierce. Rev. Alpheus Harding succeeded Mr. Pierce in 1807. 
The north Congregational society erected their meeting-house in 
1836, about three and a half miles north of the south church. 
The church (called the Orthodox) was organized in 1824. Rev. 
Levi French was settled pastor the next year ; he was succeeded 
by Rev. Erastus Curtiss, in 1834. There is a Baptist church near 
the southern line of the town. 

The south Congregational church and the academy, which was 
incorporated in 1795, stand on a very elevated hill, which com- 
mands an extensive prospect over the neighboring valleys. : ' The 
fogs of Connecticut river seldom rise above this place, while it 
covers the surrounding country; and the towering Monadnock on 
the north appear like islands rising from a boundless ocean." This 
place is 19 miles from Greenfield, 12 from Montague, 35 from 
Worcester, 10 from Athol, and 73 from Boston. The Millington 
post-office, in this town, is 3 miles distant from this place, in a little 
village in the south part of the town. Population, 1,255. Agri- 
culture is the principal business of the inhabitants. The manu- 
facture of palm-leaf hats, however, receives considerable attention, 
In 1837, seventy-nine thousand were manufactured, valued at 

The following, relative to Revolutionary times, is copied from 
the Barre Gazette. 

" The news of the battle at Lexington flew through New England like wildfire. The 
swift horseman with his red flag proclaimed it in every village, and made the stirring 
call upon the patriots to move forward in defence of the rights so ruthlessly invaded 
and now sealed with the martyr's blood. Putnam, it will be recollected, left his plough 
in the furrow and led his gallant band to Cambridge." Such instances of promptness 
and devotion were not rare. We have the following instance of the display of fervid 
patriotism from an eye-witness one of those valued relics of the band of '76, whom 
now a grateful nation delights to honor. 

" When the intelligence reached New Salem in this state, the people were hastily as- 
sembled on the village green, by the notes of alarm. Every man came w;th his gun, 
and other hasty preparations for a short march. The militia of the town were then 
divided into two companies, one of which was commanded by Capt. G-. This company 
was paraded before much consultation had been had upon the proper steps to be taken 
in the emergency, and while determination was expressed on almost every countenance, 
the men stood silently leaning on their muskets, awaiting the movement of the spim 


in the officers. The captain was supposed to be tinctured with toryism, and his present 
indecision and backwardness were ample proof, if not of his attachment to royalty, at 
least of his unfitness to lead a patriot band. Some murmurs began to be heard, when 
the first lieutenant, William Stacy, took off his hat and addressed them. He was a 
man of stout heart, but of few words. Pulling his commission from his pocket, he 
said : ' Fellow-soldiers, I don't know exactly how it is with the rest of you, but for one, 
I will no longer serve a king that murders my own countrymen ;' and tearing the paper 
in a hundred pieces, he trod it under his foot. Sober as were the people by nature, 
they could not restrain a loud, wild hurra as he stepped forward and took his place m 
the ranks. G. still faltered, and made a feeble endeavor to restore order ; but they 
heeded him as little as the wind. The company was summarily disbanded, and a reor- 
ganization begun on the spot. The gallant Stacy was unanimously chosen captain, and 
with a prouder commission than was ever borne on parchment, he led a small but 
efficient band to Cambridge. He continued in service through the war, reaching, we 
believe, before its close, the rank of lieutenant-colonel, under the command of Put- 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments standing 
in the grave-yard near the south Congregational church. 

Sacred to the memory of Rev ri - Samuel Kendall, who died Jan. 31, 1792, in the 85 
year of his age, first minister of New Salem. 

Equal in dust we all must lie ; 

And no distinction we can make, 
But Faith forbids the rising sigh, 

And sees my sleeping dust awake. 

In memory of Mrs. Lucy Kendall, the late virtuous & amiable consort of Mr. Sam- 
uel Kendall, Jr., who did Oct. y e 22, 1784, in the 34 th year of her age. 

Tantum mors temporalem vastat felicitatem.* 

Nor art nor virtue could redeem from death, 
Nor anxious love prolong her lab'ring breath ; 
Conjugal bands asunder must be torn, 
And thou, surviving partner, left to mourn ; 
But let her virtue now your grief suppress, 
And wait reluctant till you meet in bliss. 


" IN 1672, a township was granted to John Pynchon, Mr. Pearson, 
and other associates, at Sqttakheag, now Northfield, on Connecticut 
river; and the following year a few people from Northampton, 
Hadley, and Hatfield, began a plantation at that place. The 
township was laid out on both sides of the river, and included an 
area of six miles by twelve, extending several miles into the pre- 
sent states of New Hampshire and Vermont, including a valuable 
tract of interval land. The northern boundary of Massachusetts 
was at this time unknown, but the grant was supposed to be within 
the limits of the province. A deed to William Clark and John 
King of Northampton, agents for the proprietors of Northfield, 
covering the grant, was made August 13, 1687, by Nawelet Gon- 
gegua, Aspiambelet, Addarawanset, and Meganichcha, Indians of 

* Thus does death destroy temporal (happiness) felicity. 


the place, in consideration of ' two hundred fathom of wampum 
and fifty-seven pounds worth of trading goods.' It was signed 
with the marks of the grantors, and witnessed by Jonathan Hunt, 
Preserved Clap, William Clark, Jr., Peter Jethro, Joseph Atherton, 
and Israel Chauncey." "The planters built small huts, and co- 
vered them with thatch ; made a place for public worship ; and 
built a stockade and fort." 

A great part of Northfield is excellent land, particularly several 
valuable intervals on both sides of Connecticut river. The village 
of Northfield is situated on an elevated plain, rising above the 
meadows on the Connecticut. The main street runs parallel with 
the river, and is about a mile in length ; it is wide, and ornamented 
with shade trees. The houses are handsomely built. There are 
two churches and an academy in the village. 

Southern view in the central part of Northfield. 

The above is a southern view in the central part of the village, 
showing the Unitarian church and some other buildings, with the 
shade trees ; the whole intended to give a characteristic view of 
the appearance of the village. This place is about 12 miles from 
Greenfield, 12 from Brattleborough, Vt. 16 from New Salem, 13 
to Montague, 78 to Hartford, Ct, and 78 to Boston. Population, 
1,605. Very little is done in the manufacturing business at present 
in this town. 

Northfield has suffered much from the horrors of Indian warfare 
and bloodshed. Upon the opening of Philip's war, Northfield, be- 
ing a frontier settlement, was much exposed to the attacks of 4 the 
enemy. In the beginning of September, 1675, nine or ten people 
were killed in the woods at Northfield ; others escaped to the gar- 
rison-house. The day after this took place, and before it was 
known at Hadley, Capt. Beers, with thirty-six mounted infantry, 
was detached by Major Treat, to convoy provisions to the garri- 
son and people at Northfield. Beers' route led through the present 


towns of Sunderland, Montague, and the tract called Erving's 
Grant, then a continued forest, through which was an imperfect 
road, the distance of nearly thirty miles ; and though continually- 
exposed to attacks, he passed several difficult places, and among 
others Miller's river, without seeing an Indian. Dismounting and 
leaving the horses, the march was continued on foot, and was ne- 
cessarily retarded by an accompanying baggage. At the distance 
of about two miles from the garrison at Northfield, the route lay 
over a deep swampy ravine, through which ran a considerable 
brook, emptying into Connecticut river. Discovering Beers' ap- 
proach, a large body of Indians formed an ambuscade at this place, 
and lay ready to attack his front and right. Without discovering 
the snare, Beers arrived at the point, and received the fire of the 
Indians from the margin of the ravine on his right. A considera- 
ble proportion of the party fell on the spot ; the remainder instantly 
broke, and, in scattered order, retreated over a piece of level 
ground, closely followed by the Indians. Beers, with a few of his 
men, gained an abrupt hill, about three fourths of a mile in his 
rear, where they bravely maintained their ground some time against 
an overwhelming force ; but at length he received a fatal shot, and 
the survivors were compelled to retire from the ground. Out of 
the thirty-six, only sixteen escaped back to Hadley, leaving the 
baggage and wounded in the hands of the enemy.* Two days 
after this fatal disaster, Major Treat, with one hundred men, ar- 
rived on the ground where Beers was defeated, and witnessed the 
horrid barbarity of the savages. Several of the slain were behead- 
ed, and their heads were elevated on poles near the road ; one man 
was suspended to the limb of a tree, by a chain hooked to his un- 
der jaw, probably when alive, and the whole scene was appalling. 
Pursuing his march to the town, the major found the garrison safe, 
and brought them off with the inhabitants. The Indians soon 
after destroyed the fort, houses, and every thing valuable in the 

During the first part of " King William's war," which com- 
menced in 1690, Northfield was again occupied by a few settlers, pro- 
tected by small works, and a few troops, furnished by government ; 
but the people were at length compelled to abandon it, on which 
the Indians the second time destroyed the place. Immediately 
after the peace of 1713, the settlers of Northfield returned to their 
plantations, rebuilt their houses, and one for public worship; and 
in 1718, they settled Mr. Benjamin Doolittle, from Wallingford, 
Con., as minister of the place, which then consisted of about thirty 
families. The following is the date of the settlement of -the cler- 
gymen succeeding Mr. Doolittle : John Hubbard in 1750 ; Samuel 

* Hoyfs Indian Wars. The ground where this disaster took place is still called Beers' 
plain, and the hill where the captain fell, Beers' mountain. At a sandy knoll on the 
west side of the road, near the place where the attack commenced, the bones of the 
slain were a few years since to be found bleaching in the sun. The mail route from 
Montague to Northfield formerly passed over the ground ; it nov runs a little to the 
west. Janes' mill is situated a small distance north of the place of attack. 



C. Allen in 1795; Thomas Mason in 1799; George W. Hosmer in 
1830; Oliver C. Everett in 1837. The Trinitarian church was 
formed in 1825. Eii Moody and Bancroft Fowler have been min- 
isters of this church. The Methodist church stands in the south- 
ern part of the town. 

[From the Boston Post Boy, May 12, 1746.] 

" By an express from the westward, we are informed, that the Indians kill'd a man 
who was going from Lunenburg to Northfteld, about a fortnight ago, but was not found 
until last Monday. He had been to Boston, and was on his return home, with about 
four or five hundred pounds with him in paper bills, which he was carrying up to 
Northfield to pay the billeting of soldiers. And that at No. 4, another man was 
killed last Friday sev'night, the circumstances of which are pretty remarkable. Maj. 
Willard with several soldiers went as a guard to some women, not far from the 
fort, who went out to milk their cows. Two of the party having separated to go to the 
barn, one of them seeing a door of the stable open, ran before to shut it, fearing the cat- 
tle might have got in there ; and just as he had got to the door, he saw 7 or 8 of them 
in the stable ; upon which he cried out, the stable is full of Indians ! They not minding it, 
the Indians rushed out and fired upon them, and shot this man. The major and guard 
hearing the guns, called the men to arms, and advanced in haste toward the enemy ; 
but before they got nigh enough, they saw one of the Indians, a very stout fellow, run 
up to the man they had shot and strike him on the head, which entirely dispatched him ; 
,but the major getting good aim, fired, and supposes to have struck him, as they 
were scouring off, this fellow being seen from the fort to drop at some distance, but was 
carried off by the others j also much blood was seen at the place, and his blankets, very 
bloody, were found." 

The following inscriptions were copied from monuments in the 
burial-ground in this place : 

Rev. John Hubbard, A.M., second minister of this town, died Nov. 28, 1794, in the 
69 th year of his age, and 45 th of his ministry. 

A man he was to all his people dear 

And passing rich with eighty pounds a year ; 

Remote from towns, he held his godly race, 

Nor ever changed, nor wish'd to change his place. 

In duty, faithful, prompt at every call, 

He watch'd, and wept, and pray'd for all ; 

He try'd each art, reproved each dull delay, 

Allur'd to brighter worlds, and led the way. 

In memory of the Rev. Mr. Benjamin Doolittle, first pastor of the church in North 
field, who died Jan- v - y e 9 th . 1748, in the 54 th year of his age & 30 th year of his minis- 

Bless'd with good intelectual parts, 
Well skilled in two important arts, 
Nobly he filled the double station 
Both of a preacher and physician. 
To cure men's sicknesses and sins, 
He took unwearied care and pains ; 
And strove to make his patient whole 
Throughout, in body and in soul. 

He lov'd his God, lov'd to do good, 
To all his friends vast kindness show'd ; 
Nor could his enemies exclaim, 
And say he was not kind to them. 
His labors met a sudden close, 
Now he enjoys a sweet rspose ; 
And when the just to life shall rise, 
Among the first, he'll mount the skies. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1783. The face of the township 
is generally rough and uneven. Miller's river, which now passes 
through the central part of the town, affords valuable water privi- 
leges. Mr. Emerson Foster and Mr. Chandler are the only minis- 

R W E 


ters who have been settled over the old church in Orange, now in 
the northern section of the town. Mr. Foster was minister here 
about 1798. Mr. Chandler was in the place but a short time. In 
1837 an ecclesiastical council convened and organized a church, 
called the " Evangelical Church of Orange." 

Southern view of Orange, (central part.) 

The above is a southern view of the flourishing little village of 
Orange, now in the central part of the town. Miller's river, which 
passes through the place, was formerly the southern boundary of 
Orange. The northern part of New Salem has been quite recently 
annexed to this town, so that this village is now in the central part. 
The forests have been recently cleared away in the immediate 
vicinity, and the place presents the appearance of a new settlement 
springing up in the wilderness. Population of the town in April, 
1837, was 1,543. Distance, 75 miles from Boston. In 1837, there 
were manufactured in this town 72,300 palm-leaf hats, the value 
of which was $12,050. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1785. It has an elevated situa- 
tion, and was originally purchased by a Mr. Jones. In 1838, the 
legislature annexed a part of an unincorporated tract, called Zoar, 
to this town. This tract comprised 1,875 acres of land, adjoining 
the south part of the town, on which were six families. One of the 
cordon of forts erected about 1744 for a defence against the French 
and Indians was situated in this town. The ruins of this fortifi- 
cation, called Fort Pelham, are situated south-east of the Congre- 
gational church in the center of the town, on Pelham brook, a 
small stream, being the only one passing through the town. Rev. 
Preserved Smith, the first minister, was settled here in 1787 ; his 
successor was Rev. Jonathan Keith, was settled in 1808, and was 


succeeded by Mr. Smith, who again settled in 1812. His successor 
was Rev. William D. Stearns, was settled in 1835. Rev. John C. 
Thompson was settled over the Trinitarian church in 1835. There 
are four religious societies and four meeting-houses in this town. 
Population, 688. Distance, 22 miles from Greenfield and 130 from 
Boston. There is a woollen mill in this town. In 1837 there 
were 302 Saxony, 1,630 merino, and 364 of other kinds of sheep, 
producing wool to the value of $4,249 80. 


THIS town was originally a part of Deerfield, called Deerfield 
North- West It received its present name from Lord Shelburne, 
of England. It was incorporated a distinct town in 1768. The 
first settlement was made in the eastern part of the town ; the first 
meeting-house, which was built of logs and plastered, stood about 
half a mile north of the present Congregational church in the cen- 
ter of the town. The first Congregational minister was Rev. Ro- 
bert Hubbard, who was settled in 1773 ; he died in Middletown, Ct. 
in 1788, aged 45. His successor was Rev. Jesse Townsend, who 
was settled in 1792, and resigned in 1797 ; the next pastor was 
Rev. Theophilns Packard, D. D., who was settled in 1799; he 
was succeeded by his son of the same name in 1828. The Shakers 
carne into this town in 1782; they continued here about three 
years, when they removed to New Lebanon : a Mr. Wood was 
their elder or leader. ' The oldest house now standing in Shelburne 
Falls village was built by these people. The first Baptist church 
in this town was formed in 1788, and their first minister was a 
Mr. Green ; in 1792 Rev. David Long became its pastor, and con- 
tinued his labors nearly forty years. The Unitarian society was 
formed in 1828. The Rev. Pliny Fiske, a missionary to Palestine, 
who died at Beyroot, in Syria, in 1825, was a native of this town. 

The following is a S. Eastern view of Shelburne Falls village, on 
Deerfield river, on the western boundary of the town. It consists 
of about thirty dwelling-houses, a church, an academy, and other 
buildings. The descent of the river at this place is forty-seven feet 
in the distance of forty rods, which affords abundant water power 
for several mills for different purposes. This village is uncom- 
monly neat and beautiful in its general appearance. The engra- 
ving shows the northern part. Deerfield river runs a few rods 
westward of the houses represented ; it bends round to the east- 
ward, passing over a rocky bed, falling in some places perpen- 
dicularly, foaming and roaring. This, with the elevated banks on 
each side, covered with forest trees, presents a wild and pictu- 
resque scene. 

The church seen in the engraving in the distance is the Baptist 
church, erected in 1836. The second Baptist church was formed 
in 1833, and the Rev. John Alden, Jr., was constituted pastor. 


South-eastern view of Shelburne Falh Village. 

The Franklin Academy, located in this village, was incorporated 
m 1823. Two buildings are connected with the institution: one, 
(the academy) is a brick edifice, 52 feet by 38, and three stories 
in height. It is seen in the engraving in the distance, with a 
small tower or steeple on the roof. The other is the house occu- 
pied by the principal, and others connected with the academy. 
It is 80 feet by 30, and stands about 60 rods east of the brick 
building. The average number of scholars for the last five years 
has been about 90 each term. Ever since its formation it has been 
under the charge of Mr. Alden, the Baptist clergyman mentioned 
above. This place is 4 miles from the center of the town, 9 from 
Greenfield, 25 from Northampton, and 100 from Boston. Popula- 
tion, 1,018. In 1837 there was one woollen mill ; 1 scythe manu- 
factory, which manufactured 7,200 scythes, the value of which was 
$9,400. Fifteen hands were employed in the manufacture of scythe 
snaiths ; capital invested in this manufacture was $10,000. There 
were 6,000 palm-leaf hats manufactured, valued at $1.000. The 
value of wool produced in the town was $4.500 ; boots and shoes, 


THIS town was incorporated in 1761. The town was .first set- 
tled mostly by people from Sudbury, in 1754, and was at that 
period called Road Town. The land is uneven, encumbered with 
stones, and the soil is generally of an inferior quality. The Rev. 
Abraham Hill, the first Congregational minister, was settled here 
in 1742. Imbibing political sentiments hostile to the American 
cause, Mr. Hill was alienated from his people, and was regularly 
dismissed, in 1778 ; the church was reduced to one member. It 


was reorganized in 1806 with 20 members. Rev. John Taylor 
was settled here, 1816 ; his successor Avas Rev. Marty n Cushman. 
Population, 816. Distance, 16 miles from Greenfield, 9 from 
Amherst, and 78 from Boston. In 1837, there were 22,000 palm- 
leaf hats manufactured. 

The following account of Mr. Ephraim Pratt, of this town, who 
lived to a very advanced age, is from the second volume of Dr. 
Dwight's Travels, page 358. 

"He was born at Sudbury, Massachusetts, in 1687; and in one month from the 
date of our arrival (Wednesday, Nov. 13th, 1803) would complete his one hundred and 
sixteenth year. He was of middle stature ; firmly built ; plump, but not encumbered 
with flesh ; less withered than multitudes at seventy ; possessed of considerable 
strength, as was evident from the grasp of his hand and the sound of his voice ; and 
without any marks of extreme age. About two months before, his sight became so 
impaired, that he was unable to distinguish persons. His hearing, also, for a short 
time had been so imperfect, that he could not distinctly hear common conversation. 
His memory was still vigorous j his understanding sound ; and his mind sprightly 
in its conceptions. 

" The principal part of the time which I was in the house, he held me by the hand ; 
cheerfully answered all my questions ; readily gave me an account of himself in such 
particulars as I wished to know ; observed to me that my voice indicated that I was 
not less than forty -five years of age, and that he must appear very old to me ; adding, 
however, that some men, who had not passed their seventieth year, probably looked 
almost, or quite, as old as himself. The remark was certainly just ; but it was the first 
time that I had heard persons who had reached the age of seventy considered as 
being young. We were informed, partly by himself and partly by his host, that he had 
been a laborious man all his life ; and particularly, that he had mown grass one hun- 
dred and one years successively. The preceding summer he had been unable to per- 
form this labor. During this season his utmost effort was a walk of half a mile. Ip 
this walk he stumbled over a log, and fell. Immediately afterwards he began evi- 
dently to decline, and lost in a considerable degree both his sight and hearing. In 
the summer of 1802, he walked without inconvenience two miles, and mowed a small 
quantity of grass. 

" Throughout his life he had been uniformly temperate. Ardent spirits he rarely 
tasted ; cider he drank at times, but sparingly. In the vigorous periods of life he had 
accustomed himself to eat flesh, but much more abstemiously than most other per- 
sons in this country. Milk, which had always been a great part, was now the whole 
of his diet. He is naturally cheerful, and humorous ; apparently unsusceptible of 
tender emotions ; and not much inclined to serious thinking. According to an account 
which he gave his host, he made a public profession of religion near seventy years 
before our visit to him ; but was not supposed by him, nor by others acquainted 
with him, to be a religious man. He conversed easily, and was plainly gratified 
with the visits and conversation of strangers. When he was ninety-three years old, he 
made a bargain with his host, (who told us the story,) that he should support him 
during the remainder of his life for 20. 

"He was never sick but once, and then with the fever and ague. It is scarcely 
necessary to observe, that a man one hundred and sixteen years old, without religion, 
was a melancholy sight to me. 

" Three or four years before this time I saw in a newspaper an advertisement, written 
by a person who professed and appeared to be acquainted with him and his con- 
cerns, in which it was said that his descendants, some of whom were of the fifth 
generation, amounted probably to more than 1,500." 


THIS town was originally a part of Hadley. It was incorpo- 
rated as a town in 1718, and the Rev. Josiah Willard was ordained 
the first minister the same year. Mr. Willard died in 1790, aged 



ninety years. The following ministers have succeeded him, viz. 
William Rand, who settled here in 1724; Joseph Ashley, in 1747 ; 
Asa Lyon, in 1792; David H. Williston, in 1804; James Taylor, 
in 1807 ; Henry B. Holmes, in 1833. 

The central village of Sunderland is pleasantly situated on a 
fine interval of land on the east bank of Connecticut river. It 
consists of about fifty dwelling-houses and a Congregational 
church. The village street is about three fourths of a mile in 
extent. The North village is about three miles from the center, 
and contains about fifteen or twenty dwellings, and a Baptist 
church. Plum Tree village is three miles south, and is about the 
size of the north village. At the central village there is a bridge 
over the Connecticut, 858 feet in length ; it was built in 1832, at an 
expense of $20,000. The village is handsomely built, and the 
scenery in the vicinity is uncommonly interesting : the Sugar-loaf 
mountain rises at about half a mile's distance, on the western 
bank of the river, in solitary and striking grandeur ; while Mount 
Toby rises to the eastward. Population, 729. Distance, 10 miles 
from Greenfield, 10 from Hadley, 5 from Montague, 29 from Spring- 
field, 70 from Albany, N. Y., and 85 from Boston. The value 
of corn brooms manufactured in this place in 1837 was $11,415. 

Mount Toby is a sand-stone mountain, elevated about a thousand feet above Con- 
necticut river, and lies partly in Sunderland and partly in Leverett, and is almost 
covered with forests. On the north-west side of this mountain, in the north part of 
Sunderland, are a cave and fissure which have attracted some attention. " The follow, 
ing section will, I apprehend," says Prof. Hitchcock in his Geological Report, "ren- 
der intelligible, not merely the form and situation of this cave and fissure, but also 
the mode of their production. They occur in a conglomerate rock of new red sand-stone, 

on the north-west side of Mount Toby, in the north part of Sunderland. The conglome- 
rate strata are several feet thick ; and immediately beneath this rock lies a slaty 
micaceous sand-stone, which is very subject to disintegration ; as may be seen a little 
north of the cave, where the conglomerate projects several feet beyond the slate, whose 
ruins are scattered around. The spot is, perhaps, 300 or 400 feet above Connecticut 
river ; yet there is the most conclusive proof in all the region around, that water once 
acted powerfully, and probably for a long period, at various elevations on the sides of 
this mountain ; and not improbably this aqueous agency assisted in undermining the 
conglomerate rock by wearing away the sand-stone."- 

At A and B, the rock is but slightly removed from its original position ; but in the 
space between these points, the sla.te appears to have been worn away, so as to cause 
the whole conglomerate stratum, which is from 50 to 60 feet thick, and consequently 
of immense weight, to fall down, producing the fissure a and the cavern b. The fis- 
sure is 9 feet wide at the top, and open to d, 40 feet ; below which it is filled with 
rubbish. The cavern is wider than this in some parts, though very irregular in this 
respect. Its bottom also is rendered very uneven by the large masses of rock that have 
tumbled down. In the deepest spot (56 feet) the rocks are separated to the surface, 


so as to let the light from above. The whole length of the cavern is 148 feet. Its 
general direction is nearly east and west ; but towards its eastern part it turns almost 
at right angles to the left, in consequence of the rock A having been broken in a 
north and south direction from the mass of the mountain." 


THE Indian name for this town was Shaomet. It was incorpo- 
rated as a town in 1763. The first church which was formed here, 
in 1760, consisted of twenty-six members. Rev. Lemuel Hedge, the 
first minister, was ordained here December 3d, 1760, on the day 
of the formation of the church ; he died in 1777, aged 44 years. 
His successor was Rev. Samuel Reed, who was settled here in 
1779 ; he died in 1812, aged 57. Rev. Preserved Smith, the suc- 
cessor of Mr. Reed, was settled in 1814. The church and society 
now worship in the third house that has been built for the society ; 
it was erected in 1836. The Trinitarian church In this place was 
organized in 1829, and consisted at that time of thirty members. 
Rev. Samuel Kingsbury, the first minister, was installed pastor in 
1833, and resigned in 1835. His successor was Rev. Roger C. 

There is in the central part of the town an insulated, mountain- 
ous elevation, called Mount Grace, from which there is a fine 
prospect. There is a scythe factory in the town. In 1837, there 
were manufactured here 47,000 palm-leaf hats, which were valued 
at $6,400. Population, 1,111. Distance, 14 miles from Green- 
field, 22 south from Keene, N. H., and 78 from Boston. In 1812, 
there was a glass manufacturing company established here, with a 
capital of $70,000. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1781. It is mostly a farming 
town, composed of scattered plantations, there being no considera- 
ble village in the town. The surface is uneven, but not much 
broken or precipitous. There are two houses of worship in the 
central part of the town, one a Congregational, the other a Bap- 
tist church. Rev. Joseph Kilburn, a Congregational minister, was 
settled here in 1783; he died in 1815, and his successors have 
been Rev. Hervey Wilbur, Rev. John B. Duncklee, and Pvev. Wil- 
liam Claggett. 

Miller river, which forms the northern boundary of the town, 
is here a fine stream, and adds much to the beauty and fertility 
of this part of the township. Population, 847. Distance, 14 
miles from Greenfield, and 80 from Boston. In 1837, there were 
37,000 palm-leaf hats manufactured here, valued at $5,000; the 
value of boots and shoes manufactured was $5,250. 



THE territory comprising this town was a part of the original 
grant of Hadley, from which it was separated, with Hatfield, in 
1761, with which town it remained one hundred years, till its 
incorporation in 1771. The Rev. Rufus Wells, the first Congre- 
gational minister, was ordained here in 1771 ; he died in 1834, at 
the age of ninety. Rev. Lemuel P. Bates, a native of Blandford, 
Scotland, was settled as colleague with Mr. Wells in 1822 ; he 
resigned in 1832, and was succeeded by Rev. John Ferguson in 
1836. There is a small Baptist church in the western part of the 

There is a considerable quantity of interval land on Connecticut 
river, but it is not of the first quality. The town street, which 
passes by the Congregational church, runs parallel with the river 
about two miles westward ; between this street and the river there 
is an extensive tract of swampy land, called Whately Swamp, 
extending from north to south almost the entire length of the town. 
Westward of the street above mentioned, the township is hilly, and 
the soil in many places rich and fertile. In 1837, there were 3 
woollen mills, which consumed 52,500 Ibs. of wool, employing 36 
hands, 13 males, 23 females 57,000 yards of cloth were manufac- 
tured, valued at $37,000. The value of palm-leaf hats manufac- 
tured was $7,500 , value of gimblets manufactured, $11,125 ; value 
of brooms and brushes manufactured, $6,877; value of pocket-books 
and wallets, $16,000; value of stone ware, $3,000. Population, 
1,140. Distance, 11 miles south of Greenfield, 9 from Northampton, 
and 92 from Boston. 


HAMPDEN county was incorporated in 1812, previous to which it 
formed the southern part of the old county of Hampshire. The 
soil is generally quite fertile and well cultivated, particularly on 
Connecticut river, which centrally intersects the county. There 
are also fine lands on Westfield river. Chicopee river and its 
branches afford great water power ; it flows westward, and passes 
into the Connecticut in Springfield. Agriculture has been the 
principal business of the inhabitants; of late years great attontion 
has been paid to the manufacturing business. The New Haven 
and Northampton canal runs through the eastern section of the 
county, and promises great facilities for the transportation of 
various articles to, and from southern markets. The Western 
railroad from Boston to Albany is now in progress, and will 
extend through the whole length of this county from east to west. 
A range of the Green mountains lies along the whole western bor- 
der of this county, separating it from Berkshire. The Lyme range 
of mountains rises in the eastern part, and extends in a southerly 
line into Connecticut. The following is a list of the towns, which 
are 18 in number. 




West Springfield, 


Blandford, Longmeadow, Russell, 
Brimfield, Ludlow, Southwick, 

Chester, Monson, Springfield, 

Granville, Montgomery, Tolland, 
Holland, Palmer, Wales, 

The population of this county in 1820 was 28,021 ; in 1830, it 
was 31,610; in 1837, it was 33,627. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1741. The inhabitants to a 
great extent are descended from a company of emigrants, of the 
Presbyterian denomination, from the north of Ireland, by whom 
this town was originally settled. The Rev. Mr. McClenathan 
appears to have been the first minister; it is supposed that he was 
from Ireland. Joseph Patrick and James Morton appear to have 
been the next in order, Joseph Badger and Jonathan Keep the 
next. Mr. Badger was for three years a soldier in the revolutionary 
war. Rev. Dorus Clark was settled here in 1823, he resigned in 
1835 ; he was succeeded by Rev. Charles J. Hinsdale, in 1836. 

This township is situated principally upon the eastern side of 
a range of the Green mountains. In this town commences the ridge 
of rocky hills which extend to Pittsfield, in Berkshire county. In 
1837, there were in this town 1 woollen mill, with 2 sets of 
machinery ; 13,000 yards of cloth were manufactured, valued at 
$18,000; 1 paper-mill, which manufactured 60 tons of paper, val- 
ued at $2,500. There were 1,535 cows ; cheese manufactured, 
230,000 Ibs.; butter, 20,000 Ibs.; value of cheese, $16,100 ; butter, 
$3,000; males employed, 200; females, 300; capital invested, 
$60,000. Population, 1,443. Distance, 15 miles from Springfield, 
and 116 from Boston. 


THIS town was granted by the general court, in the year 1701, 
to a number of petitioners, inhabitants of Springfield. The town- 
ship as originally granted was 8 miles square, and was at first 
designated by the "Plantation adjoining Springfield;" but the 
committee, for the sake of convenience, as stated in the records, 
soon gave it the name of Brimfield. The first grants of land 
were made in December, 1701, to 13 persons. Very little seems to 
have been done towards the settlement of the place for a conside- 
rable time, owing probably to the embarrassments occasioned by 
the war with the French and Indians. In 1717, the proprietors' 
committee petitioned for an. extension of the township 3 miles fur- 
ther east, which was granted. After this the settlement progressed 
rapidly. Among the early settlers who came from .Springfield 
are found the names of Sherman, Lombard, Pynchon, Hitchcock 



Brooks, Morgan, Burt, Charles, Collins, Keep, Scott, Stebbins, 
Warriner, Nichols, Graves and Bliss. The Thomson family came 
from Woburn, and the Blodget and Russel families from Lexington. 
The first family which settled in Brimfield was of the name of 
Hitchcock, in 1714 or 1715. The principal settlers were from 
Springfield.^ The town was incorporated in 1730, and included 
within its original limits the towns of Monson, Wales, and Hol- 
land. In 1722, a meeting-house, 45 feet by 40, was erected, and 
stood more than eighty years. The records of the church were 
burnt in 1748, and some early interesting facts cannot now be 
ascertained. Rev. Richard Treat, the first minister, (a native of 
Milford, Conn.) was probably ordained in 1725 ; his successor, 
Rev. James Bridgham, was settled in 1736 ; the next minister was 
Rev. Nehemiah Williams, who continued in the ministry nearly 
twenty- two years, and died in 1796, aged 47. Rev. Clark Brown, 
his successor, was dismissed in 1803, agreeably to his own request. 
Rev. Warren Fay, D. D., was settled here in 1808, and remained two 
years and eight months ; Rev. Joseph Vaill and Rev. Joseph Ful- 
ler have been the succeeding ministers. Most of the people of 
Brimfield, from its first settlement, have continued of one religious 

South-eastern men of 'Brimfield. 

The above is a south-eastern view of the central part of the vil- 
lage of Brimfield, which consists of about 40 dwelling-houses, a 
number of stores and mechanic shops. . The manufacture of boots 
and shoes is an important branch of business in this place. A 
few rods south of the Congregational church, seen in the engra- 
ving, was the residence of Gen. Eaton, celebrated for his daring 

* Notice of Brimfield in the "American Quarterly Register," vol. x, by B. B. 
Edwards. Mr. Edwards has drawn up a full list of all the Congregational minis- 
ters in the old county of Hampshire, with historical notices, evidently with much labor 
and accuracy, and the author of this work would here express his obligations to that 
valuable publication for much historical information. 

278 B R I M F I E L D . 

expedition through the deserts of Barca, in Africa. This town 
contains much good land, and is finely watered by Chicopee and 
Uuinebaug rivers. In 1837, there were 10,000 pairs of boots and 
36,000 pairs of shoes manufactured in this town, the value of 
which was $58,650; males employed, 125; females, 50. There 
wre 12,780 palm-leaf hats manufactured, valued at $5,112. 
There was 1 cotton mill, with 1,332 spindles; 230,000 yards of 
cloth were manufactured, valued at $19,500. Distance, 19 miles 
from Springfield, 25 miles south-west of Worcester, and 70 from 
Boston. Population, 1,518. 

Gen. William Eaton spent the last years of his life in this town, 
where he died and was buried. He was born in Woodstock, Conn., 
Feb. 23, 1764. 

" At a very early period he disclosed strong indications of intellectual vigor, and of 
mental eccentricity. At the age of about 16 years, without the knowledge or consent 
of his parents, he went from home and enlisted into the army. This was in 1780, near 
the close of the revolutionary war ; and young Eaton continued in the army until 
the close of the war, a considerable part of the time in the humble station of a pri- 
vate soldier ; but he attained the rank of a sergeant. After the peace, in 1784, he 
commenced the study of the Latin language, and the year after was admitted a 
member of Dartmouth college, where he graduated in 1790, the period of his colle- 
giate life having been protracted, from the circumstance of his having devoted a portion 
of his time to school-keeping, which his want of pecuniary resources rendered 

" In October, 1791, he was chosen clerk of the house of delegates of Vermont, resid- 
ing at that time in the town of Windsor, where he had been engaged in school- 
keeping. In March, 1792, he was appointed a captain in the army of the United 
States ; and whilst in this situation, he performed various services upon the western 
and southern frontiers. He continued in the army until 1797, when he was appointed 
consul to Tunis. He continued in this difficult (and it may be added, perilous) situa- 
tion until 1803, during which period he discharged the consular functions with great 
firmness and ability. In 1804, Gen. Eaton returned to America and visited Washing- 
ton, where he disclosed the famous enterprise which he had planned to restore the 
ex-bashaw of Tripoli, and having obtained the sanction of government, he embarked in 
July of the same year, in the Argus sloop of war, with the intention of engaging in 
this bold and hazardous undertaking, and arrived at Alexandria, in Egypt, on the 25th 
of November following. From Alexandria he proceeded to Cairo, where he found the 
ex-bashaw, who approved of the enterprise, and after having made suitable arrange- 
ments, and recruited about 500 men, (100 of which only were Christians,) it was 
determined by Eaton and the ex-bashaw to cross the desert and seize the province and 
city of Derne. After a difficult and fatiguing journey, through a dreary desert, pre- 
senting innumerable obstacles, they arrived within the province of Derne, and soon 
attacked and captured the city, having the assistance of the Hornet sloop of war. 
The boldness and desperate bravery of Gen. Eaton and his little party alarmed the 
reigning bashaw and his barbarian subjects, who almost thought they were something 
more than human beings ; but the progress of Gen. Eaton was arrested by a peace 
which the American consul concluded with the bashaw. After this, Gen. Eaton 
returned to his native country, and was every where received with the most distin- 
guished applause, the grateful tribute of patriotic and heroic achievements. 

" Gen. Eaton was a very extraordinary character; he possessed much original 
genius, was bold in his conceptions, ardent in his passions, determined in his resolu- 
tions, and indefatigably persevering in his conduct. He possessed considerable lite- 
rary acquirements, and the style of his writings was characteristic of his mind ; bold, 
energetic, and decisive. His courage was equalled only by his resolution ; and the 
boldness of his enterprises, by his ability and perseverance to execute them."* 

His majesty the king of Denmark presented him with an elegant 
* Pease and Niles' Gazetteer of Connecticut. 



acknowledgment, in a gold box, of services he rendered several 
captured Danes at Tunis, and he also received from Massachu- 
setts the gift of 10,000 acres of land, in token of the respect in 
which his talents and services were held by that state. 

Epitaphs copied from the burying-yard in Brimfield. 

This is erected as a faint expression of filial respect ; and to mark the spot where 
repose the remains of GEN. WILLIAM EATON, who died June 1st, 1811, JEt. 47. 

In memory of Stephen Pynchon, Esq., who died Feb. 5, 1828, JE. 55. 

One truth is certain, when this life is oer 
Man dies to live ; and lives, to die no more.' 


THIS town was incorporated in 1765. The Rev. Aaron Bascoin 
and Samuel M. Emerson appear to have been the first ministers. 
Rev. Rufus Pomeroy was settled here in 1819 ; he resigned in 1827, 
and was succeeded by Rev. Saul Clark in 1829. Mr. Clark was 
succeeded by Rev. Alanson Alvord, in 1834. 

Southern mem of Chester. 

The above is a southern view of Chester village, situated in 
the south-eastern corner of the town of Chester. This place 
is situated at the corners of four towns, viz. Chester, Blandford, 
Norwich, and Montgomery. The Methodist church seen in 
the engraving stands on the line between the towns of Chester 
and Blandford ; the house on the left is in Blandford. This little 
village, consisting at present [1838] of about 15 dwelling-houses, a 
cotton factory, and some ether buildings, is situated in the gorge 
through which the Westfield river passes. The route of the Wes- 
tern railroad is laid out through the village. Part of the moun- 
tainous elevation seen in the back ground is within the limits of 


Norwich. This place is 5 miles from the center of the town, 12 
from Westfield, 16 from Northampton, 21 from Springfield, and 
118 from Boston. The scenery along the Westfield river is wild 
and picturesque in many places. Population, 1,290. In 1837, 
there were 2 cotton mills ; cotton spindles, 1,690 ; cotton goods 
manufactured. 225,000 yards ; value, $22,075 ; males employed, 
13 ; females, 22. There were 1,055 Saxony sheep, 2,495 merino, 
and 170 of other kinds of sheep ; average weight of fleece, 2 and 
three fourths pounds ; value of wool produced, $5,817 38 ; capital 
invested, $11,347. There were 3 tanneries ; hides tanned, 33,500 ; 
value of leather tanned and curried, $10,900 ; the value of win- 
dow blinds manufactured, $15,000 ; males employed, 14 ; females, 


THIS town was incorporated in 1754, and included in its origi- 
nal limits the present town of Tolland. Rev. Moses Tuttle appears 
to have been the first minister. He was settled in 1747, and con- 
tinued pastor here about six years ; he was succeeded by Rev. 
Jedediah Smith, who was ordained in 1756. Mr. Smith was a 
man of uncommon piety, pleasantness, and affability. "After his 
dismission, in 1776, he preached his farewell sermon, and embarked 
at Middletown, Con., with his family, for Louisiana. In a long pas- 
sage up the Mississippi, being exposed to an intense heat and nox- 
ious atmosphere, he was attacked with a fever, and in a phrensy 
leaped into the river. Though rescued from the water, he soon 
after died, and was buried on the land. The river gradually 
encroached on the bank, till the grave was borne away, and l no 
man knoweth of his sepulcher unto this day.' His family went 
on and founded a settlement in that remote country. The descend- 
ants comprise some of the most respectable citizens of Louisiana. 

The church was destitute of a pastor for 20 years, and the 

place was a moral waste. Divisions were prevalent in the church, 
and profaneness, horse-racing, and intemperance in the town." 
The next settled minister after Mr. Smith was Rev. Timothy M. 
Cooley, D. D., who was settled in 1796, and his labors have had a 
happy influence in the town. The first minister of the Second 
church, or church in West Granville, was Rev. Aaron J. Booge, 
who was installed in 1786, and dismissed in 1793. He was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Joel Baker, who was settled in 1797, and died in 
1833 ; his successor, Rev. Seth Chapin, continued pastor till 1835. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Henry Eddy. 

The principal village in this town is in East Granville. It is 
situated on a very elevated hill, about 17 miles from Springfield. 
This is situated in a mountainous region, and agriculture is the 
principal business of the inhabitants. In 1837, pocket-books were, 
the principal articles manufactured in the town ; the value of theso 
was $6,240. Population, 1.439. The church in East Granvillr 


organized from their own number a church to form a settlement in 
Granville, Ohio. This colony laid the foundation of one of the 
most respectable churches in Ohio, and now consists of about 400 
members. The church in West Granville likewise organized a 
church which settled in Charlestown, in the same state ; this is 
also in a flourishing state. 


THIS town was formerly a part of Brimfield. It was incorpora- 
ted as a town in 1796. The Rev. Ezra Reeve, the first Congrega- 
tional minister, was settled here in 1765. He died in 1818, at the 
age of 85. The next minister settled here was Rey. Enoch Burt. 
James Sandford, who succeeded Mr. Burt, was installed here in 
1831. Besides the Congregational, there is a Baptist church in the 
place. In 1837 there was one cotton mill, having 1,024 spindles ; 
it consumed 20,902 Ibs. of cotton ; 104,512 yards of cloth were 
manufactured, valued at $10,451 20 ; males employed, 12 ; females, 
17 ; capital invested, $15,000. Population, 495. Distance, 20 miles 
from Springfield, and 70 from Boston. 


THIS place was originally a part of Springfield ; itr, Indian name 
was Masacksick. It was incorporated as a distinct precinct in 
1713, when there were a little less than 40 families. It was incor- 
porated as a town in 1783. "It is not known exactly at what pe- 
riod the settlement commenced in this town, but probably as ear- 
ly as 1644. Among the earliest settlers were Benjamin Cooley, 
George Colton, (known in the records by the name of quarter-mas- 
ter Colton,) and John Keep. These persons were the ancestors of 
all the families of their respective names in this part of the country. 
The original settlement in what is now Longmeadow began in 
the meadow near the bank of the river. In 1703 there was a pe- 
tition from the inhabitants to the town, that, on account of the 
danger which they were in from floods, and some other inconve- 
niences attending their situation, they might be permitted to move 
out of the general field, and build on the hill, about half a mile 
east of the river. This petition was granted, and the town voted 
to give them ' the land from Pecowsic brook to Enfield bounds, 
and from the hill eastward of Longmeadow, half a mile further 
eastward into the woods.' ' 

The soil of Longmeadow is fertile, and the inhabitants are al- 
most exclusively devoted to agricultural pursuits. The principal 
village is pleasantly located near the east bank of Connecticut 
river. The following cut is a northern view of the first Congrega- 
tional church, and exhibits the characteristic scenery of this plea- 


North view of Congregational Church, Longmeadow. 

Rant village. The village is built oh one wide level street, which 
passes through the town, following the course of the Connecticut, 
on the first rise of ground above the meadows, which extend the 
whole breadth of the town from north to south. The distance 
from the street to the river is generally about one mile. Distance, 
4 miles south of Springfield, 22 north of Hartford, 97 south-wester- 
ly from Boston. There are 3 churches, 2 Congregational and 1 
Baptist. The Baptist and one of the Congregational churches are 
in the eastern part of the town, called East Longmeadow. An ex- 
tensive range of forest lands extend from north to south through 
the town, a little eastward of the main road. The western part of 
the township is generally level and free from stones. Popula- 
tion, 1,251. 

The first minister of the place was Rev. Stephen Williams, who 
was ordained here in 1716. He was a son of Rev. John Williams, 
of Deerfield, and was carried captive with his father to Canada. 
He served as chaplain in three campaigns, and received the de- 
gree of D. D. from Dartmouth college in 1773. He died in 1782, 
in the 90th year of his age, and 66th of his ministry. Dr. Wil- 
liams was succeeded by Rev. Richard Salter Storrs, who was 
settled in 1785. Mr. Storrs died in 1819. The next minister was 
Rev. Baxter Dickinson, who was ordained in 1823. The first 
settled Baptist minister in this town was Rev. George B. Atwell, 
who was ordained in 1822. The Baptist meeting-house is in the 
eastern part of the town. 

" On the 26th of March, [1676,] a number of people from 
Longmeadow, being on their way to attend public worship in 
Springfield, escorted by a party of cavalry, were attacked, and two 
killed and several wounded. As the attack was made from the 
woods bordering the road, the escort afforded little protection ; two 
women, with their children, falling from their horses during the 
confusion, were seized by the Indians, and dragged into a swamp in 

L U D L O W . ' 

the vicinity. In the mean time the people in the van were safely 
convoyed to Springfield by the cavalry, who returned expedi- 
tionsly to the place of attack; but the Indians had retired into the 
woods. The next day the captured women and children were 
found in the margin of the swamp, badly wounded by Indian 
hatchets, ?ome of whom died after being conveyed to their places 
of residence." Hoyfs Indian Wars, p. 125. 

The following inscriptions are copied from monuments in the 
ancient grave-yard : 

In memory of Rev. Stephen Williams, D. D., who was a prudent and laborious minis- 
ter, a sound and evangelical preacher, a pious and exemplary Christian, a sincere and 
faithful friend, a tender and affectionate father and-consort, and a real and disinterested 
lover of mankind ; departed this life with humble and cheerful hope of a better, June 
10th, 1782, in the 90 year of his age, and 66th of his ministry. 

Softly with fainting head he lay 
Upon his maker's breast ; 

His maker kissed his soul away, 
And laid his flesh to rest. 

Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Richard S. Storrs, pastor of the church in Long- 
meadow. He was born at Mansfield, Conn., Aug. 30th, 1763, graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1783, ordained Dec. 7, 1785, died Oct. 3, 1819. In the private relations of life 
he eminently illustrated the graces of the Christian. He was distinguished for 'his ap- 
propriate, perspicuous, and affectionate exhibition of evangelical truth, for propriety, 
richness and fervor in social prayer, and for his instructive coversation and christiaa 
sympathy in pastoral duties. In testimony of their affectionate remembrance of his 
personal worth and their regard for his ability, zeal and usefulness as their christiaa. 
pastor, his mourning congregation erect this monument. 

Religion, her almighty breath, | Amidst that calm of sweet repose, 

Rebuked the winds and waves of death ; | To Heaven his gentle spirit rose. 

In memory of Capt. Isaac Colton, who died Jany- 23 rd . 1757, in his 57th year. 
Capt. I. Colton had a military genius, commanded a company at Louisbourg, in 1745. 
Was respected & useful at home. Was a man of prayer. Isa. 31, 3. For behold the 
Lord doth take away the Captain. 

How art thou fallen in the midst of the battle ; O very pleasant hast thou been. In 
memory of Lieutenant Nathaniel Burt, who was slain in the memorable battle of 
Lake George, Sept. 8th, 1755, when his Colonel and other brave officers fell, yet a sig- 
nal victory was obtained over the enemy. JVIr. Nathaniel Burt was a deacon of this 
church, an exemplary Christian, a man of Public -Spirit, & a good soldier ; well be- 
loved at home, and in y e army. A concern for pure religion caused his going into y" 
military service. He died in his 45th year. 2 Chron. 35 and 25. And Jeremiah la- 
mented over Josiah. 

Mr. Nathaniel Burt, a respectable and worthy father of the town of Longmeadow, 
was born A. D. 1636, and died Sept. 29th, 1720. This monument is erected by the 
inhabitants of said town, as a token of gratitude for his donation of lands made by him 
lo them for the support of the gospel, and public school. Isaiah 32, 8. The liberal de- 
viseth liberal things, and by liberal things he shall stand. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1774. The first Congregational 
minister settled here was Rev. Antipas Steward, who was or- 
dained in 1793. He resigned in 1803, and died in 1814, aged 80 
years. His successor, Rev. Ebenezer B. Wright, settled here in 

284 M O N S O N . 

1819. Mr. Wright resigned in 1835, and was succeeded the same 
year by Rev. David R. Austin. Besides the Congregational, there 
is now, in the central part of the town, a Methodist church. 

This is principally an agricultural town ; the greater part of the 
inhabitants live scattered about on their farms. There is, however, 
a flourishing little village on the Chicopee river, which forms the 
southern boundary of this town, dividing it from Wilbraham and 
Springfield. Jenks' cotton factories, two in number, are at this 
place. The village lies on both sides of the Chicopee. In 1837, 
there were in this town 2 cotton mills, having 10,000 spindles ; 
500,000 Ibs. of cotton were consumed; 1,600,000 yards of cotton 
goods were manufactured, valued at $160,000 ; males employed, 
88; females, 200; capital invested, $100,000. Population, 1.329. 
Distance, 10 miles from Springfield, and 84 from Boston. 


THIS town was originally a part of Brimfield. About one ninth 
of the proprietors of that town settled in this part of the township. 
The first house east of Springfield was erected more than 140 years 
ago within the present limits of this town. The name of the man 
who first planted himself here was Fellis. The general court 
granted him 200 acres of land, on condition that he would erect 
and keep a house of entertainment for travellers passing between 
Springfield and Brookfield. The man continued awhile, but soon 
returned to Springfield on account of alarm from the Indians. Al- 
though he did not entirely fulfil the conditions of the grant, yet he 
held and sold the land. It afterwards came into the possession of 
Governor Hutchinson's family. Of the above-mentioned proprie- 
tors who settled within the present limits of Monson, were Robert 
Olds, (as early as 1715,) Ezra and Samuel King. Benjamin Munn, 
John Keep, John Atchenson, Mark Ferry, Daniel Killam, Obadiah 
Cooley, and Samuel Kilborn. On petition to the general court, this 
part of Brimfield was incorporated as a district |n the spring of 
1760. Previous to this, the name of Monson was given to it by 
Gov. Pownal. 

When the act of incorporation was obtained, there were only 49 
families in the limits of the district. In the month of August fol- 
lowing, the first district meeting was held, at which all necessary 
officers were chosen. They immediately proceeded to make pre- 
paration for the public worship of God. In 1762, about 2 years 
from the incorporation, land had been procured and a meeting- 
house erected. During this period they had preaching in private 
houses, by candidates. The first who supplied them was Simeon 
Strong, afterwards judge of the supreme court. Rev. Abishai Sa- 
bin was the first pastor, ordained in 1762. His relation to the 
church continued about 10 years, when he was dismissed. The 
second pastor was Rev. Jesse Ives, a native of Meriden, Con., and 

M O N S O N . 285 

graduate of Yale college in 1758. He was installed in 1773, and 
continued with the people till his death, in 1805. The present 
pastor, Rev. Alfred Ely, D. D., a native of West Springfield, was 
ordained in 1806. The amount of settlement and salary which the 
people offered Mr. Sabin is not known, though it is evident he had 
a settlement. Mr. Ives had a settlement of 100, and 65 and 30 
cords of wood as an annual salary ; and the present pastor $500. 
The first meeting-house was taken down in 1803, having stood 41 
years, and the same year the present one was built. There is no 
notice of the existence of any organized society of another denomi- 
nation till 1798, when " persons composing the first Baptist society 
were set off." 

South-eastern vierv of Monson. 

The above is a representation of the centra part of Monson, as 
seen from the bridge, at the south-eastern extremity of the village. 
The academy is seen on the left, surmounted with a cupola ; the 
Congregational church is seen in the central part of the engraving ; 
the building standing northerly from the church, with a small 
tower, is the vestry. Monson Academy is well endowed, and is a 
very respectable institution. 

This town is about 8 miles in length, from N. to S., and about 6 
miles in breadth. A narrow vale, interspersed with some small 
gravelly hills, runs from south to north through the center, bounded 
on each side by ranges of hills of moderate height. Through 
this vale flows for a considerable distance a small stream, which 
flows into the Chicopee river on the north. On this brook, within 
about 1 mile of the center, are 4 factories, 2 cotton and 2 woollen. 
The public buildings are a Congregational meeting-house, a vestry, 
an academy building and laboratory in the center, a Baptist meet- 
ing-house on the west border, and a Methodist chapel about 2 miles 
south of the center. Distance, 13 miles E. from Springfield, and 
73 S. W. by W. of Boston. Population, 2,179. 

In 1837, there were in this town 3 cotton mills, 3,636 cotton spin- 
dles ; 605,071 yards of cotton goods were manufactured, valued at 



$67,500; males employed, 47; females, 73; capital invested, $39,000. 
There were two woollen mills and 5 sets of machinery ; wool 
'Consumed, 130,0001bs. : cloth manufactured, 170,000 yards; valued 
.at $117,000; males employed, 43; females, 37; capital invested, 
$29,250. There were 2,712 merino, and 349 other kinds of sheep 
in the town ; value of wool produced was $4,892 ; value of boots 
and shoes manufactured, $5,600; value of spectacles manufactured, 
$7,060; straw braid, $2,100. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1780. A Congregational church 
was organized here in 1797; it consisted at the time it was organ- 
ized of five male members. Rev. Seth Noble, the first pastor, was 
settled here in 1801, and resigned in 1806. He died in the state 
of Ohio, a few years since, whither he had removed. His succes- 
sor in the ministry was Rev. John H. Fowler, who was ordained 
in 1822 ; he died in 1829, aged 58. The next pastor was Rev. 
Solomon Edson, who was settled in 1832, and resigned in 1836. 
Rev. Caleb Knight, the next pastor, was installed the same year. 

This is a small agricultural town. Population, 497. Distance, 
12 miles from Springfield, 12 from Northampton, and 100 from 
Boston. In 1837, there were 1,189 merino and 279 other kinds of 
sheep ; the average weight of their fleece was two and three fourths 
pounds ; value of wool produced, $2,220 35. 


THIS place was originally settled by emigrants from the north of 
Ireland ; many of whose descendants remain in the place. The 
records of the church and those of the town are scanty and defec- 
tive. The town was incorporated in 1752. A church was probably 
organized here in 1730 or 1731, three years after the town was 
settled. Rev. John Harvey, who was ordained by the Londonder- 
ry presbytery, was settled here in 1734, and was dismissed in 1748. 
He was succeeded by Rev. Robert Burns, in 1753. Mr. Burns 
was succeeded by Rev. Moses Baldwin, who was installed in 1761 ; 
he resigned in 1811, and died in 1813, aged 81. His successors 
have been Rev. Simeon Col ton, settled in 1811 : Rev. Henry H. F. 
Sweet, in 1825 ; Rev. Joseph K. Ware, in 1827 ; and Rev. Samuel 
Backus, installed in 1832. Till the settlement of Mr. Colton, this 
church was Scotch Presbyterian. 

This town is well situated for agriculture, between the forks 
made by Ware river with the Chicopee on the south, and the 
Swift river on the north. It is fast rising into importance as a 
manufacturing town. In the central part of the town there is a 


little village of about a dozen dwelling-houses and a Congregational 
church. The village of Three Rivers is on the Chicopee, at the 
western extremity of the town, nearly three miles from the center ; 
this is a factory village, consisting of about 20 dwelling-houses and 
a Baptist church. There is another village now erecting, about 
one mile from the center, called Thorndike village. In each of 
these villages there is a large cotton mill. In 1837, there were 2 
cotton mills, 11.020 spindles ; 1,020,000 yards of cotton goods man- 
ufactured, valued at $102,000 ; males employed, 100 ; females, 200. 
One woollen mill, with 2 sets of machinery ; 68,000 yards of cloth 
were manufactured, valued at $54,000. The value of boots and 
shoes manufactured was $8,956 ; value of scythes manufactured, 
$10,000; palm-leaf hats, $2,500. Population, 1,810. Distance, 
16 miles from Springfield, 23 from Northampton, 7 to Ware village, 
9 to Wilbraham, 31 to AVorcester, and 71 from Boston. 


THIS town was incorporated in 1792. It was formerly a part of 
Westfield, and was called the New-addition. The first settlers in 
this town were two brothers by the name of Barber, and a Mr. 
Grey. They lived upon the road leading from Westfield to Bland- 
ford, by Sackett's, and up the mountain, then called Glasgow 
mountain. A Congregational church was organized here in 1800, 
by Rev. Joseph Badger. The Congregationalists own a small well- 
finished meeting-house in connection with the Methodists. There 
is a small cotton mill in this town. Population, 475. Distance, 
14 miles from Springfield and 100 from Boston. 


THIS town was formerly a part of Westfield ; it was incorporated 
as a distinct town in 1779. Samuel Fowler appears to have been 
the first settler within the limits of this town. About 1734, he 
located himself in the north part, then called Poverty, so called 
probably from the lightness of the soil in this section of Southwick. 
A Congregational church was organized in this place in 1773; the 
first settled minister was ordained the same year. His successor, 
Rev. Isaac Clinton, was ordained in 1788. Rev. Dudley D, Rossiter, 
the next minister, was ordained in 1816, but preached but a very 
few times on account of ill health. Rev. Calvin Foote, his succes- 
sor, was ordained in 1820. Rev. Elbridge G. Howe was installed 
here in 1831, and Rev. Thomas Fletcher in 1838. The first meet- 
ing-house was erected about one mile south of the village ; it was 
burnt in 1823; a new one was erected in 1824. A Methodist 
Episcopal church was erected in 1824, in the south part of the 


town. A Baptist church was erected in the central village about 

The village in the central part of the town consists of about 25 
dwelling-houses, 2 churches, 1 Congregational and 1 Baptist, and 
an academy. Mr. Richard Dickinson, who died in this town in 
1824, appropriated $17,000 in his will for the benefit of the schools. 
A sum not exceeding one half goes to the support of a grammar- 
school, and the remainder to the district schools. The interest 
only is appropriated. The grammar-school has been commenced, 
and is free to the youth of South wick. This place is 11 miles from 
Springfield, 5 from Westfield, 6 from E. Granville, 22 from Hart- 
ford, Con., and 108 from Boston. Population, 1,291. In 1837, the 
value of powder manufactured in this place was $32,725 : hands 
employed, 13 ; capital invested $17,300; value of cigars manufac- 
tured, $6,350; hands employed, 10; capital invested, $1,000; value 
of whips manufactured, $5,400; value of whip-lashes, $3,850; males 
employed, 5 ; females, 16 ; capital invested, $1,000. The New Ha- 
ven and Northampton canal passes through this town, and com- 
municates with several large ponds in the south-eastern section. 

It will be perceived, in all correct maps of Connecticut, that a 
tract of land, about two miles in length and breadth, on the west- 
ern boundary of this town, projects into what would seem ought 
to belong to Connecticut. This tract has been left to the jurisdic- 
tion of Massachusetts since the year 1800. It appears that the 
bounds of Springfield and Windsor were not defined with much 
accuracy in this section ; the bounds at the north-west point of the 
projection, however, appear to have been clearly defined. The 
western bounds of Springfield, in which part of Suffield was in- 
cluded, were supposed, but erroneously, to extend to this point. A 
Mr. Moore, living on the tract in question, was knowing to the 
facts in the case. Having received a warning to a militia training, 
he refused to appear, denying that he was within the jurisdiction 
of Connecticut. The case was carried to the general assembly 
of Connecticut, who, upon an examination of the facts in the case, 
were obliged to leave this tract to the jurisdiction of Massachu- 

" The south line of Massachusetts, according to charter, runs west from a point three 
miles south of the most southerly branch of Charles river, and every part of it j 
and the north line of Connecticut is the south line of Massachusetts. When Mr. Pyn- 
chon settled Springfield, and the first plantations were made in Connecticut, in 1635, 
it was not known whether the territory would fall within the limits of Massachusetts 
or not. But Mr. Pynchon at first considered himself as belonging to the jurisdiction 
of the Connecticut plantations. In 1642, Massachusetts employed two surveyors, 
Woodward and Saffery, to run the line between the colonies. These pretended to as- 
certain the south line on Charles river, and then, sailing round and going up the Con- 
necticut, they attempted to fix the line there, in the same latitude. But either through 
inattention or the use of bad instruments, they determined the line to fall in Windsor, 
many miles south of the true line. Connecticut was dissatisfied with the determination 
of Woodward and Saffery, and made repeated proposals to Massachusetts for a mutual 
adjustment of the controversy, which were ineffectual. In 1694, a committee appoint- 
ed by Connecticut run the line, and found the former survey very erroneous. In this 
situation, the inhabitants of Suffield and Enfield, who settled under the claims and 
jurisdiction of Massachusetts, continued to encroach upon Windsor and Simsbury, 
which excited warm animosities. In the year 1700, further attempts were made to 


procure an amicable settlement of the dispute ; the line was run by commissioners of 
both colonies, in 1702, and found to fall far north of the former line ; but Massachusetts 
disagreed to their report. In 1708, Connecticut appointed commissioners with full 
powers to rim the line, and establish the boundary ; and resolved, that unless Massa- 
chusetts would unite to complete the business, they would apply to the crown. Mas- 
sachusetts did not agree at once to the proposal of Connecticut ; but in 1713, commis- 
sioners were appointed on the part of both colonies, who came to an agreement on the 
13lh of July. On rnnning the line it was found to fall north of Enfield, Suffield, and 
Woodstock, which of course came within the jurisdiction of Connecticut. As an equi- 
valent for the land which had been taken from Connecticut by encroachments, Massa- 
chusetts granted a tract of land in the western part of that colony, which, in 1716, was 
sold for two thousand two hundred and seventy-four dollars, which sum was applied to 
the use of Yale college. This agreement, however, was not considered as conclusive 
and satisfactory j nor was the boundary between the two states definitely settled till 
May, 1804."* 

The following inscriptions are from monuments in the grave- 
yard in this place : 

In memory of the Rev. Abel Forward. His talents & learning were great. Formed 
to benefit Ac instruct mankind, he was a pulpit orator, A pious & benevolent divine, a 
wise and prudent councillor & skilful Guide, & believing & teaching the Religion of 
Jesus, died in faith & hope, Jan?- y e 15 th 1786, in y e 38 year of his age and 13 lh of his 

Flere et meminiffe relictum est. 

In memory of Mrs. Keturah, wife of y" Rev d - Abel Forward, who died Jan. 16**i in 
her 23 d year, a sincere Christian. 

How lov'd, how valu'd once, avails thee not, 
To whom related, or by whom begot ; 
A heap of Dust alone remains of thee, 
Tis all thou art ! & all the proud shall be. 
Grace was in all her steps, Heaven in her Eye, 
In every gesture dignity &c love. 

Sunt Lacrymge rerum et mentum mortalia targunt. 

Keturah Sophia, daughter of the Rev. Abel & Mrs. Keturah Forward, died Apr. 18 th * 
1775, aged 3 months. 

welcome tears, a tribute due, to mother & daughter too. 

Whose ashes lie mingled as one, beneath the limits of this stone. 

Pulsanti aperietur. Life how short, Eternity how long ! 

In memory of Isaac Coit, Esq., an eminent physician, who died 25 th April, 1813, 
aged 58. 

Reflection long shall hover o'er his Urn, 
And faithful friendship boast the power to mourn ; 
Peace to his shade ! while truth shall paint the rest, 
Lamented most by those who knew him best. 


WILLIAM PYNCHON, Esq. may be considered as the father of this 
town. He was one of the patentees in the colony charter, and was 
appointed a magistrate and assistant in 1629, in England, when the 
governor and officers were appointed. He came from England 

* Webster's Histosy of United State*. 


with Governor Winthrop, and began the settlement of Roxbury in 
1630. In May, 1635, Mr. Pynchon and the inhabitants of Roxbury 
had the leave of the general court to remove to any place they 
should think proper, provided that they continued under the juris- 
diction of Massachusetts, and would not prejudice any other plan- 
tation. The fertility of the land upon Connecticut river having 
become known, Mr. Pynchon, Henry Smith, Jehu Burr, and proba- 
bly some others, came to this place in 1635, called Agawam, and 
began to build a house on the west side of the river, on the Aga- 
wam, in the meadow, called from that fact House-meadow. The 
Indians who were friendly informed them that the house would be 
exposed to the flood ; they accordingly abandoned it, and built 
another house on the east side of the river, probably on the lot 
afterwards owned by Mr. Pynchon, and still possessed by his de- 
scendants. It is supposed that they returned to Roxbury in the 
fall. In the spring of the next year, (1636,) Mr. Pynchon, with a 
number of other persons with their families, removed from Roxbury 
and came to this place. The settlers made an agreement, the ori- 
ginal of which is preserved in the town records, consisting of fifteen 
articles. The first provides for the settlement of a minister ; the 
second limits the number of families to forty, and not to exceed 
fifty. The other articles provide for the rule and mode of division, 
and defraying the expenses of the settlement. The agreement was 
subscribed by only eight persons, though it appears that twelve were 
concerned. Those who subscribed were William Pynchon, Mat- 
thew Mitchell, Henry Smith, Jehu Burr, William Blake, Edmund 
Wood, Thomas Ufford, and John Cabell. Jehu Burr and Thomas 
Ufford made their marks. The other four who were united with 
them were Thomas Woodford, John Reader, Samuel Butterfield, 
and James Wood. 

In making the settlement, the most general course was to " allow 
each settler a house-lot on the west side of what is now Main street, 
8 rods wide from the street to the river ; a like width in the mea- 
dow, in front of his house, to the foot of the hill ; and a wood-lot 
of the same breadth, extending at first eighty, and afterwards to 
an hundred rods, nearly to the top of the hill ; and, when practi- 
cable, an allotment in the interval on the west side of the river, of 
the same width, as near as might be directly against his lot." The 
first settlers here, as well as those at Hartford, Windsor, and Weth- 
ersfield in Connecticut, came on under the license and the pro- 
fessed authority and protection of Massachusetts, but they were 
at such a distance from the towns on the Bay as to be obliged, 
principally, to rely on themselves. Agawam was, at first, united 
with the other towns below on the river. It appears by the Con- 
necticut records that at a court holden at Hartford, Nov. 1636, Mr. 
Pynchon was present with the other magistrates. It appears that 
in 1637 Agawam was assessed with the towns in Connecticut, 
to furnish its quota of troops, and pay a portion of the expense of 
the Peqaot war. This place, however, did not long continue 
united with Connecticut. On February 14, 1638, the inhabitants, 



believing themselves to be within the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, 
came into a voluntary agreement, and appointed Mr. Pynchon a 
magistrate with extensive powers, and directed the proper course 
of proceeding, till they should receive orders from Massachusetts. 

In 1640, by a vote of the town, its name was changed from Aga- 
wam to Springfield. Hubbard, in his General History, states that 
the name was given out of regard to Mr. Pynchon, who had his 
mansion in a town of that name, near Chelmsford, in Essex, before 
he came to this country. " Whatever be the origin, it is peculiarly 
appropriate. It is very rare that a place so abundantly watered 
with rivers, brooks, streams, and springs can be found." Much 
uncertainty has existed with regard to the precise date of the in- 
corporation of the town. There is good reason to believe, however, 
that it was in 1641. The limits of the town, by various purchases 
from the natives and grants from the legislature, became very ex- 
tensive, embracing a tract nearly twenty-five miles square. This 
territory included the towns of Westfield, Suffield, and a great part 
of South wick, and the whole of West Springfield, on the west side 
of the river, and the towns of Springfield, Enfield, Somers, Wil- 
braham, Ludlow, and Longmeadow, on the east side. Extensive 
as this territory was, the most of it was obtained by fair purchase 
from the Indians. 

The following is a list of the inhabitants of Springfield from 
1636 to 1664. 

William Pynchon, 
Henry Smith, 
William Blake, 
Edmund Wood, 
Thomas Ufford, 
John Cabel, 
Matthew Mitchell, 
Samuel Butterfield, 
James Wood, 
John Reader, 
Thomas Woodford, 
John Seale, 
Richard Everitt, 
Thomas Horton, 
Rev. George Moxon, 
Thomas Mirrick, 
John Leonard, 
Robert Ashley, 
John Woodcock, 
John Allin, 
John Burt, 
Henry Gregory, 
Samuel Hubbard, 
Elizur Holyoke, 
William Warriner, 
Henry Burt, 

Rowland Stebbins, 
Thomas Stebbins, 
Samuel Wright, 
Richard Sikes, 
John Deeble, 
Samuel Chapin, 
Morgan Johns, 
Thomas Cooper, 
James Bridgman, 
Alexander Edwards, 
John Dobie, 
Roger Pritchard, 
Francis Ball, 
John Harmon, 
William Vaughan, 
William Jess, 
Miles Morgan, 
Abraham Mundon, 
Francis Pepper, 
John Burrhall, 
Benjamin Cooley, 
John Matthews, 
George Colton, 
Joseph Parsons, 
John Clarke, 
James Osborae, 

Thomas Rieve, 
Wid. Margaret Bliss, 
Nathaniel Bliss, 
Thomas Tomson, 
Richard Exell, 
William Branch, 
Griffith Jones, 
Reice Bedortha, 
Hugh Parsons, 
John Lombard, 
John Scarlet, 
George Langton, 
Lawrence Bliss, 
Samuel Bliss, 
John Bliss, 
Anthony Dorchester, 
John Lamb, 
Samuel Marshfield, 
John Dumbleton, 
Jonathan Taylor, 
Rowland Thomas, 
Thomas Miller, 
Benjamin Parsons, 
Obadiah Miller, 
Abel Wright, 
Hugh Dudley, 

William Brooks, 
Simon Beamon, 
Samuel Terry, 
John Lamb, 
Benjamin Mun, 
John Stewart, 
Thomas Bancroft, 
Thomas Noble, 
Richard Maund, 
Thomas Gilbert, 
Simon Sacket, 
Richard Fell owes, 
Rev. Peletiah Glover, 
Tahan Grant, 
Nathaniel Ely, 
Samuel Ely, 
John Keep, 
Edward Foster, 
Thomas Sewall, 
Thomas Day, 
John Riley, 
John Henryson, 
William Hunter, 
John Scott. 

The town increaced rapidly and extended in every direction, till 
an event took place, which at the first seemed calculated to check 
it. Mr. Pynchon, in 1650, fell under the censure of the general 
court for having published a work entitled " The Meritorious Price 
of Man's Redemption," in opposition to the general opinions respect- 



ing the nature of the atonement. He was left out of the magis- 
tracy, and cited to appear before the court, and laid under heavy 
bonds. The next year Mr. Pynchon, in a letter addressed to the 
general court, retracted his sentiments. The censure of him was 
suspended, but he was so much dissatisfied that he went to England, 
and Mr. Moxon with him. Whether he approved of Mr. Pyn- 
chon' s book is not known. Mr. Pynchon did not take his family, 
but Mr. Moxon did. Neither of them ever returned. Mr. Pynchon 
was a man of distinction, of a pious disposition of mind, and of 
respectable talents ; and appears to have had the confidence of 
the town, while he remained. His son-in-law Henry Smith, one 
of the principal men in Springfield, also removed with his family 
to England. The absence of Mr. Pynchon was made up in his son 
John Pynchon, who remained here. " He was a man of uncommon 
talents, and admirably adapted to his situation," Deacon Samuel 
Chapin and Elizur Holyoke were leading men in the town. 

Pynchon House, Springfield, erected about 1660. 

For forty years after the commencement of the settlement, the in- 
habitants lived in peace with the Indians. Occasionally complaints 
were made of the misconduct of the Indians. They were, when 
complaints were substantiated, obliged to do right by their neigh 
bors. On the other hand, it is evident, that whenever any of the 
Indians were wronged by the whites, they had speedy justice done 
them. But when Philip's war broke out, in June, 1675, there was 
a general alarm. What fortified places there were in the town, 
does not certainly appear. The old brick house, built by John 
Pynchon, Esq., before the year 1660, was used as a fort. The 
above engraving is copied from a drawing of this house as it ap- 
peared in 1784. It was taken down a few years since. 

There is reason to believe that there was one or two more forts 
south of the meeting-house. It has also been said that the south 
part of the town was palisadoed. The Indians who were this side 
of the river had their principal settlement on Long Hill, where they 
had a fort. During the night of the 3d or 4th of October, three 


hundred of Philip's warriors were received into the fort and there 
concealed by the Springfield Indians. Toto, a Windsor Indian, was 
informed of a plot to burn the town and massacre the inhabitants. 
This he communicated to the people of Windsor, who, without 
delay, sent an express to Springfield to give the alarm. This at 
first occasioned great consternation : and the people betook them- 
selves to the forts, and took such' measures for security as they 
could upon the emergency. The Springfield Indians, however, 
appeared as usual, professed cordial friendship, and in a great de- 
gree quieted the fears and alarms of the English. The Rev. Mr. 
Glover, who with others had retired to the fort, and had removed 
his library and some of his valuable effects to Mr. Pynchon's, upon 
finding all to be quiet, and nothing to be heard or seen of an enemy, 
moved back his library to his own house. The Indians lay per- 
fectly still and concealed. Some of the English, however, were 
not satisfied ; and in the morning of October 5th, Lieutenant Tho- 
mas Cooper and Thomas Miller went out as scouts, to examine and 
explore the fort and Indian settlement. While advancing towards 
it, they were both fired upon and killed. Mr. Cooper, being very 
athletic and vigorous, got into one of the forts before he expired. 
An assault upon the town immediately followed. Three men and 
one woman were killed, including the two above named. About 
thirty dwelling-houses and twenty-five barns were destroyed. The 
mills and house of correction, or jail, were also burnt ; but the old 
meeting-house was preserved. The Indians retreated before they 
had completed the work of destruction. At the time of the attack 
Major Pynchon and Capt. Appleton were at Hadley ; they hurried 
on with the utmost speed to the relief of Springfield ; but the In- 
dians had withdrawn with their plunder before they arrived. The 
following is extracted from Capt. Appleton' s official account of the 
attack, &c., dated Oct. 12, 1675. He was at Hadley when he wrote. 

" As to the state of poor desolate Springfield, to whose relief we came (though with a 
march that had put our men into a most violent sweat, and was more than they could 
well bear,) too late. Their condition is indeed most afflicted, there being about 33. 
houses and 25 barns burnt, and about fifteen houses left unburnt. The people are full 
of fear, and staggering in their thoughts as to their keeping or leaving of the place. 
They whose houses and provisions are consumed incline to leave the place, as think- 
ing they can better labor for a living in places of less danger, than where they now 
are. Hence they seem unwilling to stay, except they might freely share in the corn 
and provision which is remaining and preserved by the sword. I cannot but think it 
conducive to the public, and for ought I see to the private interest, that the place 
should be kept ; there being corn and provision enough and to spare, for the suste- 
nance of the persons, whose number is considerable, and cannot be maintained else- 
where without more than almost any place can afford to their relief. The worth of 
the place is also considerable, and the holding of it will give encouragement and help 
to others, and the quitting of it great discouragement and hazard of our passage from 
one place to another, it being so great distance from Hadley to any other town on this 
side of the river. I have in regard of the present distress of the poor people adven- 
tured to leave Capt. Sill there to be ordered by the honored major till further order. 

In the account of Springfield houses, we only presented the number of them 

on the east side of the river and that in the town plat, for in all, on the west side 
and in the outskirts on the east side, there are about sixty houses standing and much 
corn in and about them." [In another letter, dated Oct. 17, 1675, Capt. Appleton 
says,] " By a letter received from Major Pynchon, I am informed of an old Indian 
squaw taken at Springfield, who tells that the Indians who burnt that town lodged 
about six mites of the town. Some men went forth, found twenty-four fires, and some 



plunder. She saith there came of the enemy 270, that the enemy are in all about 600. 
The place where they keep is at Coassitt, as it is supposed, about 56 miles above 

Springfield is the shire town for Hampden comity, and one of 
the most important ' inland towns in New England, being the 
center of a large inland and river commerce, and is also the site 
of the largest armory in the United States. A considerable part of 
the village is on a single street, two miles in length. There is a 
court-house, jail, 2 banks, (the Springfield and Chicopee Banks,) 
several printing-offices, and 6 churches, 3 Congregational, 1 of 
which is Unitarian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist. There 
are many elegant private residences in this place, particularly on 
the elevated ground which rises eastward from the court-house. 
Distance, 17 miles from Northampton, 48 from Worcester, 27 from 
Hartford, Con., 87 from Boston, and 363 from Washington. 

Western view of the Armory Buildings, Springfield. 

The principal U. S. Armory buildings are situated on the ele- 
vated table land eastward of the main village, called "the Hill." 
From the village, on the main street, there is a gradual ascent to 
the summit of the hill, which is flanked on the north and south by 
a ravine. Most of the buildings connected with the armory, such 
as the arsenals or store-houses for the preservation of arms, the 
workshops, houses of the superintendents, &c., are situated on, and 
around an area of several acres. Some of these buildings are 
represented in the engraving ; those on the right are arsenals. The 
assessors of Springfield, in 1837, made the following return relative 
to the U. S. Armory, viz. : " Public lands and buildings, valued 
at $210,000; machinery, $50,000; one hundred and seventy thou- 
sand muskets on hand, $2,040,000 ; muskets manufactured during 
the year ending April 1st, 1837, fourteen thousand, $154,000; ord- 
nance and stock on hand, $80,000 ; two hundred and sixty men 


"During the revolutionary war, the town did not very much increase. It felt, 
in common with the country in general, the pressure of the struggle for indepen* 
tlence. But in that period, a foundation was laid for much of its subsequent in- 
crease and present prosperity. In the time of the war, this was a recruiting post and 
a rendezvous for soldiers. Being centrally situated, easy of access, and at the same 
time so far inland as to be out of the reach of sudden invasions of the enemy, it was 
early in the war fixed upon as a suitable place for making and repairing the various 
munitions of war, and a depot for military stores. At first, the whole was confined to 
Main street. The various artificers employed, had their shops where they could find 
a convenient place, and resided themselves in that part of the town. The laboratory 
for cartridges, and for the various fire-works manufactured on such occasions, was in 
the barn then owned by Ebenezer Stebbins, on the place now owned by Dr. Kings- 
bury, south of Festus Stebbins'. After two or three years, the public works were 
removed on to the hill, where they now are. This was done gradually, in the years 
1778 and 1779, as accommodations could be found. At first, with the exception of 
the powder magazine, the whole of the public buildings were placed upon a square of 
ten acres, on the land appropriated by the town for a training field. A few cannon 
were cast here during that war, but no small-arms were manufactured till after 
the peace of 1783. At the close of the war, the workmen employed were discharged, 
and the arsenals, magazine and shops, were left in the charge of a store-keeper. 

" When the object of making arms was under consideration of the national govern- 
ment, in the year 1794, the convenience of the place, and the arsenals, magazines, and 
shops already here, were a sufficient inducement to establish the national armory 
here. This was done. At different periods since that time, lands have been pur- 
chased, and erections made, for the public accommodation. This establishment has, 
without question, been one great source of the prosperity of the town." Bliss' Hist. 
Address, 1828. i 

mth entrance of Chicopee Village. Springfield. 

The above is a view taken at the south entrance of Chicopee 
village, upon the Springfield road. A part only of the village is 
seen. The forest trees which are seen on each side of the road, 
stand in the position in which they originally grew; the -novelty 
and beauty of the scene arrests the attention of the traveller, and 
to the lover of nature, this irregularity is far more pleasing and 
attractive than any artificial arrangement. By far the greater 
part of the village is on the southern side of the Chicopee. The 
elevation seen in the extreme distance is Mount Tom, on the west- 
ern side of Connecticut river. This village is estimated to contain 
nearly two thousand inhabitants. There are four cotton mills, ruii- 




ning 20,000 spindles. There is also an establishment for the manu- 
facture of machinery, saws, &c. This village is 4J miles from 
Springfield, and 87 from Boston. 

North view of Cabotville, Springfield. 

The above is a northern view of the central part of Cabotville, 
four miles from Springfield. The drawing from which the above 
was engraved, was taken but a few feet from the road, on the side 
of the elevated heights which rise in some places almost perpen- 
dicularly from the road on the northern bank of the Chicopee. The 
village is built on the south bank of the Chicopee river, which is 
seen passing over its rocky bed in the engraving. This flourish- 
ing village is of quite recent origin. It was named from the Hon. 
George Cabot. It is estimated that at this time there are more than 
2,000 inhabitants in this village. There are two churches, 1 Con- 
gregational, 1 Universalist, and a Baptist church now (1838) erect- 

The following statements respecting the manufacturing business 
done in this town are from the Statistical Tables, published by the 
state in 1837. " Cotton mills, 7: cotton spindles, 35,000; cotton 
consumed, 3.495,000 Ibs. ; cotton goods manufactured. 11,062,000 
yards; value of the same, $1,089,500; males employed, 330; fe- 
males, 1,300; capital invested, $1,400,000." The following is a 
list of the articles manufactured, their value, and the number of 
hands employed. 

Articles. Value. Hands employed. 

Boots and Shoes, $16,000, 56 



Iron Castings 
Chairs, &c., 


Articles. Value. Hands ( 
Hard-ware, $11,000, 
Cards, 40,000, 
Joiners' Tools, 12,000, 
Paper-machinery, 12,000, 
Shuttle & Bobbin, 4,500, 
Rifles, 18,000, 
Stoves, 12,000, 
Machinery, 60,000, 
Swords, &c., 50,000, 



Besides the above, there were five steamboats built in five years 
preceding 1837, valued at $18,000. There is also an establishment 
for the manufacture of brass cannon, employing 25 hands, lately 
commenced, which it is estimated will manufacture cannon to the 
amount of $50,000 annually. 

In 1810, the population of this town was 2,767 ; in 1820, it was 
3,914; in 1830, it was 6,784; in 1837, it was 9,234. 

In Shays' insurrection, in 1786, the judicial courts being ad- 
journed by the legislature to sit at Springfield on the 26th of 
December, Shays, with about 300 malcontents, marched into this 
town to oppose the administration of justice, and took possession 
of the court-house, and prevented the court from proceeding to 
business. In January, 1787, the movements of the insurgents were 
such, that the governor and council determined to raise a force of 
4,400 men in order to put them down. Two thousand men of this 
force were ordered to rendezvous in the vicinity of Boston on the 
19th of January, and Maj. Gen. Lincoln, of Hingham, was en- 
trusted with the command. 

"Before the troops under Gen. Lincoln marched from Roxbury, Gen. Shepard had 
been ordered to take possession of the post at Springfield. He soon collected 900 men, 
ami afterwards 200 more, the continental arsenal furnishing them with a sufficient 
number of field-pieces, and such equipments as were wanted. It became an object 
with the insurgents to gain this post, if possible, before the arrival of Lincoln's army. 
Their movements, therefore, were towards West Springfield on the one side, where 
about 400 men were collected under the command of Luke Day ; and towards the 
Boston road on the other, where 1100 more were headed by Shays himself. Besides 
these, a party of about 400 from the county of Berkshire, under the command of Eli 
Parsons, were stationed in the north parish of Springfield. Shays proposed to attack 
the post on the 25th of January, and wrote to Day on the 24th to co-operate with him. 
In a letter which was intercepted by Gen. Shepard, Day replied that he could not as- 
sist him on the 25th, but would the day after. On'the 25th, however, Shays, con- 
fident of his aid, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, approached the arsenal where the 
militia were posted, with his troops in open column. Gen. Shepard sent several times 
to know the intention of the enemy, and to warn them of their danger ; and received 
for answer, in substance, that they would have the barracks ; and they immediately 
marched onwards to within 250 yards of the arsenal. Another message was sent, in- 
forming them that the militia were posted there by order of the governor and of con- 
gress, and that if they approached any nearer they would be fired upon. One of their 
leaders replied, 'That is all we want ;' and they immediately advanced one hundred 
yards. Gen. Shepard was now compelled to fire ; but, in hope of intimidating them, 
ordered the two first shot to be directed over their heads, which, instead of retarding, 
quickened their approach ; and the artillery was at last pointed at the center of their 
column, which produced its effect. A cry of murder was raised in the rear of the insur- 
gents ; their whole body was thrown into the greatest confusion, and, in spite of all the 
efforts of Shays to form them, the troops retreated precipitately about ten miles to Lud- 
low, leaving three of their men dead on the field and one wounded. Had Gen. Shep- 
ard been disposed to pursue, he might easily have cut many of them in pieces. But 
the object was not to destroy them, but to bring them to consideration and amendment. 

" Notwithstanding this retreat, there was serious apprehension of another attack from 
the insurgents ; for Day was now on the west side of Connecticut river \vith his men, 
and Parsons at Chicopee, whither the party of Shays repaired (after losing 200 men 
by desertion) on the 26th. This apprehension was allayed the next day, at noon, by 
the arrival of Lincoln's army." 

After the county of Hampshire was formed, in 1662, a part of 
the county courts were held in Springfield ; this continued to be 
the case till 1793, when they were all removed to Northampton. 
It was supposed that this would have an injurious effect upon the 

298 T O L L A N D . 

place. The armory was established here the next year, and which 
undoubtedly contributed to prevent any injurious effects from being 
apparent. Upon the organization of Hampden county, Springfield 
again became a shire town, and the courts were re-established 
here in 1813. 

The following inscriptions were copied from monuments in the 
ancient grave-yard in this place : 

26, 1657. 

Shee y l - lyes here was while she stood 
A very glory of womanhood ; 
Even here was sowne most pretious dvst, 
Which surely shall rise with the jvst. 

Here lyeth the body of lohn Glover, son of M r - Pelatiah Glover, who died y 14th 
of January, 1664. 

My body sleepes, my soyle hath sviet rest 
In armes of God, in Christ, who makes me blest *, 
The tyme drawes on apace when God the Sonne 
To see his face shall both vnite in one. 

Here lies interr'd the body of Mr. John Mallefuild, a French gentleman, who, pass- 
ing through the town of Springfield, dying, bequeathed all his estate to the poor of this 
town. He died Nov. 26, 1711. PsaL 41, 1. Blessed is he that considereth the poor. 

In memory of the Rev. Robert Breck, A. M., late pastor of the church of Christ in this 
place, who died on the 23d day of April, A. D. 1784, in the 71st year of his age, & in 
the 49th of his ministry. This monument is erected by his affectionate and grateful 
parishioners, in addition to that in their breasts, to perpetuate the remembrance of his 
singular worth & long continued labors among them in the service of their souls. 
"He taught us how to live, & Oh ! too high 
A price for knowledge ! taught us how to die. 


THTS town was incorporated in 1810 ; it was taken from Gran- 
ville and Sandisfield, and what was formerly called Southfield. 
The Congregational church in this town was organized in 1797, 
and consisted of 70 members. The Rev. Roger Harrison was 
ordained here in 1798, and resigned in 1822. He was succeeded 
by Rev. Bennet F. Northrop in 1827, who resigned the next year. 
The celebrated missionary, Gordon Hall, was a native of this 

This township is on elevated land, which is adapted for grazing. 
Considerable quantities of butter and cheese are produced. It is 
watered by Farmington river, the western boundary of the town, 
which is here a beautiful and lively stream, In 1837 the value of 
shovels, spades, forks or hoes manufactured here was $3,500. 
Population, 570. Distance, 20 miles from Springfield, and 110 
from Boston. 



THIS town was formerly called South Brimfield. It received its 
name from James Wales, Esq., one of the principal men of the 
town. About 30 years since the population was divided between 
the Baptists, Universalists, and Congregationalists. A short time 
previously, the three denominations united in building a meeting- 
house, each to occupy it according to the amount of taxes paid by 
each. Rev. Mr. Coddington was the first Baptist minister ; the Rev. 
Mr. Eveleth was the next pastor. A Congregational church was or- 
ganized here in 1819, which consisted of about 12 persons ; it is now 
(1838) about extinct. The Methodists have a meeting-house in 
the central part of the town. 

The village in the center of the town consists of about 25 or 30 
dwelling-houses and two churches. It is situated at the northern 
extremity of a pond, about three fourths of a mile in length and 
about half a mile in breadth. In 1837 there was a woollen mill, 
with 2 sets of machinery ; 36,000 yards of cloth were manufactured, 
valued at $32,400. The value of boots and shoes manufactured 
(boots 6 ; 230, shoes 9,053 pairs) was $27,743 ; males employed, 42 : 
females, 5. The value of palm-leaf hats manufactured was $1,500. 
Population, 738. Distance, about 20 miles from Springfield, and 
67 from Boston. 


THE Indian name of Westfield was Warronoco, (or Kee,) and 
was incorporated in 1669, Edward Tyng being magistrate of the 
Massachusetts colony. It was first proposed to call it Streamfield, 
because situated between two streams, but upon further conside- 
ration it was called Westfield, because it was nearly weft from 
Boston, the metropolis of the colony, and also the most westerly 
plantation in New England. It is difficult to determine in what 
precise year the first permanent settlement was made in this town, 
though probably between 1658 and 1650. At a town meeting held 
in Springfield, Dec., 1658, a tract of land in Warrono'X) was 
granted to Thomas Cooper, on condition he commenced improve- 
ments upon said land in twelve months and continued them five 
years. This tract was situated over West river, probably not far 
from the county bridge. A similar grant was made in 1660 to 
Dea. S. Chapman, of land adjoining Cooper's. In 1661, a grant 
was made to Capt. Pynchon, Robert Ashley, and George Colton, 
of a tract of upland meadow, probably lying between the rivers. 
It hence appears that Warronoco belonged to Springfield. It was 
included in the original grant made to the first settlers of that town 
by the king of England. It was first settled by families from 
Springfield. The following is among the early records of that 
town: "Feb. 7, 1664. At a general town meeting, Capt. Pynchon, 
Major Holyoke, and Messrs. Ely, Colton, and Cooley, were chosen 
a standing committee, to have the sole power to order matters con- 


cerning Warronoco, both for admittance of inhabitants and to 
grant lands, or for any other business that may concern that place 
and conduce to its becoming a town of itself." Some to whom grants 
of land were made, forfeited their lands by a non-compliance with 
the conditions of the grantors. Lands were confirmed to those who 
continued their improvements five years. According to the re- 
cords, the following persons had confirmed titles : George and Isaac 
Phelps, Capt. Cook, Mr. Cornish, Thomas Dewey, J. Noble, David 
Ashley, John Holyoke, John Ponder, and JohnlngersolL These men 
lived near the confluence of Great and Little rivers. They took 
up their residence here about 1666, as appears from the following 
facts. Meetings were first held here in 1667 on the Sabbath. The 
first English child born here was Benj. Saxton, who died in 1754, 
aged 88 years, and was therefore born in 1666. 

Mention is made of the establishment of a trading-house at the 
confluence of the two rivers, by three young men, some years pre- 
vious to a permanent settlement. They spent one summer here, 
and were never heard of afterward. It was supposed that they 
were cut off by the Indians. Each inhabitant owned a separate 
tract of land, but seem at first to have lived to a certain extent in 
common. They had a fort near the junction of the rivers, as sup- 
posed, a few rods west of Harrison's tavern. In this they lodged 
every night, and fled to it by day in case of alarm. It seems from 
the records that a tract of land two miles in circuit about the fort 
was strongly enclosed. Within this enclosure they had all their 
dwellings." Houses were occupied as forts in different parts of the 
town until after the French war in 1757. Warronoco was at first 
nine miles long and three wide ; additions were made to it until it 
included what is now Westfield, Southwick, and Russell. 

Westfield is situated eight miles west of Connecticut river, sepa- 
rated from it by West Springfield. Little river comes in from the 
west, and Westfield river from the north-west ; they unite half a 
mile east of the meeting-house. The central part of the town 
has the appearance of having once been a lake, and by geologists 
acquainted with the country is supposed to have been at some re- 
mote period covered with water. It is surrounded by an abrupt 
bank, from 20 to 70 feet in height. The bank in some places is 
clayey, in others gravelly, and in others rocky. The lake must 
have been about seven miles in length, from north-west to south- 
east, and nearly three in width at the widest place. Westfield 
furnishes a greater variety of vegetable productions than most 
towns, on account of having such varieties of soil : sandy plains, 
mountains, meadows, and swamps. There are about 60 varieties 
of meadow grass, some of which have been found nowhere besides 
in North America. Alders, poplars, and willows, blossom about 
the middle of March. Chesnut fencing-stuff is brought from the 
neighboring mountains, and lumber from the towns west and 
north. The elm, buttonwood, and maple grow luxuriantly in this 

Westfield is a considerable village of about two hundred build- 



Southern view in the central part of Westfield. 

ings, including stores and mechanic shops. The engraving shows 
the appearance of the central part of the village, as it is entered 
from th